Let L-410 Turbolet
|Let L-410MU at Kubinka|
|Role||Airliner, transport aircraft|
|First flight||16 April 1969|
|Primary user||Aeroflot (Former)|
The Let L-410 Turbolet is a twin-engine short-range transport aircraft, manufactured by the Czech aircraft manufacturer LET, mostly used for passenger transport. Since 1969, more than 1100 airframes have been produced.
Development of the L-410 was started in the 1960s by the Czechoslovak aircraft manufacturer Let Kunovice. The Soviet airline Aeroflot was looking for a turbine-powered replacement for the Antonov An-2 aircraft, initiating the design development by Let. After preliminary studies of an aircraft called the L-400, a new version was introduced called the L-410 Turbolet. The first prototype, designated XL-410, flew on April 16, 1969. Because of delays in the development of a suitable Czech engine (Walter M601), the prototype and first production version were powered by Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-27 engines.
After M601 development was completed, the PT6 engine was replaced by M601 engines coupled with Avia V508 three-blade propellers and the next variant was introduced, the L-410M.
A further version for Aeroflot was the L-410 UVP. This has improved performance in take-off and landing due to increased wing and tail area - STOL. However, due to an increased empty weight and a shift in the center of gravity, the aircraft had a decreased seating capacity: 15 passengers.
The L-410UVP-E (the most common variant of the L-410) has increased maximum take-off weight to 6400 kg, M601E engines with increased power, new five-blade propellers designated V 510 and the provision for wing tip tanks to increase fuel quantity. First flight was made in 1984, and production started in 1986.
The L-410UVP-E9 and UVP-E20 are versions which vary from each other only by minor changes arising from various certification regulations. The last L-410 family member is the L-420 which uses the new Walter engine variant, the M601F. Currently produced L 410 UVP-E20's are powered by next derivative of M601 engine designated as GE H80-200 and new Avia Propeller AV-725 five blade propellers.
The L-410 UVP-E is an unpressurized all-metal high-wing commuter aircraft, with Avia V 510 five-blade propellers. It is equipped with a retractable undercarriage. The aircraft uses two hydraulic circuits: main and emergency. The main electrical system operates with 28V DC. The de-icing system is leading edge pneumatic deicers and electrical heating of propellers, cockpit windshields and pitot-static system heads. Maximum take-off weight of the L-410 UVP-E is 6400 kg with the possibility of an increase to 6600 kg for the E9 and E20 variants, seating capacity 17 to 19. Cruise speed is 170 KIAS, maximum range about 770 nautical miles (1,430 km). The airplane is certified for IFR operation, CAT I ILS approach, and flights in icing conditions.
Of the more than 1,100 units built, roughly 500 remain in service. The majority were delivered to the former Soviet Union, but have been resold, particularly to airlines in Asia, Africa and South America. Forty aircraft are in use throughout Europe for commercial operation or skydiving. There are also an unknown number in Russia and ex-Soviet states. The aircraft can be used with short or even unpaved runways.
On 3 September 2013 the Russian company UGMK (Iskander Machmudov) became the wholesale owner of LET Kunovice Aircraft Industries. They announced that they would move production of the L-410 to Russia within the year.
- Prototype, three units built.
- First series with Pratt & Whitney PT6A-27 turbo-prop engines.
- Version with four-bladed propellers.
- Aerial photo version supplied to Hungary.
- With modified equipment.Never built.
- Test aircraft, supplied to the USSR. Five airplanes built
- Second series with Walter M601A engines.
- Version with improved M601Bs, also known as L-410MA or L-410MU.
- New improved more powerful version with General Electric H80 engines. Expected from 2014.
- Third series, fundamentally modified. Main changes are a trunk, an extended wingspan by 0.80 m, M601Bs, a higher horizontal stabilizer. The UVP variants possesses STOL characteristics (UVP=Russian for "short take-off and landing).
- Salon variant of the UVP with upward hinged entrance hatch.
- Re-equipped with M601Es, five-bladed propellers, additional fuel tanks at the wing ends. The L 410 UVP-E20 variant is type certified on the basis of FAR 23 regulation (Amendment 34) and have received the Type Certificates in the Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Sweden, Indonesia, the Philippines, Australia, Argentina, Brazil, Russian Federation, Cuba and Chile. After establishing the new European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) the aircraft also received full EASA Type Certificate valid for all EU (EASA) countries.
The aircraft has also been approved for operation in a number of other countries, like Algeria, Republic of South Africa, Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Tunisia, Colombia, Venezuela, South Korea, India and others.
- Photogrammetry version based on L-410UVP
- Transport variant of the UVP with larger loading hatch (1.25 m × 1.46 m), can transport 6 stretchers as a medical airplane + a medic, or 12 parachutists. It can also carry 1,000 kg of cargo containers.
- upgraded L-410UVP-E - new M601Fs The Let-420 is the US FAA certified variant of the L 410 UVP-E20 model, has been certified on the basis of FAR 23 regulation (Amendment 41) and have received the Type Certificates in the Czech Republic, USA, Australia and Indonesia and also full EASA Type Certificate.
At August 2006, 313 L-410 aircraft remained in airline service. Major operators included: Air-Tec Africa (17), Rivne Universal Avia (13), Atlantic Airlines de Honduras (10), SEARCA (9), Heli Air Services (7), South East Asian Airlines (6), NHT Linhas Aéreas (6), CM Airlines (3), Aerolineas Sosa (4), Citywing (3), Green Air (P) Ltd Nepal (1), Tortug' Air (3), Mombasa Air Safari (3), ABC Air Hungary (3), Kazan Air Enterprise (2), TEAM Linhas Aéreas (2), Transportes Aéreos Guatemaltecos (2), Benair (2) and UTair (2), Kin-Avia (5). Around 111 other airlines operate smaller numbers of the type.
Current civilian operators
Former civilian operators
- Government of the Czech Republic
- Government of Slovenia
- Government of Slovakia
- Private Companies in the Aviation Industries
Current military operations
Former military operators
- On June 7, 1995, an L-410 belonging to Latvian military, participated in an airshow in Lielvarde military base in Latvia, during which the pilots tried to perform an (unsanctioned) barrel roll. The maneuver would likely be successful, but the initial altitude was too low (about 350 meters) and the aircraft crashed some 150 meters from spectators, killing both men on board.
- On December 7, 1999, Asian Spirit Flight 100, using an L-410 crashed onto a mountainside between the municipalities of Kasibu, Nueva Vizcaya and Cabarroguis, Quirino, both in the Philippines. All 15 passengers and both crew members on board lost their lives.
- On September 10, 2001, an L-410 carrying 19 people, including University of Washington Husky football fans, alumni and alumni association members crashed into the jungle in the Mexican state of Yucatán, killing all people on board.
- On March 2, 2003, an L-410 carrying a load of sport skydivers crashed at the dropzone Borki, Russia. The aircraft stalled at high altitude and many of the skydivers survived thanks to their parachutes.
- On May 23, 2004, two Blue Bird Aviation Let L-410 planes hit each other inflight near Mwingi, Kenya. One of the planes crashed into the ground, killing both crew members on board, while the other landed safely. 
- On January 27, 2005, a Farnair Hungary Let L-410 aircraft was carrying out a non-directional beacon let-down with radar assistance at Iași Airport, Romania, but when the crew notified air traffic control of their position over the airport beacon and their intention to turn right outbound, they were seen to turn left. Then the aircraft spiralled down to crash on the airfield. Both crew members on board were killed.
- On March 26, 2005, a West Caribbean Airways Let L-410 Turbolet aircraft, registration HK-4146, on departure from El Embrujo Airport, Isla de Providencia in the Caribbean, failed to climb and hit hills close to runway 01, killing the 2 crew and 6 of the 12 passengers on board.
- On June 2, 2005, an L-410 of Transportes Aéreos Guatemaltecos, registration TG-TAG, carrying 17 passengers on board crashed near Zacapa shortly after take-off. The crew tried to return to the airfield after reporting technical problems. All crew and passengers survived the accident.
- On October 30, 2005, a Let L-410UVP-E19A Turbolet of Trade Air, registration 9A-BTA, crashed few minutes after take off from Bergamo-Orio Al Serio Airport on its way to Zagreb. All three on board were killed. Weather was poor with a limited visibility due to fog.
- On March 31, 2006 an L-410UVP-E20, operated by TEAM Linhas Aéreas had a fatal accident. TEAM Flight 6865 departed Macaé at 17:19 on a scheduled flight to Rio de Janeiro-Santos Dumont. The airplane PT-FSE was expected to arrive at 18:02. Contact was lost and the flight appeared to have crashed between the cities of Saquarema and Rio Bonito. All 19 people on board died.
- On September 24, 2007, an L-410 operated by Free Airlines and owned by Karibu Airways crashed on landing at Malemba Nkulu Airport killing one and injuring five.
- On October 8, 2007, an L-410UVP-E10A carrying 15 soldiers and 3 crew members crashed in Cerro Bravo, Colombia.
- On January 4, 2008, an L-410UVP-E, registration number YV2081, operated by Transaven carrying 12 passengers and two crew crashed near Islas Los Roques, Venezuela, killing all on board. The aircraft itself was discovered and recovered five years after the accident.
- On August 25, 2010, an L-410 crashed with 20 fatalities in Bandundu, Democratic Republic of the Congo. According to the sole survivor, the crash was caused by a stampede of passengers after a crocodile escaped from a bag in the cabin. The crocodile itself survived the crash, but was killed by rescuers.
- On February 14, 2011, an L-410 operated by Central American Airways carrying 12 passengers and 2 crew members, crashed before landing at Toncontín International Airport. All passengers and crew were killed.
- On the same day an L-410 operated by African Air Services Commuter, flying on behalf of the World Food Programme on a cargo flight from Kavumu Airport, Democratic Republic of the Congo to Lusenge near Kava in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, crashed into Mont Bienga shortly after departure. Both crew members were killed.
- On 13 July 2011, a Noar Linhas Aéreas Let L-410 registration PR-NOB operating flight 4896 from Recife to Natal and Mossoró crashed shortly after take-off from Recife. All 16 occupants were killed.
- On June 10, 2012, an L-410 crash landed at the Borodyanka airstrip, located 50 km north-west of Kiev, Ukraine. Five people were killed and thirteen injured when the aircraft attempted to make an emergency landing in stormy weather. The aircraft was carrying 16 parachutists and two crew members.
- On August 22, 2012, a Mombasa Air Safari Let L-410UVP-E9 registration 5Y-UV7, with 11 passengers and 2 crew, crashed at an airstrip in the Maasai Mara Game Reserve, Kenya, killing both pilots and two passengers. Nine passengers on board the aircraft received injuries of varying degree. The aircraft that impacted ground shortly after takeoff from Ngerende Airstrip was destroyed.
- on August 23, 2014, A Doren Air Congo Let L-410, registration 9Q-CXB performing a flight from Bukavu to Pangi (Democratic Republic Congo) with 2 passengers, 2 crew and 1500kg of cargo, had normally departed from Bukavu's Kavumu Airport at 13:42L (11:42Z) and left the frequency of Kavumu about 10 minutes after departure. There was no further radio transmission and the aircraft did not arrive in Pangi, estimated to land about one hour after departure (approximate flying distance 140nm), nor on any airport reachable. A search for the aircraft found the aircraft crashed and burned out in the southern vicinity of Kahuzi-Biega Park on Aug 25th, about 2-3nm east of the village of Kalika in the neighbourhood of Mulume Munene.
Data from Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1993–94
- Capacity: 19 passengers or 1,615 kg (3,560 lb) of cargo
- Length: 14.42 m (47 ft 4 in)
- Wingspan: 19.48 m (63 ft 11 in)
- Height: 5.83 m (19 ft 1½ in)
- Wing area: 34.86 m² (375.2 ft²)
- Empty weight: 3,985 kg (8,785 lb)
- Max. takeoff weight: 6,400 kg (14,110 lb)
- Powerplant: 2 × Walter M601E turboprop engines, 559 kW (750 hp) each
- Maximum speed: 380 km/h (205 knots, 236 mph) at 4,200 m (13,800 ft) (max cruise)
- Cruise speed: 365 km/h (197 knots, 227 mph) (econ cruise)
- Range: 1,380 km (744 nm, 857 mi) (max fuel)
- Service ceiling: 6,320 m (20,725 ft)
- Rate of climb: 7.4 m/s (1,455 ft/min)
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Antonov An-2
- Antonov An-28
- Antonov An-38
- Beechcraft 1900
- Beriev Be-30
- Britten-Norman Islander
- Britten-Norman Trislander
- CASA C-212 Aviocar
- de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter
- Dornier Do 228
- Embraer EMB 110 Bandeirante
- Evektor EV-55 Outback
- Fairchild Swearingen Metroliner
- Fairchild Dornier 228
- GAF Nomad
- British Aerospace Jetstream 31
- Harbin Y-12
- IAI Arava
- PZL M28 Skytruck
- Shorts SC.7 Skyvan
- flugzeuginfo.net: LET L-410 Turbolet Specification Retrieved on 20 January 2009
- LET Aircraft Industries: History Retrieved on 20 January 2009
- Flight International, Central American Airlines, Honduras, 3–9 October 2006
- Jethro's Citywing fleet listing.
- Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 49.
- Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 55.
- Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 58.
- Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 59.
- Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 61.
- UW Family Tragedy in Mexico
- aviation-safety.net: Accident description
- Bureau of Aircraft Accidents Archives
- La Repubblica.it
- "Accident description PT-FSE". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 4 August 2011.
- Aviation Safety Net
- Aeronave con 15 militares y 3 tripulantes a bordo se accidentó, confirmó el Ejército - Archivo - Archivo digital eltiempo.com
- Aviation Safety Net
- "Aircraft crashes after crocodile on board escapes and sparks panic". telegraph.co.uk. 21 October 2010.
- Hradecky, Simon. "Crash: African Air Services L410 near Kavumu on Feb 14th 2011, impacted mountain". The Aviation Herald. Retrieved 2 April 2011.
- "Accident Description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 2 April 2011.
- "Accident description PR-NOB". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 13 July 2011.
- "Noar emite comunicado sobre acidente em Recife" (in Portuguese). Panrotas. 13 July 2011. Retrieved 13 July 2011.
- "Storm hits Ukraine parachute jump, five killed". Kyiv Post. 11 June 2012.
- 22 August 2012. "Accident: Mombasa Air Safari L410 at Ngerenge". Retrieved 29 July 2013.
- 23 august 2014. "Crash: Doren L410 over Congo on Aug 23rd 2014, aircraft found crashed and burned out". Retrieved 26 August 2014.
- Lambert 1993, pp. 66–67.
- excludes tip tanks - 19.98 m (65 ft 6½in) with tanks
- Hoyle, Craig. "World Air Forces Directory". Flight International, Vol. 182, No. 5370, 11–17 December 2012. pp. 40–64. ISSN 0015-3710.
- Lambert, Mark (ed.). Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1993–94. Coulsdon, UK: Jane's Data Division, 1993. ISBN 0-7106-1066-1.
- Picture of the Let L-410UVP-E3 Turbolet aircraft. Airliners.net.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Let L-410.|
- Company website
- L410.cz-unofficial site - history (in Czech), photogallery.
- Aviation Masters, Inc.