LAM Mozambique Airlines

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LAM – Linhas Aéreas de Moçambique SARL
LAM – Mozambique Airlines
LAM Mozambique Airlines (logo).png
IATA
TM
ICAO
LAM
Callsign
MOZAMBIQUE
Founded 26 August 1936; 78 years ago (1936-08-26) (as Direcção de Exploração de Transportes Aéreos)
Commenced operations 22 December 1937 (1937-12-22)
Hubs
Focus cities
Frequent-flyer program Flamingo Club[1]
Subsidiaries Moçambique Expresso (100%)
Fleet size 7
Destinations 16
Parent company Government of Mozambique
Headquarters Maputo, Mozambique
Key people
Website www.lam.co.mz/en

LAM - Mozambique Airlines, S. A. (LAM - Linhas Aéreas de Moçambique, S. A.) or Linhas Aéreas de Moçambique, Ltd.,[2] operating as LAM Mozambique Airlines (Portuguese: LAM Linhas Aéreas de Moçambique), is the flag carrier of Mozambique.[3] The airline was established by the Portuguese colonial government of Mozambique in August 1936 (1936-08) as a charter carrier named Direcção de Exploração de Transportes Aéreos, and was renamed in 1980 following reorganisation.

LAM Mozambique Airlines is based in Maputo,[4] and has its hub at Maputo International Airport.[5] It operates scheduled services in southern Africa. The company is a member of the International Air Transport Association, and of the African Airlines Association since 1976.[6][7] LAM Mozambique Airlines is on the list of airlines banned in the EU since April 2011 (2011-04).

History[edit]

Early years[edit]

The airline was established on 26 August 1936 (1936-08-26) as DETA – Direcção de Exploração de Transportes Aéreos, as a division of the Department of Railways, Harbours and Airways of the Portuguese colonial government of Mozambique.[8] Charter flights were operated for a short period of time,[9] until a regular airmail service commenced on 22 December 1937 using a Dragonfly, a Hornet and two Rapides.[10][11][12] Shortly afterwards, these services started carrying passengers, most of them government officials.[11] Flown with Rapides, the Lourenço MarquesGerminston route was one of the company’s mainstays in the early years; it was operated on a twice-weekly basis, and connected with Imperial Airways services to London.[13][14] In April 1938 (1938-04), the eight-hour long domestic Lourenço Marques–InhambaneBeiraQuelimane coastal route was opened.[13] DETA passengers that were flown along the Mozambican coast could also connect with Imperial services at Lourenço Marques. At that time, Imperial Airways ran a service between Cape Town and Cairo that called at Lourenço Marques. Early in 1938, DETA had signed a contract with Imperial for the provision of such feeder services.[11] During the spring, another Hornet was incorporated into the fleet.[11] Also in 1938, the airline acquired three Junkers Ju-52s and two more Rapides.[12] The coastal service was extended farther north in October, reaching Port Amelia.[11] At April 1939 (1939-04), one Drangonfly, one Hornet, three Junkers Ju-52s and six Rapides were part of the fleet.[15] Most of the operations came to a halt following the outbreak of World War II.[11]

A Beira–Salisbury route was launched in February 1947 (1947-02), with scheduled services to Durban and Madagascar also starting by the end of that year.[11] By March 1952 (1952-03) the carrier was operating a 2,000-mile (3,200 km) long route network that included domestic services as well as international ones to Durban, Johannesburg and Salisbury, served with a fleet of six Doves, five Rapides, three Douglas DC-3s, two Lockheed Lodestars, a Lockheed L-14 and a Junkers Ju-52.[16] A new MoçambiqueNampulaVila Cabral run that called at three more intermediate stops was opened in 1954. The last leg of this service was temporarily suspended when Vila Cabral was excluded from the airline's list of destinations, but flights to the city were later reinstated after Vila Cabral got linked with Beira via Vila Pery, Tete and Vila Coutinho.[11] At March 1955 (1955-03), the carrier's fleet included three DC-3s, six Doves, one Dragon Fly, four Dragon Rapides, two Junkers Ju-52/3s, one Lockheed 14H, two Lodestars and two Horner Moths.[17]

The airline was one of the latest worldwide to operate the Junkers Ju-52s on scheduled services.[11] Two of these aircraft were still part of the aircraft park in April 1960 (1960-04), along with three DC-3s, four Doves, three Lodestars and four Rapides that operated a domestic network plus international services to Durban, Johannesburg and Salisbury.[18] DETA started a fleet modernisation in the early 1960s, when three Fokker F27-200s ordered in June 1961 (1961-06), making the airline the 64th customer for the type, had already been handed over to the company by August 1962 (1962-08); the first of them was named “Lourenço Marques” after the capital city of Portuguese East Africa.[19][20] DETA and Air Malawi inaugurated the Beira–Blantyre service in 1964; it was operated in a pool agreement between the two carriers. In 1965, Nova Freizo[nb 1] was added to the route network; in November that year, a service linking Beira with Lourenço Marques was launched. In March 1966 (1966-03), DETA and Swazi Air commenced flying the Lourenço Marques–Manzini run on a joint basis.[11] Two Boeing 737-200s were ordered in 1968 both to complement the three F27s, six DC-3s, one Dove, and one Beaver already in the fleet, and to support the company's regional expansion, that had grown up to five destinations regionally served with the addition of Blantyre and Manzini to the network.[22][23] The first of these machines entered the fleet in 1969.[11] The airline would order two more Boeing 737-200s in the forthcoming years, taking possession of the fourth one in 1973.[24]

Mozambique gained its independence from Portugal in 1975.[11] Intercontinental services started in 1976 serving the Lourenço Marques–Beira–AccraLisbon route, at first with a Boeing 707-320, and then with a Boeing 707-320C leased from Tempair International Airlines.[25][26][27] In 1979, a Douglas DC-8 was ordered.[11]

Renaming[edit]

An Ireland-registered Boeing 767-200ER wearing a LAM Mozambique Airlines livery at Faro Airport in 1993.

DETA was Mozambique's flag carrier until 1980.[28] Following allegations of corruption,[29] the airline was restructured and renamed LAM – Linhas Aéreas de Moçambique early that year.[10] Four more Boeing 737-200s were ordered in 1981. The Douglas DC-8-62 that had been ordered at the end of the DETA era arrived in 1982. In 1983, a Douglas DC-10-30 was ordered. Also in 1983, a Maputo–Manzini–Maseru service that was flown using F-27 equipment was launched in cooperation with Lesotho Airways. The DC-10-30 joined the fleet in 1984, and new services to East Berlin, Copenhagen and Paris were started.[28] At March 1985 (1985-03), the carrier had 1,927 employees. At this time, the DC-10-30 and three Boeing 737-200s (including a convertible one) worked on a route network radiating from Maputo that served Beira, Berlin-Schonefeld, Dar-es-Salaam, Harare, Johannesburg, Lisbon, Lusaka, Manzini, Maseru, Nampula, Paris, Pemba, Sofia and Quelimane.[29] TACV Cabo Verde Airlines leased the DC-10 in the weekends during 1985.[30]

The first Boeing 737-300 entered the fleet in 1991.[31] By April that year, employment was 1,948, and the fleet consisted of two Boeing 737-200s (including a convertible one), one Boeing 767-200ER (plus another one on order) and four CASA 212-200s.[32] The company had returned the 737-300 to the lessor in 1995 because of its inability to afford the leasing costs of the aircraft, and a Boeing 767-200ER would follow the same fate late that year. An ex-Royal Swazi Fokker 100 was leased in October 1996 (1996-10).[31] On 23 December 1998 (1998-12-23) LAM was transformed into a limited company, adopting the denomination of LAM – Mozambique Airlines by Decree no. 69/98. A limited company incorporated by statute in Mozambique was formed in late 1999.[4]

EU ban[edit]

Like all airlines with an AOC issued in Mozambique, the carrier is banned from operating into the European Union. The ban dates back to April 2011 (2011-04).[33][34][35][nb 2] At that time, the company claimed the Mozambican Civil Aviation Institute was responsible for the actions taken by the European Commission against all Mozambican carriers, and argued that it was an airline with an excellent safety record.[41] Prior to EuroAtlantic Airways launching Boeing 767-300ER operations to Lisbon on LAM's behalf in April 2011 (2011-04),[42][43] the Lisbon–Maputo–Lisbon run was operated by TAP Portugal on codeshare agreement with LAM.[44][45] The Maputo–Lisbon–Maputo route, the very same that was launched in November 2011 (2011-11), was announced to be discontinued as from late November that year, ahead of the constitution of a new autonomous division aimed at operating intercontinental routes.[46] As of June 2013, Lisbon was served with Airbus A340 aircraft.[nb 3] As of December 2014, the list of airlines banned in the EU still includes LAM.[49]

Corporate affairs[edit]

Key people[edit]

As of July 2014, Iacumba Ali Aiuba held the CEO position and chairmanship was held by Silvestre Sechene. Both were appointed that month; Aiuba succeeded Marlene Manave.[50]

Ownership and subsidiaries[edit]

As of August 2014, the state holds 91% of the shares and the employees hold the balance; the carrier employs a staff of 695.[4] The company Moçambique Expresso, set up in September 1995 (1995-09),[51] is 100% owned by LAM.[52][additional citation needed]

Destinations[edit]

Codeshare agreements[edit]

As of May 2012 the following routes are codeshared ones, actually operated by the carriers shown:[53][54]

Fleet[edit]

Current[edit]

A LAM Mozambique Airlines Embraer 190 at OR Tambo International Airport. (2009)

The newest aircraft on LAM's fleet is the Embraer 190, the first of which the airline took possession of in August 2009 (2009-08).[55] The carrier received the second aircraft of the type a month later.[56] LAM Mozambique Airlines took delivery of a Boeing 737-500 on lease from GECAS in November 2012 (2012-11).[57]

Three Embraer 190s were in operation until November 2013 (2013-11), when one of them crashed in Namibia. In early December, a Boeing 737 was leased to fill the capacity shortage created by the crashed airframe.[58] An order —that had been signed in November 2013 (2013-11)— for three Boeing 737-700s valued at US$228 million, was informed in February 2014 (2014-02).[3][59]

As of December 2014, the LAM – Mozambique Airlines fleet consists of the following aircraft:[48]

LAM – Mozambique Airlines Fleet
Aircraft In Fleet Orders Passengers Notes
C Y Total
Boeing 737-500 1 14 102 116[citation needed]
Boeing 737-700 1 3[3] ?
de Havilland Canada Dash 8 Q400 3 ?
Embraer 190 2 9 84 93[55]
Total 7 3

Retired[edit]

A France-registered McDonnell Douglas DC-10-30 wearing LAM Mozambique Airlines markings is seen here at Charles de Gaulle Airport in 1983.

The airline previously operated the following aircraft:[60]

Accidents and incidents[edit]

As of 29 November 2013, Aviation Safety Network records seven hull-loss events for the airline. Three of these events occurred in the DETA era, while the other four correspond to LAM. As of November 2013 there has been one fatal accident for LAM proper.[65][66] Following is a list of these events.

Date Location Aircraft Tail number Aircraft damage Fatalities Description Refs
23 February 1944 MozambiqueQuelimane Lockheed L-14 CR-AAV W/O Unknown Crashed on takeoff at Quelimane Airport. [67]
12 February 1950 MozambiqueLagoa Páti Ju-52 Unknown W/O Unknown Unknown [68]
27 March 1970 MozambiqueLourenço Marques F27-200 CR-AIB W/O 3/3 Crashed on a training flight at Lourenço Marques Airport. [69]
27 March 1983 MozambiqueQuelimane Boeing 737-200 C9-BAB W/O 0/110 Undercarriage failure after landing some 400 metres (1,300 ft) short of the runway at Quelimane Airport. [70]
9 February 1989 MozambiqueLichinga Boeing 737-200 C9-BAD W/O 0/108 Overran the runway on landing at Lichinga Airport. [71][72]
5 October 1998 MozambiqueOff Maputo Boeing 747SP ZS-SPF W/O 0/66 Emergency landing, following an engine failure at 5,000 feet (1,500 m) that led to a fire. The aircraft, leased from South African Airways, was due to operate the Maputo–Lisbon route. [73][74]
29 November 2013 NamibiaBwabwata National Park Embraer 190 C9-EMC W/O 33/33 Preliminary evidence indicates the aircraft was deliberately crashed by the pilot. [75]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The name of the city served was actually Nova Freixo, as shown in a 1968 timetable.[21]
  2. ^ All airlines from Mozambique have been included in the last five lists of airlines banned in the EU released in April[36] and December 2012 (2012-12),[37] July[38] and December 2013 (2013-12),[39] and April 2014 (2014-04).[40]
  3. ^ According to latest timetable available.[47] The fleet composition includes no A340s for LAM Mozambique Airlines.[48]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Flamingo Club". LAM Mozambique Airlines. Retrieved 15 December 2011. 
  2. ^ a b c "Boeing, LAM - Linhas Aereas de Mocambique Announce Next-Generation 737 Order" (Press release). Boeing. 5 February 2014. Archived from the original on 24 May 2014. 
  3. ^ a b c "Company History". LAM Mozambique Airlines.  Archived 2 August 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ "LAM strengthens client support at Maputo International Airport" (Press release). LAM Mozambique Airlines. 30 January 2012. Archived from the original on 17 August 2013. 
  5. ^ "Membership". International Air Transport Association. Retrieved 15 December 2011. 
  6. ^ "AFRAA Members". AFRAA. Retrieved 19 April 2011. 
  7. ^ "World airline directory – DETA Mozambique Airlines". Flight International 118 (3716): 309. 26 July 1980. ISSN 0015-3710. Archived from the original on 16 August 2013. 
  8. ^ Guttery (1998), p. 129.
  9. ^ a b c d "World Airline Directory – LAM - Linhas Aereas de Moçambique". Flight International 157 (4722): 91. 4 April 2000 – 10 April 2000. ISSN 0015-3710. Archived from the original on 9 October 2013.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Guttery (1998), p. 130.
  11. ^ a b "Commercial Aviation – Eighteen Rapides". Flight XXXV (1582): 398. 20 April 1939. Archived from the original on 9 October 2013. 
  12. ^ a b "Commercial Aviation: World News – Portugal and Africa" (PDF). Flight. XXXIII (1533): 477. 12 May 1938. Archived from the original on 9 October 2013. 
  13. ^ "Commercial Aviation: World News – Saving a Day in Africa". Flight. XXXIII (1521): 162. 17 February 1938. Archived from the original on 9 October 2013. 
  14. ^ "Airline companies of the World—Africa – D.E.T.A. Airways". Flight XXXV (1583): 429. 27 April 1939. Archived from the original on 8 October 2013. 
  15. ^ "The World's Airlines – DETA (Divisao de Exploracao des Transportes Aereos)" (PDF). Flight: 593. 16 May 1952. Retrieved 5 January 2012. 
  16. ^ "World airline directory – Divisao de Exploracao dos Transportes Aeros [sic]". Flight 67 (2407): 306. 11 March 1955. Archived from the original on 11 August 2013. 
  17. ^ "Airlines of the World – Divisao de Exploraçao dos Transportes Aéreos—DETA". Flight International 77 (2665): 498. 8 April 1960. Archived from the original on 29 August 2013. 
  18. ^ "Air commerce...". Flight 82 (2786): 158. 2 August 1962. Archived from the original on 16 August 2013. All three Friendship 200s for DETA of Mozambique have now arrived in Africa. The first aircraft, named "Lourenco Marques" after the provincial capital, is seen on flight test over Zeeland 
  19. ^ "Friendships for Portuguese East". Flight 79 (2729): 910. 29 June 1961. Archived from the original on 16 August 2013. 
  20. ^ "DETA summer timetable (Effectine November 1968 (1968-11))—L. Marques–Inhambane–Vilanculos–Beira–Queliman–Tete–V. Coutinho–V. Cabral–N. Freixo–Nampula". Airline Timetable Images. Archived from the original on 2 November 2013. 
  21. ^ "737s for DETA". Flight International 3108 (94): 520. 3 October 1968. Archived from the original on 1 November 2013. The Mozambique airline DETA has ordered two Boeing 737-200s for delivery late next year, bringing to 213 the number of 737s sold. DETA has three F.27s and six DC-3s in service for regional operations. 
  22. ^ "World airline survey – Direccao de Exploracao dos Transportes Aereos (DETA)". Flight International 93 (3083): 532. 11 April 1968. Archived from the original on 1 November 2013. 
  23. ^ "World airlines update". Flight International 105 (3389): 232. 21 February 1974. Archived from the original on 1 November 2013. DETA ordered and took delivery of a fourth Boeing 737-200 last October. 
  24. ^ "World airline directory – DETA Mozambique Airlines (Linhas Aereas de Mocambique)" (PDF). Flight International: 923. 10 April 1976. Retrieved 7 January 2012. 
  25. ^
  26. ^ "World news – Tempair serves Mozambique" (PDF). Flight International: 4. 3 January 1976. Retrieved 7 January 2012. 
  27. ^ a b Guttery (1998), p. 131.
  28. ^ a b "World Airline Directory – Linhas Aéreas de Mocambique (LAM)". Flight International 127 (3953): 93. 30 March 1985. ISSN 0015-3710. Archived from the original on 17 August 2013. 
  29. ^ Guttery (1998), p. 131–132.
  30. ^ a b c d Guttery (1998), p. 132.
  31. ^ a b "World airline directory – Linhas Aereas de Moçambique". Flight International 147 (4466): 67. 5 April 1995 – 11 April 1995. ISSN 0015-3710. Archived from the original on 17 August 2013.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  32. ^ Kaminski-Morrow, David (19 April 2011). "Mozambique is latest state to face EU blacklist ban". London: Flightglobal. Archived from the original on 14 May 2012. 
  33. ^ Buyck, Cathy (20 April 2011). "EC bans Mozambique airlines from European airspace". Air Transport World. Archived from the original on 14 May 2012. Retrieved 14 May 2012. 
  34. ^ "Mozambique airlines banned from European airports". The Independent. 20 April 2011. Archived from the original on 16 August 2013. 
  35. ^ "List of air carriers of which all operations are subject to a ban within the EU". European Commission – Mobility & Transport. 3 April 2012. Archived from the original on 21 April 2012. Retrieved 21 April 2012. 
  36. ^ "List of airlines banned within the EU". European Commission. 4 December 2012. Archived from the original on 5 December 2012. 
  37. ^
  38. ^
  39. ^
  40. ^ "Mozambique: IACM Wants 'Further Information' On EU Ban". AllAfrica.com. 20 April 2011. Archived from the original on 9 March 2013. 
  41. ^ Buyck, Cathy (2 May 2011). "African airlines say they are 'being progressively destroyed' by EU blacklist". Air Transport World. Archived from the original on 14 May 2012. Retrieved 14 May 2012. LAM said it will be able to continue offering Maputo-Lisbon service despite Mozambique's addition to the EU blacklist by wet-leasing a Boeing 767-300ER from Portuguese ACMI provider euroAtlantic. 
  42. ^ "EC bans Mozambican airlines on safety grounds". Maputo: Bloomberg Businessweek. Associated Press. 19 April 2011. Archived from the original on 14 May 2012. Retrieved 14 May 2012. Portugal's EuroAtlantic Airways provides the aircraft, crew and maintenance for twice weekly Mozambique Airlines Maputo-Lisbon flights. 
  43. ^ "Mozambique: LAM Resumes Flights to Lisbon". AllAfrica.com. 1 April 2011. Archived from the original on 9 March 2013. 
  44. ^ "Mozambique: LAM Plans Flights to Lisbon As From April". AllAfrica.com. 29 December 2010. Archived from the original on 9 March 2013. 
  45. ^ "Mozambique: LAM Halts Flights to Lisbon". AllAfrica.com. 10 November 2011. Archived from the original on 9 March 2013. 
  46. ^ "Flight Timetable (Effective 23 June 2013 – 26 October 2013)". LAM Mozambique Airlines. Archived from the original on 16 August 2013. 
  47. ^ a b "LAM - Linhas Aéreas de Moçambique Fleet". ch-aviation GmbH. Archived from the original on 11 December 2014. 
  48. ^
  49. ^ "LAM elege novo Administrador Delegado" [LAM appoints new CEO] (in Portuguese). LAM Mozambique Airlines. 16 July 2014.  Archived 2 August 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  50. ^ "Moçambique Expresso airline receives Embraer 145 airplane". Macauhub. 25 February 2013. Archived from the original on 9 March 2013. 
  51. ^ "MEX – Receives a Jet, Embraer 145" (Press release). LAM Mozambique Airlines. 4 March 2013. Archived from the original on 9 March 2013. 
  52. ^ "Ethiopian Code Share with Mozambique Airlines" (Press release). Ethiopian Airlines. 4 May 2011. Archived from the original on 10 May 2012. Retrieved 10 May 2012. 
  53. ^ "Codeshare". Kenya Airways. Archived from the original on 21 April 2012. Retrieved 21 April 2012. 
  54. ^ a b "PICTURE: Mozambique's LAM takes first Embraer 190". Flightglobal.com. 10 August 2009. Archived from the original on 11 May 2012. Retrieved 11 May 2012. 
  55. ^ "Mozambican airline LAM takes delivery of second Embraer 190 aircraft". Macauhub. 9 September 2009. Archived from the original on 9 March 2013. 
  56. ^ "GECAS leases 737-500 to LAM Mozambique". Flightglobal. 21 November 2012.  Archived 10 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  57. ^ Yeo, Ghim-Lay (3 December 2013). "LAM leases 737 temporarily after E-190 crash". Flightglobal (Washington DC). Archived from the original on 4 December 2013. 
  58. ^ Moores, Victoria (5 February 2014). "LAM Mozambique orders three Boeing 737-700s". Air Transport World. Archived from the original on 5 February 2014. 
  59. ^ "SubFleets for: LAM Mozambique". AeroTransport Data Bank. 21 May 2013. Archived from the original on 21 May 2013. 
  60. ^ a b c "World Airline Directory – Linhas Aereas de Moçambique (LAM)". Flight International: 106. 24 March 1993 – 30 March 1993. Archived from the original on 7 September 2012. Retrieved 7 September 2012.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  61. ^ a b c d "Directory: world airlines – Linhas Aereas de Mocambique LAM". Flight International: 90. 19 March 2002 – 25 March 2002. Archived from the original on 7 September 2012. Retrieved 7 September 2012.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  62. ^ a b "World Airline Directory | Linhas Aereas de Mocambique (LAM)" (pdf). Flight International: 105. 14 March 1990 – 20 March 1990. Retrieved 27 March 2011.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  63. ^ "Other News - 12/16/2008". Air Transport World. 17 December 2008. Archived from the original on 14 May 2012. Retrieved 14 May 2012. 
  64. ^ "Accident record for LAM Mozambique Airlines". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 7 January 2012. 
  65. ^ "Accident record for DETA Mozambique Airlines". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 7 January 2012. 
  66. ^ Accident description for CR-AAV at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 10 January 2012.
  67. ^ Accident description at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 10 January 2012.
  68. ^ Accident description for CR-AIB at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 10 January 2012.
  69. ^ Accident description for C9-BAB at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 24 January 2012.
  70. ^ Accident description for C9-BAD at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 13 January 2012.
  71. ^ "1989 airline safety so far – Non-fatal accidents/incidents: scheduled passenger flights" (PDF). Flight International. 22 July 1989. Retrieved 13 January 2012. 
  72. ^ Accident description for ZS-SPF at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 10 January 2012.
  73. ^ "Airline safety review – Non-fatal accidents and incidents: scheduled passenger flights". Flight International: 32. 13 January 1999 – 19 January 1999. Retrieved 10 January 2012.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  74. ^ Kaminski-Morrow, David (9 December 2014). "LAM 190 probe details pilot's actions during fatal descent". London: Flightglobal.  Archived 9 December 2014 at the Wayback Machine

Bibliography[edit]

  • Guttery, Ben R. (1998). Encyclopedia of African Airlines. Jefferson, North Carolina 28640: Mc Farland & Company, Inc. ISBN 0-7864-0495-7. 

External links[edit]