LGBT parenting

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LGBT parenting refers to lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people parenting one or more children. This includes children raised by same-sex couples (same-sex parenting), children raised by single LGBT parents, and children raised by an opposite-sex couple where at least one partner is LGBT.[1]

LGBT people can become parents through various means including current or former relationships, coparenting, adoption, donor insemination, and surrogacy.[2]

Scientific research has been generally consistent in showing that gay and lesbian parents are as fit and capable as heterosexual parents, and their children are as psychologically healthy and well-adjusted as children reared by heterosexual parents.[3][4][5] Major associations of mental health professionals in the U.S., Canada, and Australia have not identified credible empirical research that suggests otherwise.[5][6][7][8][9]

Forms of LGBT parenting[edit]

Male same-sex couple with a child.

LGBT people can become parents through various means including current or former relationships, coparenting, adoption, foster care, donor insemination, and surrogacy.[2] A gay man, a lesbian, or a transgender person who transitions later in life may have children within an opposite-sex relationship, such as a mixed-orientation marriage, for various reasons.[10][11][12][13][14][15][16]

Some children do not know they have an LGBT parent; coming out issues vary and some parents may never reveal to their children that they identify as LGBT. Accordingly, how children respond to their LGBT parent(s) coming out has little to do with their sexual orientation or gender identification of choice, but rather with how either parent responds to acts of coming out; i.e. whether there is dissolution of parental partnerships or rather if parents maintain a healthy, open, and communicative relationship after coming out or during transition in the case of trans parents.[17][18][19]

Many lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people are parents. In the 2000 U.S. Census, for example, 33 percent of female same-sex couple households and 22 percent of male same-sex couple households reported at least one child under the age of 18 living in the home.[20] As of 2005, an estimated 270,313 children in the United States live in households headed by same-sex couples.[21]

Economic resources and home ownership[edit]

According to US Census Snapshot published in December 2007, same-sex couples with children have significantly fewer economic resources and significantly lower rates of home ownership than heterosexual married couples.[21]

Children’s outcomes[edit]

In the United States, studies on the effect of gay and lesbian parenting on children were first conducted in the 1970s, and expanded through the 1980s in the context of increasing numbers of gay and lesbian parents seeking legal custody of their biological children.[22] The widespread pattern of children being raised from infancy in two-parent gay or lesbian homes is relatively recent.

Consensus[edit]

The scientific research that has directly compared outcomes for children with gay and lesbian parents with outcomes for children with heterosexual parents has been generally consistent in showing that lesbian and gay parents are as fit and capable as heterosexual parents, and their children are as psychologically healthy and well-adjusted as children reared by heterosexual parents,[3][4][5] despite the reality that considerable legal discrimination and inequity remain significant challenges for these families.[4] Major associations of mental health professionals in the U.S., Canada, and Australia, have not identified credible empirical research that suggests otherwise.[5][6][7][8][9] Literature indicates that parents’ financial, psychological and physical well-being is enhanced by marriage and that children benefit from being raised by two parents within a legally-recognized union.[5][6][23][24] Statistics show that home and childcare activities in homosexual households are more evenly split between the two rather than having specific gender roles,[25] and that there were no differences in the interests and hobbies of children with homosexual or heterosexual parents.[26]

Since the 1970s, it has become increasingly clear that it is family processes (such as the quality of parenting, the psychosocial well-being of parents, the quality of and satisfaction with relationships within the family, and the level of co-operation and harmony between parents) that contribute to determining children’s well-being and ‘outcomes’, rather than family structures, per se, such as the number, gender, sexuality and co-habitation status of parents.[4][23] Since the end of the 1980s, as a result, it has been well established that children and adolescents can adjust just as well in nontraditional settings as in traditional settings.[23]

Judith Stacey, of New York University, stated: "Rarely is there as much consensus in any area of social science as in the case of gay parenting, which is why the American Academy of Pediatrics and all of the major professional organizations with expertise in child welfare have issued reports and resolutions in support of gay and lesbian parental rights".[27] These organizations include the American Academy of Pediatrics,[6] the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry,[1] the American Psychiatric Association,[28] the American Psychological Association,[29] the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy,[30] the American Psychoanalytic Association,[31] the National Association of Social Workers,[32] the Child Welfare League of America,[33] the North American Council on Adoptable Children,[34] and Canadian Psychological Association.[35] In 2006, Gregory M. Herek stated in American Psychologist: "If gay, lesbian, or bisexual parents were inherently less capable than otherwise comparable heterosexual parents, their children would evidence problems regardless of the type of sample. This pattern clearly has not been observed. Given the consistent failures in this research literature to disprove the null hypothesis, the burden of empirical proof is on those who argue that the children of sexual minority parents fare worse than the children of heterosexual parents."[7]

Studies and analyses include Bridget Fitzgerald's 1999 analysis of the research on gay and lesbian parenting, published in Marriage and Family Review, which found that the available studies generally concluded that "the sexual orientation of parents is not an effective or important predictor of successful childhood development"[22] and Gregory M. Herek's 2006 analysis in American Psychologist, which said: "Despite considerable variation in the quality of their samples, research design, measurement methods, and data analysis techniques, the findings to date have been remarkably consistent. Empirical studies comparing children raised by sexual minority parents with those raised by otherwise comparable heterosexual parents have not found reliable disparities in mental health or social adjustment. Differences have not been found in parenting ability between lesbian mothers and heterosexual mothers. Studies examining gay fathers are fewer in number but do not show that gay men are any less fit or able as parents than heterosexual men."[7] Additionally, some fear that children will inherit their parent’s gender dysphoria or alternate mental health issues in the case of trans parent, yet there is research that suggests “an absence of evidence that children raised by transgendered parents have a greater chance of experiencing […] development issues than raised by non-transgender parents” and further clinical research shows that “children of gender-variant parents do not develop gender dysphoria or mental diseases” due to their parents’ diagnosis with gender identity disorder [19]

In June 2010, the results of a 25-year ongoing longitudinal study by Nanette Gartrell of the University of California and Henny Bos of the University of Amsterdam were released. Gartrell and Bos studied 78 children conceived through donor insemination and raised by lesbian mothers. Mothers were interviewed and given clinical questionnaires during pregnancy and when their children were 2, 5, 10, and 17 years of age. In the abstract of the report, the authors stated: "According to their mothers' reports, the 17-year-old daughters and sons of lesbian mothers were rated significantly higher in social, school/academic, and total competence and significantly lower in social problems, rule-breaking, aggressive, and externalizing problem behavior than their age-matched counterparts in Achenbach's normative sample of American youth."[36]

Analysis of extensive social science literature into the question of children's psychological outcomes of being raised by same-sex parents by the Australian Institute of Family Studies in 2013 concluded that "there is now strong evidence that same-sex parented families constitute supportive environments in which to raise children" and that with regard to lesbian parenting "...clear benefits appear to exist with regard to: the quality of parenting children experience in comparison to their peers parented in heterosexual couple families; children's and young adults' greater tolerance of sexual and gender diversity; and gender flexibility displayed by children, particularly sons."[37]

Sexual orientation and gender role adherence of children[edit]

A number of studies have examined whether the children of lesbian and gay parents are themselves more likely to identify as lesbian and gay. In a 2001 review of 21 studies, Judith Stacey and Timothy Biblarz found that researchers frequently downplay findings indicating difference regarding children's gender, sexual preferences and behavior, suggesting that an environment of heterosexism has hampered scientific inquiry in the area. Their findings indicate that the children with lesbian or gay parents appear less traditionally gender-typed and are more likely to be open to homoerotic relationships, which may be partly due to genetic or family socialization processes or "contextual effects," even though children raised by same-sex couples are not more likely to self-identify as bisexual, lesbian, or gay and most of them identify as heterosexual.[38] According to US Census, 80% of the children being raised by same-sex couples in US are their biological children.[39] When it comes to family socialization processes and "contextual effects," Stacey and Biblarz point out that children with such parents are disproportionately more likely to grow up in relatively more tolerant school, neighborhood, and social contexts, which are less heterosexist.[38]

A 2005 review by Charlotte J. Patterson for the American Psychological Association found that the available data did not suggest higher rates of homosexuality among the children of lesbian or gay parents.[40] Herek's 2006 review describes the available data on the point as limited.[7] Stacey and Biblarz and Herek stress that the sexual orientation and gender identification of children is of limited relevance to discussions of parental fitness or policies based on the same. In a 2010 review comparing single-father families with other family types, Stacey and Biblarz state, "We know very little yet about how parents influence the development of their children's sexual identities or how these intersect with gender."[8]

Children of LGBT parents do not have any differences in their gender role behaviors in comparison to those observed in heterosexual and/or cisgender family structures.[41]

Methodology[edit]

Studies of LGBT parenting have sometimes suffered from small and/or non-random samples and inability to implement all possible controls, due to the small LGBT parenting population and to cultural and social obstacles to identifying as an LGBT parent.

A 1993 review published in the Journal of Divorce & Remarriage identified fourteen studies addressing the effects of LGBT parenting on children. The review concluded that all of the studies lacked external validity and that therefore: "The conclusion that there are no significant differences in children reared by lesbian mothers versus heterosexual mothers is not supported by the published research data base."[42]

Fitzgerald's 1999 analysis explained some methodological difficulties:

Many of these studies suffer from similar limitations and weaknesses, with the main obstacle being the difficulty in acquiring representative, random samples on a virtually invisible population. Many lesbian and gay parents are not open about their sexual orientation due to real fears of discrimination, homophobia, and threats of losing custody of their children. Those who do participate in this type of research are usually relatively open about their homosexuality and, therefore, may bias the research towards a particular group of gay and lesbian parents.

Because of the inevitable use of convenience samples, sample sizes are usually very small and the majority of the research participants end up looking quite homogeneous—e.g. white, middle-class, urban, and well-educated. Another pattern is the wide discrepancy between the number of studies conducted with children of gay fathers and those with lesbian mothers...

Another potential factor of importance is the possibility of social desirability bias when research subjects respond in ways that present themselves and their families in the most desirable light possible. Such a phenomenon does seem possible due to the desire of this population to offset and reverse negative images and discrimination. Consequently, the findings of these studies may be patterned by self-presentation bias.[22]

According to a 2001 review of 21 studies by Stacey and Biblarz published in American Sociological Review: "[R]esearchers lack reliable data on the number and location of lesbigay parents with children in the general population, there are no studies of child development based on random, representative samples of such families. Most studies rely on small-scale, snowball and convenience samples drawn primarily from personal and community networks or agencies. Most research to date has been conducted on white lesbian mothers who are comparatively educated, mature, and reside in relatively progressive urban centers, most often in California or the Northeastern states."[38]

In more recent studies, many of these issues have been resolved due to factors such as the changing social climate for LGBT people.

Herek's paper in American Psychologist stated:

The overall methodological sophistication and quality of studies in this domain have increased over the years, as would be expected for any new area of empirical inquiry. More recent research has reported data from probability and community-based convenience samples, has used more rigorous assessment techniques, and has been published in highly respected and widely cited developmental psychology journals, including Child Development and Developmental Psychology. Data are increasingly available from prospective studies. In addition, whereas early study samples consisted mainly of children originally born into heterosexual relationships that subsequently dissolved when one parent came out as gay or lesbian, recent samples are more likely to include children conceived within a same-sex relationship or adopted in infancy by a same-sex couple. Thus, they are less likely to confound the effects of having a sexual minority parent with the consequences of divorce.[7]

In a 2009 affidavit filed in the case Gill v. Office of Personnel Management, Michael Lamb, a professor of psychology and head of Department of Social and Developmental Psychology at Cambridge University, stated:

The methodologies used in the major studies of same-sex parenting meet the standards for research in the field of developmental psychology and psychology generally. The studies specific to same-sex parenting were published in leading journals in the field of child and adolescent development, such as Child Development, published by the Society for Research in Child Development, Developmental Psychology, published by the American Psychological Association, and The Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, the flagship peer-review journals in the field of child development. Most of the studies appeared in these (or similar) rigorously peer-reviewed and highly selective journals, whose standards represent expert consensus on generally accepted social scientific standards for research on child and adolescent development. Prior to publication in these journals, these studies were required to go through a rigorous peer-review process, and as a result, they constitute the type of research that members of the respective professions consider reliable. The body of research on same-sex families is consistent with standards in the relevant fields and produces reliable conclusions."[23]

Gartrell and Bos's 25-year longitudinal study, published 2010, was limited to mothers who sought donor insemination and who may have been more motivated than mothers in other circumstances.[43] Gartrell and Bos note that the study's limitations included utilizing a non-random sample, and the lesbian group and control group were not matched for race or area of residence. The study was supported by grants from the Gill Foundation, the Lesbian Health Fund of the Gay and Lesbian Medical Association, Horizons Foundation, and the Roy Scrivner Fund of the American Psychological Foundation.[36]

Michael J. Rosenfeld, associate professor of sociology at Stanford University, wrote in a 2010 study published in Demography that "[A] critique of the literature—that the sample sizes of the studies are too small to allow for statistically powerful tests—continues to be relevant." Rosenfeld's study, "the first to use large-sample nationally representative data," found that children of same-sex couples demonstrated normal outcomes in school. "The core finding here," reports the study," offers a measure of validation for the prior, and much-debated, small-sample studies."[44]

According to a 2005 brief by the American Psychological Association:

In summary, research on diversity among families with lesbian and gay parents and on the potential effects of such diversity on children is still sparse (Martin, 1993, 1998; Patterson, 1995b, 2000, 2001, 2004; Perrin, 2002; Stacey & Biblarz, 2001; Tasker, 1999). Data on children of parents who identify as bisexual are still not available, and information about children of non-White lesbian or gay parents is hard to find (but see Wainright et al., 2004, for a racially diverse sample)... However, the existing data are still limited, and any conclusions must be seen as tentative... It should be acknowledged that research on lesbian and gay parents and their children, though no longer new, is still limited in extent. Although studies of gay fathers and their children have been conducted (Patterson, 2004), less is known about children of gay fathers than about children of lesbian mothers. Although studies of adolescent and young adult offspring of lesbian and gay parents are available (e.g., Gershon et al., 1999; Tasker & Golombok, 1997; Wainright et al., 2004), relatively few studies have focused on the offspring of lesbian or gay parents during adolescence or adulthood.[40]

In 2010 American Psychological Association, The California Psychological Association, The American Psychiatric Association, and the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy stated:

Relatively few studies have directly examined gay fathers, but those that exist find that gay men are similarly fit and able parents, as compared to heterosexual men. Available empirical data do not provide a basis for assuming gay men are unsuited for parenthood. If gay parents were inherently unfit, even small studies with convenience samples would readily detect it. This has not been the case. Being raised by a single father does not appear to inherently disadvantage children’s psychological wellbeing more than being raised by a single mother. Homosexuality does not constitute a pathology or deficit, and there is no theoretical reason to expect gay fathers to cause harm to their children. Thus, although more research is needed, available data place the burden of empirical proof on those who argue that having a gay father is harmful.[5]

A 2013 review of the same-sex parenting literature by researcher Douglas Allen of Simon Fraser University identified 53 studies published between 1995 and 2013.[45] Of the 53 studies, 7 used random sampling, 11 had sample sizes of at least 100 and 12 used "hard" measures of children's well-being. Only the three most recent studies met all of these criteria. According to Allen, "almost all of the literature on same-sex parenting (which almost always means lesbian parenting) is based on some combination of weak empirical designs, small biased convenience samples, ‘‘snowballing,’’ and low powered tests."

Other[edit]

Children may struggle with negative attitudes about their parents from the harassment they may encounter by living in a heteronormative, cisnormative society.[46]

Stephen Hicks, a reader in health and social care at the University of Salford[47] questions the value of trying to establish that lesbian or gay parents are defective or suitable. He argues such positions are flawed because they are informed by ideologies that either oppose or support such families.[48] In Hicks' view:

Instead of asking whether gay parenting is bad for kids, I think we should ask how contemporary discourses of sexuality maintain the very idea that lesbian and gay families are essentially different and, indeed, deficient. But, in order to ask this, I think that we need a wider range of research into lesbian and gay parenting... More work of this sort will help us to ask more complex questions about forms of parenting that continue to offer some novel and challenging approaches to family life.[48]

Misrepresentation of research by opponents of LGBT parenting[edit]

In a 2006 statement the Canadian Psychological Association released an updated statement on their 2003 and 2005 conclusions, saying, "The CPA recognizes and appreciates that persons and institutions are entitled to their opinions and positions on this issue. However, CPA is concerned that some persons and institutions are mis-interpreting the findings of psychological research to support their positions, when their positions are more accurately based on other systems of belief or values."[3] Several professional organizations have noted that studies which opponents of LGBT parenting claim as evidence that same-sex couples are unfit parents do not in fact address same-sex parenting, however, and therefore do not permit any conclusions to be drawn about the effects of the sexes or sexual orientations of parents. Rather, these studies, which only sampled heterosexual parents, found that it was better for children to be raised by two parents instead of one, and/or that the divorce or death of a parent had a negative effect on children.[3][49] In Perry v. Brown, in which Judge Vaughn Walker found that the available studies on stepchildren, which opponents of same-sex marriage cited to support their position that it is best for a child to be raised by its biological mother and father, do not isolate "the genetic relationship between a parent and a child as a variable to be tested" and only compare "children raised by married, biological parents with children raised by single parents, unmarried mothers, step families and cohabiting parents," and thus "compare various family structures and do not emphasize biology."[50] Perry also cited studies showing that "adopted children or children conceived using sperm or egg donors are just as likely to be well-adjusted as children raised by their biological parents."[50]

Gregory M. Herek noted that "empirical research can't reconcile disputes about core values, but it is very good at addressing questions of fact. Policy debates will be impoverished if this important source of knowledge is simply dismissed as a 'he said, she said' squabble."[51]

Legal issues[edit]

Legal status of adoption by same-sex couples around the world.
  Joint adoption
  Step-child adoption
  LGBT individuals explicitly allowed
See file info for questionable cases.

Adoption[edit]

Main article: LGBT adoption

Several countries allow same-sex couples to adopt children, while most jurisdictions prohibit them from doing so. Some jurisdictions limit adoption by same-sex couples to stepparent adoption, where one partner in a same-sex couple can legally adopt the biological children of the partner. Adoption by individual LGBT persons is also legal in some jurisdictions.

In January 2008, the European Court of Human Rights ruled that same-sex couples have the right to adopt a child.[52][53] Unmarried LGBT adults can petition to adopt a child in all US states but Florida. Granting the petition is left to the discretion of a judge.[54]

Legal parenthood for same-sex couples not by adoption[edit]

Certain jurisdictions allow the female spouse or partner of the biological mother to acquire the status of a legal parent of the child in the same way as would be possible for a male spouse or partner, thus without the need to go through an adoption procedure. These jurisdictions include Australia,[55] Belgium (as of 1 January 2015),[56] the Canadian provinces of British Columbia, New Brunswick, Manitoba, Alberta, Quebec and Ontario,[57] Denmark,[58] Iceland,[59] the Netherlands,[60] Norway[61] and Sweden.

Marriage[edit]

Same-sex parenting is often raised as an issue in debates about the legalization of same-sex marriage.

Trans parenting[edit]

There is little to no visibility or public support through pregnancy and parenting resources directed towards trans parents.[19][62]

While “once gay and lesbian parents attain parenthood status[…] they almost never lose it” this is not the case for trans parents, as seen with the cases of Suzanne Daly (1983) and Martha Boyd (2007), two trans women who both had their parental rights, with regard to biological children, terminated on the basis of their diagnosis of gender identity disorder and their trans status. They were perceived to have abandoned their role as "fathers" through their MTF transition, and were perceived to have acted selfishly in putting their own sexual/identity needs before the wellbeing of their children. These cases are amongst many legal custody battles fought by trans parents whereby U.S. courts have completely overlooked defendants suitability as "parents" as opposed to "mothers" or "fathers," roles that are heavily gendered and come with strict societal understandings of normative parental behaviour.[63] In the case of trans individuals who desire to become parents and to be legally recognized as mothers or fathers of their children, courts often refuse to legally acknowledge such roles because of biological discrimination. An example of this is the X, Y and Z vs. U.K case, whereby X, a trans man who had been in a stable relationship with Y, a biological woman who gave birth to Z through artificial insemination through which X was always present, was denied the right to be listed as Z's father on their birth certificate due to the fact that they did not directly inseminate Y.[64]

Recently, Canada has started acknowledging trans parental rights in terms of custody arrangements and of legal recognition of parental status. In 2001, Leslie (formerly Howard) Forester was permitted to retain custody of her daughter after her ex-partner filed for sole custody on the basis of Leslie's transition. The courts ruled that “the applicant’s transsexuality, in itself, without further evidence, would not constitute a material change in circumstances, nor would it be considered a negative factor in custody determination," marking a landmark case in family law whereby "a person’s transsexuality is irrelevant on its own as a factor in his or her ability to be a good parent"[65] Additionally, Jay Wallace, a resident trans-man from Toronto, Canada, “was permitted to identify as Stanley’s father on the province of Ontario’s Statement of Live Birth Form," marking a decoupling of genetics and bio-sex in relation to parental roles.[66]

See also[edit]

Social

Medical:

Research:

  • Witherspoon Institute#Regnerus study – discusses the New Family Structures Study published by Mark Regnerus in 2012, which was widely discredited by researchers, and which claimed to show that children of gay and lesbian parents were adversely affected by their upbringing by parents in same-sex relationships.[67]

Regional:

References[edit]

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  4. ^ a b c d "Elizabeth Short, Damien W. Riggs, Amaryll Perlesz, Rhonda Brown, Graeme Kane: Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) Parented Families – A Literature Review prepared for The Australian Psychological Society" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-11-05. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f Brief of the American Psychological Association, The California Psychological Association, The American Psychiatric Association, and the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy as Amici Curiae in support of plaintiff-appellees
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  11. ^ Gay Men from Heterosexual Marriages: Attitudes, Behaviors, Childhood Experiences, and Reasons for Marriage
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  13. ^ Moore, Carrie A. (March 30, 2007). "Gay LDS men detail challenges". Deseret Morning News. 
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  27. ^ cited in Cooper & Cates, 2006, p. 36; citation available on http://www.psychology.org.au/Assets/Files/LGBT-Families-Lit-Review.pdf
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  33. ^ Position Statement on Parenting of Children by Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Adults
  34. ^ NACAC Position Statements
  35. ^ Marriage of Same-Sex Couples – 2006 Position Statement Canadian Psychological Association
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  37. ^ Dempsey, Deborah (Dr) (2013). "Same-sex parented families in Australia". CFCA Paper 18 (1): 19. 
  38. ^ a b c Stacey J, Biblarz TJ (2001). "(How) Does the Sexual Orientation of Parents Matter?" (PDF). American Sociological Review 66 (2): 159–183. doi:10.2307/2657413. "If these young adults raised by lesbian mothers were more open to a broad range of sexual possibilities, they were not statistically more likely to self-identify as bisexual, lesbian, or gay.....Children raised by lesbian co-parents should and do seem to grow up more open to homoerotic relationships. This may be partly due to genetic and family socialization processes, but what sociologists refer to as "contextual effects" not yet investigated by psychologists may also be important...even though children of lesbian and gay parents appear to express a significant increase in homoeroticism, the majority of all children nonetheless identify as heterosexual, as most theories across the essentialistt" to "social constructionist" spectrum seem (perhaps too hastily) to expect." 
  39. ^ DONALDSON JAMES, SUSAN (June 23, 2011). "Census 2010: One-Quarter of Gay Couples Raising Children". ABC News. Retrieved July 11, 2013. "Still, more than 80 percent of the children being raised by gay couples are not adopted, according to Gates." 
  40. ^ a b American Psychological Association Lesbian & Gay Parenting
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  42. ^ Belcastro et al. (1993). "A Review of Data Based Studies Addressing the Affects of Homosexual Parenting on Children's Sexual and Social Functioning". Journal of Divorce & Remarriage 20 (1–2): 105–122. doi:10.1300/J087v20n01_06. 
  43. ^ Discover magazine "Same-Sex Parents Do No Harm". January 2, 2011 edition, p. 77
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  46. ^ Goldberg, Abbie E. (2010). Lesbian and Gay Parents and Their Children. Washington DC: American Psychological Association. p. 146. ISBN 978-1-4338-0536-3. 
  47. ^ Salford University: Alphabetical Staff Listing, accessed June 16, 2011
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  49. ^ http://www.courts.ca.gov/Amer_Psychological_Assn_Amicus_Curiae_Brief.pdf Case No. S147999 in the Supreme Court of the State of California, In re Marriage Cases Judicial Council Coordination Proceeding No. 4365, Application for leave to file brief amici curiae in support of the parties challenging the marriage exclusion, and brief amici curiae of the American Psychological Association, California Psychological Association, American Psychiatric Association, National Association of Social Workers, and National Association of Social Workers, California Chapter in support of the parties challenging the marriage exclusion]
  50. ^ a b Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals, Ruling in Perry v. Brown, accessed May 31, 2012
  51. ^ LA Times on Lesbian/Gay Parents: He Said/She Said?
  52. ^ EMRK is for the LGBT adoption[dead link]
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  54. ^ "Adoption Laws: State by State". Human Rights Campaign. Archived from the original on 2008-11-29. Retrieved 2008-07-09. 
  55. ^ (English) Australian Gay and Lesbian Law Blog Family Court: lesbian co-mother is a parent
  56. ^ (Dutch)(French) Belgian Official Journal Act of 5 May 2014 establishing the parenthood of the co-mother
  57. ^ (English) The Canadian Bar Association GLBT Families and Assisted Reproductive Technologies
  58. ^ (Danish) Retsinformation.dk Children Act
  59. ^ (Icelandic) Alþingi Children Act
  60. ^ (Dutch) Dutch Official Journal Act of 25 November 2013 modifying Book 1 of the Civil Code in relation to the legal parenthood of the female partner of the mother otherwise than by adoption
  61. ^ (Norwegian Nynorsk) Lovdata Children Act
  62. ^ Wallace, J. “The Manly Art of Pregnancy,” in Bornstein, Kate, and Bergman, S. Bear (2010). Gender Outlaws: The Next Generation. Berkeley: Seal Press
  63. ^ Ball, Carlos A. (2012). The Right to Be Parents: LGBT families and the transformation of parenthood. New York: New York University Press.
  64. ^ European Court of Human Rights (1997). Case of X, Y and Z v. The United Kingdom, Judgment, retrieved from: http://www.globalhealthrights.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/10/ECtHR-1997-X-Y-and-Z-v-United-Kingdom.pdf
  65. ^ Owens, Anne Marie. “Father’s Sex Change Does Not Alter Custody, Court Says: Girl, 6, Calls Mommy and Daddy; Cautious in Public.” The National Post, 2 February 2001. Retrieved March 23rd 2014 from: http://search.proquest.com.myaccess.library.utoronto.ca/docview/329903587
  66. ^ Karaian, Lara (2013). Pregnant Men: Repronormativity, Critical Tran Theory and the Re(conceive)ing of Sex and Pregnancy Law. Social & Legal Studies, vol. 22 (No. 2), p. 211-230.
  67. ^ Eckholm, Erik (2014-03-21). "Federal Judge Strikes Down Michigan’s Ban on Same-Sex Marriage". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2014-08-03. Retrieved 2014-08-03. 

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