LGBT adoption in Europe

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Legal status of adoption by same-sex couples in Europe
  Gay adoption legal
  Stepparent adoption legal
  Neither/unknown/ambiguous

Debate has occurred throughout Europe over proposals to legalize same-sex parental adoption as well as step-child adoption.

Currently some types of adoption by same-sex couples are legal in 14 of the 50 countries and in 4 of the 6 dependent territories in Europe. Full joint adoption by same-sex couples is legal in eleven European countries, namely Belgium, Denmark, France, Iceland, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom. An additional three Austria, Finland and Germany permit step-child adoption in which the partner in a registered partnership can adopt the natural, and in some cases, the adopted child of his or her partner. Several countries are currently considering permitting full joint or step-child adoption by same-sex couples.

Current situation[edit]

Full joint adoption[edit]

Jurisdiction in force since notes
1[1][2] European UnionNetherlands Netherlands 1 April 2001
  • Same-sex adoption was legalized alongside same-sex marriage, which includes joint and step-child adoption.
  • The law initially applied to the European Netherlands only.
  • On 2012 its scope was expanded to include the Caribbean Netherlands.
2 European UnionSweden Sweden 1 February 2003
3[3] European UnionSpain Spain 3 July 2005
4[4] European UnionUnited Kingdom United Kingdom 30 December 2005
  • The law does not apply to Northern Ireland and Scotland.
  • In Scotland a separate law came into force on 28 September 2009.[5]
  • In Northern Ireland since 11 December 2013[6]
5[7] Iceland Iceland 27 June 2006
6[8] European UnionBelgium Belgium 30 June 2006
7[9] Norway Norway 1 January 2009
8[10] European UnionDenmark Denmark 1 July 2010
  • The law does not apply to the Faroe Islands and Greenland.
9[11] Isle of Man Isle of Man
(British Crown Dependency)
6 April 2011
10[12] Jersey Jersey
(British Crown Dependency)
2 April 2012
11[13] European UnionFrance France 18 May 2013
12[14] European UnionGibraltar Gibraltar
(British Overseas Territory)
28 March 2014
13[15] European UnionMalta Malta 13 June 2014
14[16] European UnionLuxembourg Luxembourg 1 January 2015

Step-child adoption[edit]

Jurisdiction in force since notes
1[17] European UnionGermany Germany 1 January 2005
  • Biological step-child adoption only
2[18] Greenland Greenland
(constituent country of Denmark)
1 June 2009
3[19] European UnionFinland Finland 1 September 2009
4[20] European UnionSlovenia Slovenia July 2011
  • In July 2011, The Ministry of Labour, Family and Social Affairs stated that the existing law allows for
    second-parent adoption.
5[21] European UnionAustria Austria 1 August 2013
  • Biological step-child adoption only

Future legislation[edit]

Full joint adoption[edit]

Finland: A citizens' initiative by the Tahdon2013 campaign received the required number of signatures for a bill to be considered by parliament. The collection of signatures ended in September 2013. The bill was submitted to parliament on 13 December 2013. On 20 February 2014 a debate was held and the bill was sent to the Legal Affairs Committee.[22] On 25 June, the bill was rejected by the committee on a vote of 10-6. The bill will now face a final vote by Parliament some time in Autumn.[23]

Germany: The opposition party The Left submitted a bill to the Federal Diet on 23 October 2013. It had its first reading on 19 December 2013.

Step-child adoption[edit]

Ireland: Justice Minister Alan Shatter intends bringing in laws by the end of 2014 to extend guardianship, custody, and access rights to the non-biological parents of children in same-sex relationships.[24]

Switzerland: The Swiss Parliament granted homosexuals the right to adopt their partner's children. This new law is expected to become effective in 2016. Its details will be discussed by the end of 2014 by the government.[25]

Public opinion[edit]

According to Eurobarometer poll, conducted in 2006, same-sex adoption had majority support from only two countries belonging to the European Union: Netherlands at 69% and Sweden at 51% and the least support from Poland and Malta on 7% respectively.[26][27]

A 2013 poll shows that 60% of the Irish public support gay adoption.[28]

According to pollster Gallup Europe, women, younger generations, and the highly educated are more likely to support same-sex marriage and adoption rights for gay people than other demographics.[29]

In the United Kingdom in 2007, 64% of people said they thought gay couples should be allowed to adopt and 32% said they should not. 55% of respondents thought that male couples should be able to adopt and 59% of people thought that lesbian couples should be able to adopt.[30]

In Portugal, a poll from February 2014 showed that 40,4% of respondents support gay adoption.[31]

Opinion polls[edit]

Opinion polls for same-sex adoption
Country Pollster Year For Against Don't Know/Neutral/No answer
 Austria Eurobarometer 2006 44%[32] 50%[32] 6%[32]
 Belgium Eurobarometer 2006 43%[32] 54%[32] 2%
 Bulgaria Eurobarometer 2006 12%[32] 68%[32] 20%[32]
 Cyprus Eurobarometer 2006 10%[32] 86%[32] 4%[32]
 Czech Republic CVVM 2014 45%[33] 48%[33] 7%
 Denmark Eurobarometer 2006 44%[32] 51%[32] 5%[32]
 Estonia Eurobarometer 2006 14%[32] 79%[32] 7%[32]
 European Union Eurobarometer 2006 32%[32] 61%[32] 7%[32]
 Finland Eurobarometer 2006 24%[32] 72%[32] 4%[32]
 France Eurobarometer 2006 35%[32] 58%[32] 8%[32]
 Germany Eurobarometer 2006 42%[32] 52%[32] 6%[32]
 Greece Eurobarometer 2006 11%[32] 89%[32] 0%[32]
 Hungary Eurobarometer 2006 13%[32] 81%[32] 6%[32]
 Ireland Eurobarometer 2006 30%[32] 52%[32] 19%[32]
 Italy Eurobarometer 2006 24%[32] 70%[32] 5%[32]
 Latvia Eurobarometer 2006 8%[32] 89%[32] 3%[32]
 Lithuania Eurobarometer 2006 12%[32] 82%[32] 6%[32]
 Luxembourg Eurobarometer 2006 39%[32] 54%[32] 7%[32]
 Malta Eurobarometer 2006 7%[34] 85%[34] 9%[34]
 Netherlands Eurobarometer 2006 69%[34] 27%[34] 4%[34]
 Poland CBOS 2013 8%[35] 87%[35] 5%[35]
 Portugal Eurobarometer 2006 19%[32] 74%[32] 8%[32]
 Romania Eurobarometer 2006 8%[32] 82%[32] 10%[32]
 Russia Levada Public Opinion Center 2013 5%[36] 80%[36] 15%[36]
 Slovakia Eurobarometer 2006 12%[32] 84%[32] 4%[32]
 Slovenia Eurobarometer 2006 17%[32] 80%[32] 3%[32]
 Spain Eurobarometer 2006 43%[32] 42%[32] 15%[32]
 Sweden Eurobarometer 2006 51%[32] 43%[32] 7%[32]
 United Kingdom Eurobarometer 2006 33%[32] 58%[32] 9%[32]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ (Dutch) Wet openstelling huwelijk
  2. ^ (Dutch) Invoeringswet openbare lichamen Bonaire, Sint Eustatius en Saba
  3. ^ (Spanish) Ley 13/2005, de 1 de julio, por la que se modifica el Código Civil en materia de derecho a contraer matrimonio
  4. ^ "New Adoption Law Gives Gay Couples Joint Rights"
  5. ^ New legislation sees gay Scottish couples win right to adopt children
  6. ^ Gay adoption: Northern Ireland ban lifted
  7. ^ (Icelandic) Lög um breytingu á lagaákvæðum er varða réttarstöðu samkynhneigðra (sambúð, ættleiðingar, tæknifrjóvgun)
  8. ^ (Dutch) Wet van 18 mei 2006 tot wijziging van een aantal bepalingen van het Burgerlijk Wetboek, teneinde de adoptie door personen van hetzelfde geslacht mogelijk te maken
  9. ^ (Norwegian) Lov om endringer i ekteskapsloven, barnelova, adopsjonsloven, bioteknologiloven mv. (felles ekteskapslov for heterofile og homofile par)
  10. ^ (Danish) Lov om ændring af lov om registreret partnerskab, lov om en børnefamilieydelse og lov om børnetilskud og forskudsvis udbetaling af børnebidrag
  11. ^ New laws raise hopes for more adoptions in Isle of Man
  12. ^ Jersey's civil partnership law comes into force
  13. ^ (French) LOI n° 2013-404 du 17 mai 2013 ouvrant le mariage aux couples de personnes de même sexe
  14. ^ Gibraltar approves civil partnerships bill
  15. ^ AN ACT to regulate civil unions and to provide for matters connected therewith or ancillary thereto
  16. ^ (French) Mémorial A n° 125 de 2014
  17. ^ (German) Gesetz zur Überarbeitung des Lebenspartnerschaftsrechts
  18. ^ (Danish) "Anordning om ikrafttræden for Grønland af lov om ændring af lov om registreret partnerskab m.v.". Government of Greenland. Retrieved 2013-11-10. 
  19. ^ (Finnish) Laki rekisteröidystä parisuhteesta annetun lain 9 §:n muuttamisesta
  20. ^ "Confronting Homophobia in Europe". Retrieved 2013-10-10. 
  21. ^ (German) "Adoptionsrechts-Änderungsgesetz 2013". Parlament Republik Österreich. Retrieved 10 April 2014. 
  22. ^ (Swedish) Medborgarinitiativ till riksdagen med förslag till lagar om ändring av äktenskapslagen, lagen om registrerat partnerskap och lagen om fastställande av transsexuella personers könstillhörighet (MI 3/2013 rd)
  23. ^ "Legal committee votes against gay marriage". Yle. 25 June 2014. 
  24. ^ "Equal parent rights for gay couples". Irish Examiner. 22 January 2014. Retrieved 26 January 2014. 
  25. ^ Switzerland: a law will open some adoption rights to homosexuals, dot429.com, Retrieved 29 March 2014
  26. ^ "EUROBAROMETER 66 PUBLIC OPINION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION". December 2006. Retrieved 10 April 2014. 
  27. ^ "Eight EU Countries Back Same-Sex Marriage". Angus Reid Global Monitor : Polls & Research. Retrieved 29 January 2006. 
  28. ^ http://www.gcn.ie/feature.aspx?sectionid=14&articleid=3182
  29. ^ "Public opinion and same-sex unions (2003)". ILGA Europe. Retrieved 29 January 2006. [dead link]
  30. ^ Gay Adoption 28 Jan 2007 (2007-01-28). "UK Polling Report". UK Polling Report. Retrieved 2013-03-16. 
  31. ^ http://expresso.sapo.pt/portugueses-querem-referendo-sobre-coadocao=f855888
  32. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs "EUROBAROMETER 66 FIRST RESULTS". TNS. European Commission. December 2006. p. 80. Retrieved 6 August 2014. 
  33. ^ a b "Postoje veřejnosti k právům homosexuálů – červen 2014". CVVM. CVVM. 11 July 2013. p. 3. Retrieved 14 August 2014. 
  34. ^ a b c d e f Vella, Matthew (5 June 2012). "Heartening change in attitudes to put gay unions on political agenda". MaltaToday. Retrieved 7 August 2014. 
  35. ^ a b c STOSUNEK DO PRAW GEJÓW I LESBIJEK ORAZ ZWIĄZKÓW PARTNERSKICH. CENTRUM BADANIA OPINII SPOŁECZNEJ. Retrieved 2014-04-11. 
  36. ^ a b c "Vast majority of Russians oppose gay marriage and gay pride events – poll". Levada Public Opinion Center. Russia Today. 12 March 2013. Retrieved 14 August 2014.