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The LANDFIRE Program produces geo-spatial products and databases covering the United States of America.[1][2][3] It is also known as “Landscape Fire and Resource Management Planning Tools." LANDFIRE is a partnership between the United States Department of Interior, the United States Forest Service and the Nature Conservancy that began officially in 2001. The purpose of LANDFIRE is to create a nationally complete, comprehensive, and consistent set of products that support fire and natural resource management organizations and applications.

LANDFIRE spatial products were designed for use at very large landscape, state, regional or national scales.[4] LANDFIRE Program products have been used in a variety of ways, from supporting large federal wildland fire-related applications such as the Wildland Fire Decision Support System,[5] the Cohesive Strategy initiative, and the Fire Program Analysis Program, to landscape-level conservation planning,[6] regional wildlife studies,[7] ecosystem services,[8] biofuels, and national carbon stock and biomass assessments. The LANDFIRE Program and the Nature Conservancy’s Conservation Gateway and Web-Hosted Applications Map websites list and describe a variety of applications of LANDFIRE products.


LANDFIRE has three primary areas of work: digital spatial data, quantitative vegetation dynamics models and user tools.

Spatial Data[edit]

The LANDFIRE Program product set includes a suite of more than 20, 30-meter spatial resolution raster data sets that cover the entire nation, regardless of ownership. All layers are freely available for download from the LANDFIRE Program website, and are delivered in Arc GRID format. The layer suite includes existing vegetation type, cover and height, potential vegetation (Environmental Site Potential), pre-European settlement vegetation (Biophysical Setting), fire regime group, fire behavior fuel models, fire effects, and others. In 2011, the program delivered the LANDFIRE 2008 (LF_2008 version - V1.1.0) Refresh update which provided a series of disturbance layers that represent natural and human-caused disturbances over the update period (from 1999-2008 ).

LANDFIRE's Fire Regime Group Map

Ecological Models[edit]

The LANDFIRE Program has developed a series of quantitative vegetation dynamics models, which are also free and available from the LANDFIRE Program website. LANDFIRE vegetation dynamics models quantitatively describe the pre-European settlement succession and disturbance pathways for each major Ecological System [9] in the U.S. A detailed description of the Ecological System is also provided. The descriptions are available as PDF files; the ecological models are delivered as a Microsoft Access database to be used with the Vegetation Dynamics Development Tool.[10] These models and descriptions are used in the Landscape Conservation Forecasting process,[11] Forest Scenario Modeling [12] and other on the ground decision making efforts .


The National Interagency Fire and Fuels Technology Team (NIFTT) created a number of tools aimed at helping users utilize LANDFIRE and other spatial data sets. The FRCC Map Tool provides a platform for computing vegetation departure, fire regime departure and Fire Regime Condition Class (FRCC). The LANDFIRE Program also provided a LANDFIRE Data Access Tool (LFDAT) which allows users to download and process LANDFIRE spatial data directly from ArcMap. More information on tools can be found on the LANDFIRE Program [13] and NIFTT websites.[14]

Versions and update schedule[edit]

The LANDFIRE program has delivered three versions.[15] National (LF_1.0.0) is the original product set, developed from Landsat data dated 1999-2003. Various improvements were made to the original product set and delivered as LF 2001 Refresh (LF_1.0.5). The LANDFIRE Program updated vegetation and related spatial layers to incorporate vegetation changes and disturbances from 1999 to 2008 and delivered LF2008 Refresh (LF_1.1.0). A fourth version (LF 2010 LF_1.2.0) representing conditions up to 2010 is scheduled for delivery in spring of 2013.


  1. ^ Ryan, Kevin; Kristine Lee, Matthew Rollins, Zhi-Liang Zhu, Jim Smith and Darren Smith (2006). "LANDFIRE: National vegetation and fuel mapping for fire management planning". Forest Ecology and Management 234: S200. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2006.08.247. 
  2. ^ Rollins, Matthew (May 2009). "LANDFIRE: a nationally consistent vegetation, wildland fire, and fuel assessment". International Journal of Wildland Fire 18 (3): 235–249. doi:10.1071/WF08088. Retrieved 10 April 2013. 
  3. ^ Ryan, Kevin; Opperman, Tonja (2013). "LANDFIRE-A national vegetation/fuels database for use in fuels treatment, restoration, and suppression planning". Forest Ecology and Management 294: 208–216. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2012.11.003. 
  4. ^ "LANDFIRE and scale of use". LANDFIRE Program. 2013. Retrieved 11 January. 
  5. ^ US Department of Interior. "Wildland Fire Decision Support System". Retrieved 10 April 2013. 
  6. ^ Low, Greg; Louis Provencher; Susan Abele (2010). "Enhanced conservation action planning: Assessing landscape condition and predicting benefits of conservation strategies". Journal of Conservation Planning 6: 36–60. Retrieved 10 April 2013. 
  7. ^ Cushman, Samuel; Carol Miller; Donald Falk (2011). McKenzie, Miller, Falk, ed. The Landscape Ecology of Fire. Springer Netherlands. pp. 223–245. ISBN 978-94-007-0301-8. Retrieved 10 April 2013. 
  8. ^ Meharrey, Megan; Rick Van Remortel, Elizabeth Smith and Randy Bruins (2011). "Developing a dataset to assess ecosystem services in the Midwest United States". International Journal of Geographical Information Science 25 (4): 681–695. doi:10.1080/13658816.2010.497148. 
  9. ^ "NatureServe. Ecological Systems". Retrieved 11 January 2013. 
  10. ^ "ESSA Technologies, Vegetation Dynamics Development Tool". Retrieved 11 January 2013. 
  11. ^ Provencher, Louis. "The Landscape Conservation Forecasting Process: Six Primary Components or Steps". Retrieved 10 April 2013. 
  12. ^ Price, Jessica; Janet Silbernagel, Nicholas Miller, Randy Swaty, Mark White and Kristi Nixon (2011). "Eliciting expert knowledge to inform landscape modeling of conservation scenarios". Ecological Modeling 229: 76–87. doi:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2011.09.010. 
  13. ^ "LANDFIRE Program". Retrieved 11 January 2013. 
  14. ^ "National Inter-agency Fuels Technology Team (NIFTT)". 
  15. ^ "LANDFIRE version comparison". Retrieved 11 January 2013. 

External links[edit]