LGBT rights by country or territory

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This article is about current LGBT rights around the world. For historical and current movements to further LGBT rights, see LGBT social movements.
Worldwide laws regarding homosexual
relationships and expression
     Same-sex marriage      Restricted freedom of expression
     Other type of partnership or unregistered cohabitation      Unenforced penalty
     Marriage recognized but not performed      Imprisonment
     Marriage recognized federally but not performed      Up to life in prison
     Same-sex unions not recognized      Death penalty
Click on map to view an enlarged version where rings in various locations become visible. These indicate places with local and/or case-by-case applications of law.
LGBT rights at the United Nations
     Support Countries which have signed a General Assembly declaration of LGBT rights and/or sponsored the Human Rights Council's 2011 resolution on LGBT rights (94 members).
     Oppose Countries which signed a 2008 statement opposing LGBT rights (initially 57 members, now 54 members).
     Neither Countries which, as regards the UN, have expressed neither official support nor opposition to LGBT rights (46 members).

Laws affecting lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people vary greatly by country or territory—everything from legal recognition of same-sex marriage or other types of partnerships, to the death penalty as punishment for same-sex romantic/sexual activity or identity.

LGBT rights are considered human rights[1] and civil rights.[2] LGBT rights laws include, but are not limited to, the following:

Anti-LGBT laws include, but are not limited to, the following: sodomy laws penalizing consensual same-sex sexual activity with fines, jail terms, or the death penalty, anti-'lesbianism' laws, and higher ages of consent for same-sex activity.

In 2011, the United Nations Human Rights Council passed its first resolution recognizing LGBT rights, which was followed up with a report from the UN Human Rights Commission documenting violations of the rights of LGBT people, including hate crime, criminalization of homosexuality, and discrimination. Following up on the report, the UN Human Rights Commission urged all countries which had not yet done so to enact laws protecting basic LGBT rights.[3][4]

History of LGBT-related laws

Ancient Celts

According to Aristotle, although most "belligerent nations" were strongly influenced by their women, the Celts were unusual because their men openly preferred male lovers (Politics II 1269b).[5] H. D. Rankin in Celts and the Classical World notes that "Athenaeus echoes this comment (603a) and so does Ammianus (30.9). It seems to be the general opinion of antiquity."[6] In book XIII of his Deipnosophists, the Roman Greek rhetorician and grammarian Athenaeus, repeating assertions made by Diodorus Siculus in the 1st century BC (Bibliotheca historica 5:32), wrote that Celtic women were beautiful but that the men preferred to sleep together. Diodorus went further, stating that "the young men will offer themselves to strangers and are insulted if the offer is refused". Rankin argues that the ultimate source of these assertions is likely to be Poseidonius and speculates that these authors may be recording male "bonding rituals".[7]

Ancient India

Throughout Hindu and Vedic texts there are many descriptions of saints, demigods, and even the Supreme Lord transcending gender norms and manifesting multiple combinations of sex and gender.[8] There are several instances in ancient Indian epic poetry of same sex depictions and unions by gods and goddesses. There are several stories of depicting love between same sexes especially among kings and queens. Kamasutra, the ancient Indian treatise on love talks about feelings for same sexes. Transsexuals are also venerated e.g. Lord Vishnu as Mohini and Lord Shiva as Ardhanarishwara (which means half woman).[9]

Ancient Israel and West Asia

The ancient Law of Moses (the Torah) forbids men lying with men (intercourse) in Leviticus 18 and gives a story of attempted homosexual rape in Genesis in the story of Sodom and Gomorrah, the cities being soon destroyed after that. The death penalty was prescribed. In Deuteronomy 22:5, cross-dressing is condemned as being "abominable".

Middle Assyrian Law Codes dating 1075 BC states: "If a man have intercourse with his brother-in-arms, they shall turn him into a eunuch.[citation needed]

Ancient Persia

In Persia homosexuality and homoerotic expressions were tolerated in numerous public places, from monasteries and seminaries to taverns, military camps, bathhouses, and coffee houses. In the early Safavid era (1501–1723), male houses of prostitution (amrad khane) were legally recognized and paid taxes. Persian poets, such as Sa’di (d. 1291), Hafiz (d. 1389), and Jami (d. 1492), wrote poems replete with homoerotic allusions. The two most commonly documented forms were commercial sex with transgender young males or males enacting transgender roles exemplified by the köçeks and the bacchás, and Sufi spiritual practices in which the practitioner admired the form of a beautiful boy in order to enter ecstatic states and glimpse the beauty of God.

Ancient Rome

The "conquest mentality" of the ancient Romans shaped Roman homosexual practices.[10] In the Roman Republic, a citizen's political liberty was defined in part by the right to preserve his body from physical compulsion or use by others;[11] for the male citizen to submit his body to the giving of pleasure was considered servile.[12] As long as a man played the penetrative role, it was socially acceptable and considered natural for him to have same-sex relations, without a perceived loss of his masculinity or social standing.[13] The bodies of citizen youths were strictly off-limits, and the Lex Scantinia imposed penalites on those who committed a sex crime (stuprum) against a freeborn male minor.[14] Acceptable same-sex partners were males excluded from legal protections as citizens: slaves, male prostitutes, and the infames, entertainers or others who might be technically free but whose lifestyles set them outside the law.

"Homosexual" and "heterosexual" were thus not categories of Roman sexuality, and no words exist in Latin that would precisely translate these concepts.[15] A male citizen who willingly performed oral sex or received anal sex was disparaged, but there is only limited evidence of legal penalties against these men, who were presumably "homosexual" in the modern sense.[16] In courtroom and political rhetoric, charges of effeminacy and passive sexual behaviors were directed particularly at "democratic" politicians (populares) such as Julius Caesar and Mark Antony.[17]

Roman law addressed the rape of a male citizen as early as the 2nd century BC, when a ruling was issued in a case that may have involved a man of same-sex orientation. It was ruled that even a man who was "disreputable and questionable" had the same right as other citizens not to have his body subjected to forced sex.[18] A law probably dating to the dictatorship of Julius Caesar defined rape as forced sex against "boy, woman, or anyone"; the rapist was subject to execution, a rare penalty in Roman law.[19] A male classified as infamis, such as a prostitute or actor, could not as a matter of law be raped, nor could a slave, who was legally classified as property; the slave's owner, however, could prosecute the rapist for property damage.[20]

In the Roman army of the Republic, sex among fellow soldiers violated the decorum against intercourse with citizens and was subject to harsh penalties, including death,[21] as a violation of military discipline.[22] The Greek historian Polybius (2nd century BC) lists deserters, thieves, perjurers, and "those who in youth have abused their persons" as subject to the fustuarium, clubbing to death.[23] Ancient sources are most concerned with the effects of sexual harassment by officers, but the young soldier who brought an accusation against his superior needed to show that he had not willingly taken the passive role or prostituted himself.[24] Soldiers were free to have relations with their male slaves;[25] the use of a fellow citizen-soldier's body was prohibited, not homosexual behaviors per se.[26] By the late Republic and throughout the Imperial period, there is increasing evidence that men whose lifestyle marked them as "homosexual" in the modern sense served openly.[27]

Although Roman law did not recognize marriage between men, and in general Romans regarded marriage as a heterosexual union with the primary purpose of producing children, in the early Imperial period some male couples were celebrating traditional marriage rites. Juvenal remarks with disapproval that his friends often attended such ceremonies.[28] The emperor Nero had two marriages to men, once as the bride (with a freedman Pythagoras) and once as the groom. His consort Sporus appeared in public as Nero's wife wearing the regalia that was customary for the Roman empress.[29]

Apart from measures to protect the prerogatives of citizens, the prosecution of homosexuality as a general crime began in the 3rd century of the Christian era when male prostitution was banned by Philip the Arab. By the end of the 4th century, after the Roman Empire had come under Christian rule, passive homosexuality was punishable by burning.[30] "Death by sword" was the punishment for a "man coupling like a woman" under the Theodosian Code.[31] Under Justinian, all same-sex acts, passive or active, no matter who the partners, were declared contrary to nature and punishable by death.[32]

Congo

E. E. Evans-Pritchard recorded that in the past male Azande warriors in the northern Congo routinely took on young male lovers between the ages of twelve and twenty, who helped with household tasks and participated in intercrural sex with their older husbands. The practice had died out by the early 20th century, after Europeans had gained control of African countries, but was recounted to Evans-Pritchard by the elders to whom he spoke.[33]

Feudal Japan

In feudal Japan, homosexuality was recognized, between equals (bi-do), in terms of pederasty (wakashudo), and in terms of prostitution. The younger partner in a pederastic relationship often was expected to make the first move; the opposite was true in ancient Greece. In religious circles, same-sex love spread to the warrior (samurai) class, where it was customary for a boy in the wakashū age category to undergo training in the martial arts by apprenticing to a more experienced adult man. The man was permitted, if the boy agreed, to take the boy as his lover until he came of age; this relationship, often formalized in a "brotherhood contract",[34] was expected to be exclusive, with both partners swearing to take no other (male) lovers. The Samurai period was one in which homosexuality was seen as particularly positive. Later when Japanese society became pacified, the middle classes adopted many of the practices of the warrior class.

Lesotho

Anthropologists Stephen Murray and Will Roscoe reported that women in Lesotho engaged in socially sanctioned "long term, erotic relationships" called motsoalle.[35]

Papua New Guinea

In Papua New Guinea, same-sex relationships were an integral part of the culture until the middle of the last century. The Etoro and Marind-anim for example, even viewed heterosexuality as wasteful and celebrated homosexuality instead. They believed that in sharing semen, they are sharing their life force, yet women simply wasted this force any time they didn't get pregnant after sex. In many traditional Melanesian cultures a prepubertal boy would be paired with an older adolescent who would become his mentor and who would "inseminate" him (orally, anally, or topically, depending on the tribe) over a number of years in order for the younger to also reach puberty.[36]

LGBT-related laws by country or territory

Decriminalization of Homosexuality by country or territory
  1790–1799
  1800–1869
  1870–1929
  1930–1939
  1940–1949
  1950–1959
  1960–1969
  1970–1979
  1980–1989
  1990–1999
  2000–2009
  2010+
  Same-sex sexual activity illegal
  Male same-sex sexual activity illegal
Blood donation policies for men who have sex with men
  Men who have sex with men may donate blood; No deferral
  Men who have sex with men may donate blood; Temporary deferral1
  Men who have sex with men may not donate blood; Permanent deferral2
  No Data
1Regulation not fully implemented in Finland
2No restriction in Israel and the United States of America if last MSM activity was before 1977.

Africa

Main article: LGBT rights in Africa
Tables:

Northern Africa

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex relationships Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination (Sexual orientation) Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Algeria Algeria No Illegal
Penalty: Fine & up to 2 years imprisonment, or vigilante executions [37]
No No No No No No
Egypt Egypt No It is not specifically illegal for males, but is punishable through broadly written morality laws of up to 10 years imprisonment.[38]

Emblem-question.svg Female uncertain
No No No No No No
Libya Libya No Illegal
Penalty: Up to 10 years imprisonment.[39]
No No No No No No
Morocco Morocco
(incl. Western Sahara)
No Illegal
Penalty: Less than 10 years imprisonment.[40]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
South Sudan South Sudan No Illegal
Penalty: Up to 10 years imprisonment.
No No Constitutional ban since 2011 No No No No
Sudan Sudan No Illegal for both sexes. However, the penalty for both sexes is different.
Penalty: Corporal Punishment. Death penalty for men on third offense. Death penalty on fourth offense for women.
No No No No No No
Tunisia Tunisia No Illegal
Penalty: Fine or 3-10 years imprisonment.[41]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No

Western Africa

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex relationships Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination (Sexual orientation) Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Benin Benin Yes Legal[42] No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Burkina Faso Burkina Faso Yes Legal No No Constitutional ban since 1991 No Emblem-question.svg No No
Cape Verde Cape Verde Yes Legal since 2004
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No Emblem-question.svg Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[37] Emblem-question.svg
Ivory Coast Côte d'Ivoire Yes Legal No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
The Gambia Gambia No Illegal
Penalty: up to 14 years imprisonment
No No No No No No
Ghana Ghana No Male illegal
Penalty: 10 years imprisonment or more

Yes Female legal[43]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Guinea Guinea No Illegal
Penalty: 6 months to 3 years imprisonment
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Guinea-Bissau Guinea-Bissau Yes Legal since 1993[37]
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Liberia Liberia No Illegal
Penalty: 1 year imprisonment
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Mali Mali Yes Legal No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Mauritania Mauritania No Illegal
Penalty: Death penalty. However, no executions for any crime since 1987.
No No No No No No
Niger Niger Yes Legal No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Nigeria Nigeria No Illegal
Penalty: Imprisonment, fines, corporal punishment or even death penalty.[44]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Senegal Senegal No Illegal
Penalty: 1 to 5 years imprisonment
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Sierra Leone Sierra Leone No Male illegal
Penalty: Up to life imprisonment (although seldom enforced)

Yes Female legal[37]
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Togo Togo No Illegal
Penalty: Fine & 3 years imprisonment
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No

Middle Africa

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex relationships Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination (Sexual orientation) Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Cameroon Cameroon No Illegal
Penalty: Fines to 5 years imprisonment
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Central African Republic Central African Republic Yes Legal[37]
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Chad Chad Yes Legal[37] No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Democratic Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo
(formerly Zaire)
Yes Legal[37] No No Constitutional ban since 2005 No Emblem-question.svg No No
Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea Yes Legal[37] No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Gabon Gabon Yes Legal[37]
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo Yes Legal[37] No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Saint Helena Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 2001[37] Emblem-question.svg No No Yes UK's responsibility. Allowed since 2000 Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination Yes Since 2013
São Tomé and Príncipe São Tomé and Príncipe Yes Legal since 2012
+ UN decl. sign.[45]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No

Eastern Africa

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex relationships Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination (Sexual orientation) Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Burundi Burundi No Illegal since 2009
Penalty: 3 months to 2 years imprisonment[46]
No No Constitutional ban since 2005 No Emblem-question.svg No No
Djibouti Djibouti Yes Legal[37] No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Eritrea Eritrea No Illegal
Penalty: Up to 3 years imprisonment [37]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Ethiopia Ethiopia No Illegal[37]
Penalty: 10 years imprisonment or more.
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Kenya Kenya No Male illegal
Penalty: up to 14 years imprisonment

Yes Female legal
No NoConstitution since 2010 specifically mentions only opposite sex marriage[47] No No No No
Rwanda Rwanda Yes Legal[37]
+ UN decl. sign.
No No Constitutional ban in Article 26 since 2003 No Emblem-question.svg No No
Somalia Somalia No Illegal[37]
Penalty: Up to 3 years imprisonment, although vigilante executions are tolerated.
No No No No No No
Uganda Uganda No Male Illegal
Penalty: Up to life imprisonment

No Female Illegal since 2000. Penalty: Up to 7 years imprisonment
No No Constitutional ban since 2005 No No No No
Tanzania Tanzania No Illegal
Penalty: Up to life imprisonment[37]

Yes Female Legal
except in Zanzibar
No No No A couple must be married to adopt a child. Emblem-question.svg No No

Indian Ocean States

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex relationships Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination (Sexual orientation) Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Comoros Comoros No Illegal[37]
Penalty: 5 years imprisonment & fines
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Madagascar Madagascar Yes Legal No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Mauritius Mauritius No Male illegal
Penalty: Up to 5 years imprisonment.

Yes Female legal
[37][48]+ UN decl. sign.
No No No Emblem-question.svg Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[49][50] No
Mayotte Mayotte
(Overseas department of France since 2011)
Yes Legal since 1791 Yes Civil solidarity pact Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes However, it requires sterilization for sex change.
Réunion Réunion
(Overseas department of France)
Yes Legal since 1791 Yes Civil solidarity pact Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes However, it requires sterilization for sex change.
Seychelles Seychelles No Male illegal
Penalty: Up to 14 years imprisonment, decriminalization proposed

Yes Female legal
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No Emblem-question.svg Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[37] No

Southern Africa

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex relationships Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination (Sexual orientation) Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Angola Angola No Illegal[37]
Penalty: fines, restrictions or penal labor
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Botswana Botswana No Illegal
Penalty: Fine - 7 years, though not enforced
No No No Emblem-question.svg Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[37] No
Lesotho Lesotho Yes Legal since 2012[37] No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Malawi Malawi No Illegal
Penalty: Up to 14 years imprisonment & whippings
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Mozambique Mozambique Yes Legal[51] No No No Emblem-question.svg Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[37][49] No
Namibia Namibia No Male Illegal
Not enforced[37][52]

Yes Female legal[53]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
South Africa South Africa Yes Male legal since 1998, retroactive to 1994; female always legal; UN decl. sign. Yes Limited recognition of unregistered partnerships since 1998; Same-sex marriage since 2006. Yes Legal since 2006 Yes Legal since 2002 (joint and step-parent) Yes Since 1998 Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes Anti-discrimination laws are interpreted to include gender identity; legal gender may be changed after surgical or medical treatment.
Swaziland Swaziland No Male illegal

Yes Female legal. However, there is a pending law that will include outlawing lesbian sex conduct.[37]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Zambia Zambia No Illegal
Penalty: up to 14 years imprisonment
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe No Male illegal
Yes Female legal[37]
No No Constitutional ban since 2013 No Emblem-question.svg No No

Partially recognized/Unrecognized states

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex relationships Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination (Sexual orientation) Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Western Sahara Western Sahara
(80% controlled by Morocco)
No Illegal
Penalty: up to 3 years imprisonment
No No No No No No
Somaliland Somaliland No Illegal
Penalty: expulsion from country, life imprisonment; death penalty in some regions and cities.
No No No No No No



The Americas

Tables:

North America

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Same-sex adoption Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination Laws (sexual orientation) Anti-discrimination Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Bermuda Bermuda
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 1994
(Age of consent discrepancy)
No No Emblem-question.svg Yes UK responsible for defence No Bans some anti-gay discrimination[54] No
Canada Canada Yes Legal since 1969
(Age of consent discrepancy, prohibition of anal intercourse in some cases)[55]
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Yes Legal since 2003,
Mandatory legal status nationwide since 2005
Yes Legal nationwide, but specifics may vary by province and territory.[56] Yes Since 1992[57] Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination, including hate speech YesLegal recognition but only granted after completion of medical intervention in most provinces and territories (not required in Ontario); Explicit anti-discrimination protections only in NWT, Manitoba, and Ontario, implicit elsewhere;[58][59]
Greenland Greenland
(constituent country of the Kingdom of Denmark)
Yes Legal since 1933 Yes Registered partnership since 1996 No (pending) Yes / No Step-child adoption only Yes (Denmark responsible for defence) Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination No
Mexico Mexico Yes Legal since 1872[37]
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Civil unions in Coahuila (2007),[60] Colima (2013)[61], Jalisco (2013)[62] and Campeche (2013).[63]


All states are obliged to honour same-sex marriages performed in states where it is legal.[64]

No/Yes Legal in Mexico City (2010)[64] and Quintana Roo (2012).[65]


All states are obliged to honour same-sex marriages performed in states where it is legal.[64]


Proposed nationwide (2013).[66][67]

No/Yes Joint adoption legal in Mexico City (2010)[68] and Coahuila (2014).[69]


Nationwide, single gay persons may adopt.[70]

Yes/No No explicit ban. However, LGB persons have been reportedly discharged on the grounds of "immorality."[71] Yes Nationwide since 2003.[72] No/Yes Transgender persons can change their legal gender and name in Mexico City since 2008.[73]
Flag of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon.svg Saint Pierre et Miquelon
(overseas collectivity of France)
Yes Legal since 1791
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Pacte civil de solidarité since 1999 Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes (Requires sterilization for change)
United States United States Yes Legal nationwide since 2003.
+ UN decl. sign.
See Lawrence v. Texas
No / Yes Varies by state, not recognized by federal gov't

(Legal in Colorado, Nevada, and Wisconsin Domestic partnership benefits and civil unions granted by local level cities and counties in 15 states.

No / Yes Varies by state, recognized by federal gov't.

(Legal in California, Connecticut, Delaware, Hawaii, Illinois, Iowa, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New Hampshire,New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, Washington, Eight Native American Tribal Jurisdictions and the District of Columbia).

Yes / No Single bisexual, gay, and lesbian persons may adopt, laws on couples vary by state Yes / No Since 2011 for bisexuals, gays, and lesbians only; transsexuals still banned. No / Yes Federal executive order prohibiting discrimination based on sexual orientation for employees in the federal civilian workforce, along with the government employment in the District of Columbia, and the United States Postal Service, since 1998 (see Executive Order 12968 and Executive Order 13087). Included in the federal hate crimes law since 2009.

(Sexual orientation discrimination in public and private employment)

No / Yes Gender identity discrimination in employment and healthcare insurance banned since 2012.[74][75] Included in the federal hate crimes law since 2009.

(Gender identity discrimination in public and private employment)

Central America

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Same-sex adoption Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination Laws (sexual orientation) Anti- discrimination Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Belize Belize No Male llegal since September 19, 2003
(Penalty: 10 year prison sentence). Yes Female legal. (Foreign gay males and females are rejected from entering the country due to the Belize Immigration Act)
No No No No No No
Costa Rica Costa Rica Yes Legal since 1971
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes (for some purposes such as conjugal visit, health-related decisions and social insurance)[76] No No N/A
Has no armed forces
Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination No
El Salvador El Salvador Yes Legal since 1800's[37]
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination No
Guatemala Guatemala Yes Legal since 1871[37]
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No Emblem-question.svg Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination No
Honduras Honduras Yes Legal since 1899[37]
+ UN decl. sign.
No No
(Constitutional ban)
No
(Constitutional ban)
No No No
Nicaragua Nicaragua Yes Legal since 2008
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No Emblem-question.svg Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[37] No
Panama Panama Yes Legal since 2008
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No No No No

Caribbean islands

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Same-sex adoption Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination Laws (sexual orientation) Anti-discrimination Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Anguilla Anguilla
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 2000 No No No Yes UK responsible for defence No No
Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda No Illegal
(Penalty: 15 year prison sentence)
No No No No No No
Aruba Aruba
(Autonomous country in the Kingdom of the Netherlands)
Yes Legal No
Only unions made in the Netherlands recognised
No
Only same-sex marriages made in the Netherlands recognised
No Yes The Netherlands responsible for defence No No
The Bahamas Bahamas Yes Legal since 1991
(Age of consent discrepancy)
No No No Yes No No
Barbados Barbados No Illegal
(Penalty: life sentence, Not enforced)
No No No No No No
British Virgin Islands British Virgin Islands
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 2000 No No No Yes UK responsible for defence Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination No
Caribbean Netherlands Caribbean Netherlands
(part of the Netherlands)
Yes Legal Yes Yes Legal since 2012 Yes[77] Yes The Netherlands responsible for defence Emblem-question.svg Emblem-question.svg
Cayman Islands Cayman Islands
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 2000 No No Emblem-question.svg Yes UK responsible for defence Emblem-question.svg No
Cuba Cuba Yes Legal since 1979
+ UN decl. sign.
No
(but proposed)
No No Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[78][79] Yes
Curaçao Curaçao
(Autonomous country in the Kingdom of the Netherlands)
Yes Legal No
Only unions made in the Netherlands recognised
No
Only same-sex marriages made in the Netherlands recognised
No Yes The Netherlands responsible for defence No No
Dominica Dominica No Illegal
(Penalty: 10 year prison sentence or incarceration in a psychiatric institution )
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No No No No
Dominican Republic Dominican Republic Yes Legal since 1822[37]
+ UN decl. sign.
No No
Constitutional ban since 2010
No No[80] No No
Grenada Grenada No Male illegal
(Penalty: 10 year prison sentence)
Yes Female legal
No No No No No No
Guadeloupe Guadeloupe
(Overseas department of France)
Yes Legal since 1791
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Pacte civil de solidarité
since 1999
Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes (Requires sterilization for change)
Haiti Haiti Yes Legal since 1986 No No No No No No
Jamaica Jamaica No Male Illegal
(Penalty: 10 years hard labor)
Yes Female legal
No No No No No No
Martinique Martinique
(Overseas department of France)
Yes Legal since 1791
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Pacte civil de solidarité
since 1999
Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes (Requires sterilization for change)
Montserrat Montserrat
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 2000 No No No Yes UK responsible for defence No No
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico
(Commonwealth of the United States)
Yes Legal since 2003 No No No Yes Since 2011 Yes Bans hate crimes since 2002, anti–employment discrimination since 2013. U.S. hate crime laws also apply Yes Bans hate crimes since 2002, anti–employment discrimination since 2013. U.S. hate crime laws also apply
Flag of Saint Barthelemy (local).svg Saint Barthélemy
(overseas collectivity of France since 2007)
Yes Legal since 1791
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Pacte civil de solidarité since 1999 Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes (Requires sterilization for change)
Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Kitts and Nevis No Male illegal
(Penalty: 10 years)
Yes Female legal
No No No No No No
Saint Lucia Saint Lucia No Male illegal
(Penalty: fine and/or 10 year prison sentence)
Yes Female legal
No No No No No No
Flag of France.svg Saint Martin
(overseas collectivity of France since 2007)
Yes Legal since 1791
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Pacte civil de solidarité since 1999 Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes (Requires sterilization for change)
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Saint Vincent and the Grenadines No Illegal
(Penalty: fine and/or 10 year prison sentence)
No No No No No No
Sint Maarten Sint Maarten
(Autonomous country in the Kingdom of the Netherlands)
Yes Legal No
Only unions made in the Netherlands recognised
No
Only same-sex marriages made in the Netherlands recognised
No Yes The Netherlands responsible for defence No No
Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago No Illegal
(Penalty: 25 year prison sentence, Not enforced)
No No No No No No
Turks and Caicos Islands Turks and Caicos Islands
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 2000 No No No Yes UK responsible for defence No No
United States Virgin Islands United States Virgin Islands
(Insular area of the United States)
Yes Legal since 1984 No No No Yes Since 2011 Yes The US hate crime laws also apply to all US external territories as well Yes The US hate crime laws also apply to all US external territories as well

South America

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex relationships Same-sex marriage Same-sex adoption Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination Laws (sexual orientation) Anti- discrimination Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Argentina Argentina Yes Legal since 1887[37]
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Unregistered cohabitation throughout the country. Yes Legal since 2010.[81] Yes Legal since 2010. Yes Since 2009.[82] No Yes Transgender persons can change their legal gender and name without surgeries or judicial permission[83]
Bolivia Bolivia Yes Legal
+ UN decl. sign.
No (Proposed) No
(Constitutional ban)
No No Not until 2015 Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes Bans all discrimination based on gender identity[84]
Brazil Brazil Yes Decriminalized since 1824,
Legal since 1830
[37]
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes "Stable unions" legal since 2004,
All rights as recognized family entities available nationwide since 2011
[85][86]
Yes Legal since 2011 (given interpretation of "stable union" legislation),
Nationwide since 2013
[87][88]
Yes Single gay persons explicitly accepted since 1996,
Legal since 2010.
[89]
Yes Since 1969,[90]
Official discrimination illegal since 1988,
Pathologization or attempted treatment of sexual orientation by mental health professionals illegal since 1999[91][92]
Yes/No All state-sanctioned social discrimination of citizens since 1988,
Legal protection in many jurisdictions, expansion of anti-discrimination (all) national Constitutional amendment discussed in the Senate
.[93]
Yes Legal gender and name changes since 2009, though SRS – legal in loco only for diagnosed transsexuals – is required for male-to-female and HRT for female-to-male.[94][95][96]
Chile Chile Yes Legal since 1998[37]
(Age of consent discrepancy)
+ UN decl. sign.
No (Registered cohabitation vote pending by congress) [97] No (Proposed [98], currently under consideration) No / Yes Single gay persons may adopt Yes [99][100] Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination [101] Yes since 2007. Whether surgical intervention is necessary depends on the judge at the moment of request. Currently, a broader gender identity law (which would not require any surgeries or judicial permission) is being discussed by the congress.[102] [103]
Colombia Colombia Yes Legal since 1981
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Legal since 2007 No / Yes Judges are able to marry same-sex couples using a 2011 Court Ruling.[104] No single person, no matter her/his sexual orientation may adopt. First case of step-child adoption, Court ordered.[105] Yes since 1999. Since 2009: the military special social security system can be used by same sex couples in the army Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination, including hate speech [106] Yes[107] Since 1993. The name's gender can be changed easily in the National ID Card, to change the sex field a surgery is required.
Ecuador Ecuador Yes Legal since 1997
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Civil unions legal since 2009[108] No
(Constitutional ban)
No
(Constitutional ban)
Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination Yes Bans all discrimination based on gender identity
Falkland Islands Falkland Islands
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 1989[37] No No No Yes UK responsible for defence No[37] No
French Guiana French Guiana
(Overseas department of France)
Yes Legal since 1791
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Pacte civil de solidarité since 1999 Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes (Requires sterilization for change)
Guyana Guyana No Illegal
(Penalty: Up to life imprisonment)
No No No Yes [109] No Added to constitution in 2004, but withdrawn afterwards by the government. No
Paraguay Paraguay Yes Legal since 1880[37]
+ UN decl. sign.
No
(Constitutional ban since 1992)[110]
No
(Constitutional ban since 1992)[110]
No Emblem-question.svg No No
Peru Peru Yes Legal since 1836-37[37] No (Pending)[111] No No Yes Since 2009[112] Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination. Yes Possible via Civil Code and Legal Process, but no specific law.
Suriname Suriname Yes Legal since 1869[37] No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Uruguay Uruguay Yes Legal since 1934
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Civil unions since 2008.[113] Yes Legal since 2013.[114] Yes Legal since 2009.[115] Yes Since 2009.[116] Yes Legal protection since 2004.[117] Yes Legal protection since 2004.[117]

Transgender persons can change their legal gender and name since 2009.[118]

Venezuela Venezuela Yes Legal since 1997[119][120].
+ UN decl. sign.
No No
(Constitutional ban)
No
(Constitutional ban)
Yes Since 1999 Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[37] No

Asia

Main article: LGBT rights in Asia
This table:

Central Asia

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of relationships Same-sex marriage Same-sex adoption Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination (Sexual orientation) Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan Yes Legal since 1998[37] No No Emblem-question.svg No[121] No No
Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan Yes Legal since 1998[37] No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Tajikistan Tajikistan Yes Legal since 1998[37] No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Turkmenistan Turkmenistan No Male illegal
(Penalty: up to 2 year prison sentence)
Yes Female legal[37]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Uzbekistan Uzbekistan No Male illegal
(Penalty: up to 3 year prison sentence)
Yes Female legal[37]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No

Middle East

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of relationships Same-sex marriage Same-sex adoption Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination (Sexual orientation) Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Bahrain Bahrain Yes Legal since 1976[37] No No No No No No
Iraq Iraq Yes Legal since 2003 No No No No No No
Israel Israel Yes Legal since
1963 de facto
1988 de jure[122]
+ UN decl. sign.
Yes Unregistered cohabitation No Cannot be performed in the country, but foreign same-sex marriages are recognised Yes Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination [123][124] Yes[citation needed]
Jordan Jordan Yes Legal since 1951 No No No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Kuwait Kuwait No Male illegal
(Penalty: Fines or up to 6 year prison sentence)
Yes Female legal[125]
No No No No No No
Lebanon Lebanon Yes Legal since 2014 No No No No No No
Oman Oman No Illegal
(Penalty: fines, prison sentence up to 3 years; however, only enforced when dealing with "public scandal")
No No No No No No
State of Palestine Palestinian territories
(Gaza)
No Male illegal
(Penalty: up to 10 year prison sentence)
Yes Female legal
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
State of Palestine Palestinian territories
(West Bank)
Yes Legal since 1951[37] No No Yes[citation needed] Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Qatar Qatar No Male illegal
(Penalty: fines, prison sentence up to 5 years)
Yes Female legal
No No No No No No
Saudi Arabia Saudi Arabia No Illegal
(Penalty: death or life imprisonment)
No No No No No No
Syria Syria No Illegal
(Penalty: prison sentence up to 3 years)
No No No No No No
United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates No Illegal
(Penalty: deportation, fines or prison time)
No No No No No No
Yemen Yemen No Illegal
(Penalty: Death)
No No No No No No

South Asia

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of relationships Same-sex marriage Same-sex adoption Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination (Sexual orientation) Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Afghanistan Afghanistan No Illegal No No No No No No
Bangladesh Bangladesh No Illegal
(Penalty: 10 years to life)
No No No No No Yes A third option (hijra) beside male and female[126]
Bhutan Bhutan No Illegal
(Penalty: prison sentence up to 1 year; no cases of penalty actually enforced)
No No No No No No
India India Yes Illegal since 1860.[127] Penalties up to 10 years imprisonment.[128] NoNo explicit recognition.[129] No No explicit recognition.[129] No No[130] No Yes "Third gender" recognised by Supreme Court[131]
Iran Iran No Illegal
(Penalty: Death)
No No No No No Yes Legal gender recognition in Iran is legal if accompanied by a medical intervention.[132]
Maldives Maldives No Up to death.[133] Shariah law applies. Whippings, house arrest, deportation, and up to 6 years in jail. Vigilante attacks and executions occur. No No No No[citation needed] No No
Nepal Nepal Yes Legal since 2007[37]
+ UN decl. sign.
No No Under consideration No Under consideration Yes Yes Supreme Court ruled discrimination laws apply to homosexuals Yes "Third gender" cards have been issued since September 2007, legally protected class[134]
Pakistan Pakistan No Illegal
(Penalty: 2 years to life sentence)
No No No No No Yes 'Third gender' officially protected from discrimination by Supreme Court of Pakistan in 2010
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka No Illegal[37] No No No No[citation needed] No No

East Asia

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of relationships Same-sex marriage Same-sex adoption Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination (Sexual orientation) Laws concerning gender identity/expression
China China
(People's Republic of)
Yes Legal since 1997 No No No Emblem-question.svg No Yes Transsexuals allowed to change legal gender
Hong Kong Hong Kong
(Special administrative region of China)
Yes Legal since 1991
(equal age of consent of 16 for both heterosexual and homosexual sex since 2006)
No No No Emblem-question.svg
The People's Republic of China is in charge of Hong Kong's defence affairs. Regardless of sexual orientation, military personnel are not recruited from Hong Kong.
Yes Government employment, goods and services only Yes Transsexuals allowed to change legal gender
Japan Japan Yes Legal since 1880
(was illegal from 1872–1880; before that there were no laws forbidding same sex relationships)
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No Yes[135] No No nationwide protections, but some cities ban some anti-gay discriminations[37] Yes Transsexuals allowed to change legal gender, but only after sex reassignment surgery and in case that the transsexual has no child under 20 years old
Macau Macau
(Special administrative region of China)
Yes Legal since 1996 No No No Emblem-question.svg
The People's Republic of China is in charge of Macau's defence affairs. Regardless of sexual orientation, military personnel are not recruited from Macau.
Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination Emblem-question.svg
Mongolia Mongolia Yes Legal since 1961[37] No No No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
North Korea North Korea Yes Legal[37] No No No No No Emblem-question.svg Unknown although there are heavily obeyed gender roles for both male and female. See Let's trim our hair in accordance with the socialist lifestyle
South Korea South Korea Yes Legal
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No Yes Due to conscription, but gays subject to discrimination No Yes Transsexuals allowed to change legal gender

Partially recognised states

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex relationships Same-sex marriage Same-sex adoption Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination (sexual orientation) Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Taiwan Taiwan
(China, Republic of)
Yes Legal No No (Pending law allows civil unions or same-sex marriage) No Yes Due to military draft Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination (in work and education) Yes Transsexuals allowed to change legal gender, but only after sex reassignment surgery

Southeast Asia

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of relationships Same-sex marriage Same-sex adoption Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination (Sexual orientation) Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Brunei Brunei No Illegal
(Penalty: Death by stoning)
No No No No No No
Burma Burma No Illegal
(Penalty: up to life sentence)
No No No No No No
Cambodia Cambodia Yes Legal No No Technically prohibited, though there has been at least one recorded case of a legally registered and recognized same-sex marriage No[citation needed] Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
East Timor East Timor Yes Legal since 1975
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Indonesia Indonesia Yes Legal[136]
except for Muslims in Aceh Province[137]
No No No No[138] No Yes Transsexuals allowed to change legal gender
Laos Laos Yes Legal No No No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Malaysia Malaysia No Male illegal
(Penalty: fines, prison sentence (2-20 years), or whippings)

Yes Female legal

No No No No No No
Philippines Philippines Yes Legal[139]
except for Muslims in Marawi City
No[139] No (However, Metropolitan Community Church conducts same-sex Marriage, the New People's Army of the Philippines conducted the country’s first same-sex marriage in 2005, some other Pagan Churches also conduct same-sex marriage. Yes/No Step-adoption only No Since 2009 Yes No national protections, but Cebu[140] Quezon City, Davao[141] and Albay have anti-discrimination ordinances[142] No National bill pending but still not made into law Emblem-question.svg
Singapore Singapore No Male illegal
(Penalty: up to 2 years prison sentence; no plan to repeal 377A and not enforced since 1999)

Yes Female legal

No No No Yes Due to conscription, but gays are not allowed to go to command school or serve in sensitive units. No Yes Transsexuals allowed to change legal gender
Thailand Thailand Yes Legal since 1956 No No No Yes Since 2005 Yes No
Vietnam Vietnam Yes Legal
(no laws against homosexuality have ever existed)
No No Emblem-question.svg Emblem-question.svg Emblem-question.svg Yes Sex-change recognized for sex assignment for persons of congenital sex defects and unidentifiable sex

Europe

Main article: LGBT rights in Europe
Tables:

European Union

European Union member states are indicated with the EU flag in regional European sub-divisions.

EU Flag See: LGBT rights in the European Union
European Union law forbids discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation. All EU states are required to legalise same-sex sexual activity and implement anti-discrimination laws.[143][144]

Central Europe

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Civil union Same-sex marriage Same-sex adoption Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination (sexual orientation) Laws concerning gender identity/expression
European UnionAustria Austria Yes Legal since 1971[37] Yes Registered partnership since 2010 No (pending) No/Yes Biological step-child adoption only Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination Emblem-question.svg
European UnionCroatia Croatia Yes Legal since 1977[37] No Unregistered cohabitations since 2003 (Life Partnership pending) No Constitution limits marriage to opposite-sex couples No/Yes Gay individuals may adopt Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[145][146][146] Yes Act on the elimination of discrimination, The Law on volunteering, Electronic media Law (all including both gender identity and gender expression)
European UnionCzech Republic Czech Republic Yes Legal since 1962[37] Yes Registered partnership since 2006. No No/Yes Gay individuals may adopt (both when in registered partnership or single) Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[146] Yes legal recognition granted and amendment of birth certificate after reassignment surgery/
European UnionGermany Germany Yes Legal since 1969
(since 1968 in East Germany)
Yes Registered life partnership since 2001 No (proposed) No/Yes Step-child adoption only (full joint adoption proposed) Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes
European UnionHungary Hungary Yes Legal since 1962[37] Yes Registered partnership since 2009 No Constitution limits marriage to opposite-sex couples No Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[146] Yes Full legal recognition granted, birth certificate replaced. No surgery or hormone therapy is required for legal gender change.
Liechtenstein Liechtenstein Yes Legal since 1989[37] Yes Registered partnership since 2011 No No N/A No Emblem-question.svg
European UnionPoland Poland Yes Legal
Never punished (Legal until 18th century, criminalized in 19th by laws of Russia, Germany and Austria-Hungary, legal again since 1932)
(Illegal from 1939-1944/1945 under annexation of Nazi Germany)
No No Constitution limits marriage to opposite-sex couples[147] No/Yes Gay individuals may adopt Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination Yes legal recognition and birth certificates amended, including. In 1983, the Supreme Court ruled reassignment surgery is not a prerequisite for legal recognition.[148]
European UnionRomania Romania Yes Legal since 1996
Previously legal from 1864 to 1968
No No No/Yes Gay individuals may adopt. Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[146] No/Yes Legal recognition and birth certificates amended after reassignment surgery
European UnionSlovakia Slovakia Yes Legal since 1962[37] No No Constitution limits marriage to opposite-sex couples No/Yes Gay individuals may adopt Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[149][150] Emblem-question.svg
European UnionSlovenia Slovenia Yes Legal since 1977[37] Yes Registered partnership since 2006 No No/Yes Step-child adoption only [151] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[146] No Gender change not legal[152]
Switzerland Switzerland Yes Legal
(Geneva, Vaud, Valais and Ticino: since 1798
Nationwide since 1942)
Yes Registered partnership since 2007 No (pending)[153] (constitutional ban pending) No/Yes Gay individuals may adopt; Biological step-child adoption pending.[154] Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination. Banning all anti-gay discrimination pending Yes Legal documents can be issued based on a person's new gender identity. Sterilization technically required not enforced since 2012. Registered Partnership can become Marriage between the new opposite-sex couple[155].

Eastern Europe

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Civil union Same-sex marriage Same-sex adoption Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination (sexual orientation) Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Armenia Armenia Yes Legal since 2003[37] No No No Yes/No No explicit ban. However, LGB persons have been reportedly discharged because of their sexual orientation..[156] No No
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan Yes Legal since 2000[37] No No No Emblem-question.svg No Yes (Requires sterilization for change).[152]
Belarus Belarus Yes Legal since 1994[37] No No Constitution limits marriage to opposite-sex couples. No Yes/No Banned from military service during peacetime, but during wartime homosexuals are permitted to enlist as partially able.[157] No LGBT activism/expression deemed terrorism[158] No
Georgia (country) Georgia Yes Legal since 2000[37] No No (constitutional ban pending) No Emblem-question.svg Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[146] Yes (Requires sterilization for change)[152]
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan Yes Legal since 1998[37] No No No No No Emblem-question.svg
Moldova Moldova Yes Legal since 1995[37] No No Constitution limits marriage to opposite-sex couples. No Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination [146] Yes (Requires sterilization for change)[152]
Russia Russia Yes Legal since 1993
(Previously legal from 1917 to 1930)
No No (constitutional ban pending) No No No Bans homosexual "propaganda" in some Regions Yes (Requires sterilization for change)[152]
Ukraine Ukraine Yes Legal since 1991 No No Constitution limits marriage to opposite-sex couples. No Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[159] Yes (Requires sterilization for change)[152]

Northern Europe

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Civil union Same-sex marriage Same-sex adoption Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination (sexual orientation) Laws concerning gender identity/expression
European UnionDenmark Denmark Yes Legal since 1933[37] No Registered partnership from 1989 to 2012 Yes Legal since 2012 Yes Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes Legal gender change and recognition possible without surgery or hormone therapy.[160]
European UnionEstonia Estonia Yes Legal since 1992[37] No (pending)[161][162] No No Single persons may adopt. Two people can adopt a child only if they are married.[163] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[146] Yes Forbids discrimination based on gender identity.
Faroe Islands Faroe Islands
(constituent country of the Kingdom of Denmark)
Yes Legal since 1933[37] No No No Yes (Denmark responsible for defence) Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination Yes
European UnionFinland Finland Yes Legal since 1971 Yes Registered partnership since 2002 No (pending) Yes/ No Step-child adoption only (full joint adoption under consideration) Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[146] No Legal change and recognition is possible only with sterilization[164]
Iceland Iceland Yes Legal since 1940 No Registered partnership from 1996 to 2010 Yes Legal since 2010 Yes Legal since 2006 N/A Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes Documents can be amended to the recognised gender.
European UnionLatvia Latvia Yes Legal since 1992[37] No No
Constitution limits marriage to opposite-sex couples since 2006
No An unmarried person may adopt child alone. Adoption by multiple persons that are not married banned. Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[146] Yes Documents are amended accordingly, no medical intervention required.[165]
European UnionLithuania Lithuania Yes Legal since 1993 No No
Constitution limits marriage to opposite-sex couples since 1992
No Only married couples can adopt Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination / No There is a law which can be, and actually was, interpreted as a ban on public speech about LGBT Yes Gender change legal since 2003.[166]
Norway Norway Yes Legal since 1972[37] No Registered partnership from 1993 to 2008 Yes Legal since 2009 Yes Legal since 2009 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[167] Yes All documents can be amended to the recognised gender.
European UnionSweden Sweden Yes Legal since 1944 No Registered partnership from 1995 to 2009 Yes Legal since 2009 Yes Legal since 2003 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[146] Yes

Southern Europe

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Civil union Same-sex marriage Same-sex adoption Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination (sexual orientation) Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Albania Albania Yes Legal since 1995[37] No (proposed) No No Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[146] Yes Forbids discrimination based on gender identity.

No Gender change not legal.[152]

Andorra Andorra Yes Legal since 1791
(as part of France)
Yes Stable union since 2005 No No N/A Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[146] No Gender change not legal
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina Yes Legal since 1998[37] No No No Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[146] No
European UnionBulgaria Bulgaria Yes Legal since 1968 No No Constitution limits marriage to opposite-sex couples No/Yes Single gay persons may adopt. Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes (Requires sterilization for change)
European UnionCyprus Cyprus Yes Legal since 1998[37] No (proposed) No No No Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[146] Yes Forbids discrimination based on gender identity.
European UnionGibraltar Gibraltar
(overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 1993 Yes Civil partnership since 2014 No Yes Legal since 2013 Yes UK responsible for defence Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination Emblem-question.svg
European UnionGreece Greece Yes Legal since 1951 No (pending) No No Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes (Requires sterilization for change)
European UnionItaly Italy Yes Legal since 1890 No (pending) No (pending) No Only married couples can adopt Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination Yes Since 1982 legal recognition and documents can be amended to the recognised gender.[168]
Republic of Macedonia Macedonia Yes Legal since 1996[37] No No (constitutional ban proposed)[169] No (constitutional ban proposed)[170] Yes No No
European UnionMalta Malta Yes Legal since 1973 Yes Civil union since 2014 No Yes Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes All documents can be amended to the recognised gender.
Montenegro Montenegro Yes Legal since 1977[37] No No Constitution limits marriage to opposite-sex couples since 2007 No Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[146] Yes (Requires sterilization for change).[152] Forbids discrimination based on gender identity.
European UnionPortugal Portugal Yes Legal since 1983 Yes De facto unions since 2001 Yes Legal since 2010 No Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination, according to national Constitution. Yes Since 2011, All documents can be amended to the recognised gender.
San Marino San Marino Yes Legal since 2001 No No No Emblem-question.svg No No Gender change not legal.[152]
Serbia Serbia Yes Legal since 1994[37] No No Constitution limits marriage to opposite-sex couples No Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[146] Yes
European UnionSpain Spain Yes Legal since 1979[37] Yes Yes Legal since 2005 Yes Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[146] Yes Since 2007, all documents can be amended to the recognised gender[171]
Turkey Turkey Yes Legal since 1858 No No No No No Yes (Requires sterilization for change)
Vatican City Vatican City Yes Legal No No No N/A Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[citation needed] X mark.svg

Western Europe

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Civil union Same-sex marriage Same-sex adoption Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination (sexual orientation) Laws concerning gender identity/expression
European UnionBelgium Belgium Yes Legal since 1795[37]
(as part of France)
(Illegal from 1944-1944/1945 as part of Reichskommissariat Belgien-Nordfrankreich and under annexation of Nazi Germany)
Yes Statutory cohabitation since 2000 Yes Legal since 2003 Yes Legal since 2006 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes The 2007 law concerning transsexuality grants the right to a legal name and gender change
European UnionFrance France Yes Legal since 1791[37]
(Illegal in Alsace-Lorraine from 1871–1918 and 1940-1944/1945 under annexation of Imperial and Nazi Germany and illegal in Nord and Pas-de-Calais from 1944-1945 as part of Reichskommissariat Belgien-Nordfrankreich)
Yes Civil solidarity pact since 1999 Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes (Requires sterilization for change)
Guernsey Guernsey
(Crown dependency of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 1983, age of consent equalised in 2012[172][173] No (proposed) No(proposed) No Yes UK responsible for defence Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[174] Yes 2004 anti-discrimination law. Legal gender change since 2007: Case law only. Only allows a new birth certificate to be issued. Does not amend or remove records of existing birth certificates, extension to Alderney and Sark unclear, does extend to Herm.[174][175]
European UnionRepublic of Ireland Ireland Yes Legal since 1993 Yes Civil partnership since 2011 No(pending a scheduled referendum) No/Yes Single gay persons may adopt. Step Child adoption under consideration. Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[176][177][178] No Legislation to recognise gender identity pending after High Court ruling in favour.
Isle of Man Isle of Man
(Crown dependencies of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 1992[37] Yes Civil partnership since 2011 No Yes Legal since 2011 Yes UK responsible for defence Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes
Jersey Jersey
(Crown dependency of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 1990[37] Yes Civil partnership since 2012 No(Pending) Yes Yes UK responsible for defence No Yes Gender Recognition (Jersey) Law 2010[179]
European UnionLuxembourg Luxembourg Yes Legal since 1795
(as part of France)
(Illegal from 1942-1944/1945 under annexation of Nazi Germany)
Yes Partnership since 2004 Yes Legal from 2015 Yes Legal from 2015 Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination Emblem-question.svg
Monaco Monaco Yes Legal since 1793 (as part of France) No No No Yes France responsible for defence No Emblem-question.svg
European UnionNetherlands Netherlands Yes Legal since 1811
(as part of France)
(Illegal from 1940-1944/1945 as part of Reichskommissariat Niederlande)
Yes Registered partnership since 1998 Yes Legal since 2001. Yes Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes
European UnionUnited Kingdom United Kingdom Yes Legal in England and Wales since 1967, in Scotland since 1981 and in Northern Ireland since 1982 Yes Civil partnership since 2005 Yes check.svg Legal in England and Wales, and Scotland since 2014
No Illegal in Northern Ireland
Yes Legal in England and Wales since 2005, in Scotland since 2009 and Northern Ireland since 2013 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[180][37] Yes Gender Recognition Act 2004

Partially or unrecognised states

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Civil union Same-sex marriage Same-sex adoption Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination (sexual orientation) Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Abkhazia Abkhazia Yes No No No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Kosovo Kosovo Yes Legal since 1994[37]
(as part of Yugoslavia)
No No[181] No Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[182] Yes
Nagorno-Karabakh Republic Nagorno-Karabakh Yes No No No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Northern Cyprus Northern Cyprus Yes Legal since 2014[183][184] No No No No Yes[183][184] Yes Discrimination or hate speech banned since 2014.[183][184]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown if gender change is legal.

South Ossetia South Ossetia Yes No No No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Transnistria Transnistria Yes No No No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg

Oceania

Tables:

Australasia

LGBT rights in: Homosexual acts legal? Recognition of same-sex relationships Same-sex marriage Same-sex adoption Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination (sexual orientation) Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Australia Australia
(including territories of
 Christmas Island,
 Cocos (Keeling) Islands and
 Norfolk Island)
Yes Legal nationwide since 1994
+ UN decl. sign. (Age of consent discrepancy in Queensland only)
Yes Unregistered cohabitation since 2009

Registered relationship schemes in ACT, Tasmania, Victoria, Queensland and New South Wales

No Banned federally under the Marriage Amendment Act 2004[185] Yes/No Single gay persons may adopt; joint adoption in ACT, New South Wales, Tasmania and Western Australia.

Stepchild adoption in Victoria. Banned in South Australia, Queensland and Northern Territory

Yes Since 1992 Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[186] Yes[186]
New Zealand New Zealand Yes Legal since 1986

+ UN decl. sign.

Yes Unregistered cohabitation since 2001
Civil union since 2005.
Yes Legal since 2013[187] Yes Legal since 2013 for married couples and individuals (banned for unmarried and civil union couples regardless of sexual orientation)[187] Yes Since 1993 Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes Covered under the "sex discrimination" provision of the Human Rights Act 1993 since 2006.

Melanesia

LGBT rights in: Homosexual acts legal? Recognition of same-sex relationships Same-sex marriage Same-sex adoption Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination (sexual orientation) Laws concerning gender identity/expression
East Timor East Timor
(terminology "Oceania" varies on border definitions)
Yes Legal since 1975[37]
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Fiji