LGBT rights in Africa

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Same-sex sexual activity legal
  Same-sex marriage recognized
  Other type of partnership (or unregistered cohabitation) recognized
  Foreign same-sex marriages recognized
  No recognition of same-sex couples
Same-sex sexual activity illegal
  Penalty
  Life in prison
  Death penalty

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) rights in Africa are limited in comparison to many other areas of the world. The International Gay and Lesbian Association estimated in 2008 that homosexuality was outlawed in 38 African countries, and in at least 13 African countries, homosexuality was legal or there were no laws pertaining to it.[1]

Same-sex sexual activities between adults have never been criminalised in Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Chad, Republic of the Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Democratic Republic of Congo, Gabon, Madagascar, Mali, Niger, and Rwanda.[2]

Since 2011, some first world countries have been considering or implementing laws that limit or prohibit general budget support to countries that restrict the rights of homosexuals.[3] In spite of this, many African countries have refused to consider increasing LGBT rights,[4] and in some cases have drafted laws to increase sanctions against LGBT people.[5] Many African leaders feel that gay rights are against their cultural and religious value systems and believe they have a sovereign right to reject what they see as an imposition by mainly Western nations, which attempts to affect national sentiment via aid.[6][7][8][9]

In Mauritania, Sudan, and northern Nigeria, homosexuality is punishable by death. In Uganda, Tanzania, and Sierra Leone, offenders can receive life imprisonment for homosexual acts. In addition to criminalizing homosexuality, Nigeria has enacted legislation that would make it illegal for straight family members, allies and friends of the LGBT to be supportive. According to Nigerian law, a straight ally “who administers, witnesses, abets or aids” any form of gender non-conforming and homosexual activity could receive a 10-year jail sentence.[10] South Africa's constitution has the most liberal attitudes toward gays and lesbians, with a constitution which guarantees gay and lesbian rights, and legal same-sex marriage.

Legislation by country or territory

Tables:

Northern Africa[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity legal Recognition of same-sex relationships Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples Gays and lesbians allowed to serve openly in military Anti-discrimination Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Algeria Algeria No Illegal
Penalty: Fine & up to 2 years imprisonment, or vigilante executions [2]
No No No No No No
Egypt Egypt No not specifically illegal, but is punishable through broadly written morality laws of up to 17 years imprisonment with or without hard labour and with or without torture and fines and viglante excutions.[11]

Emblem-question.svg Female uncertain
No No No No No No
Libya Libya No Illegal
Penalty: Up to 10 years imprisonment.[12]
No No No No No No
Morocco Morocco
(incl. Western Sahara)
No Illegal
Penalty: Less than 10 years imprisonment.[13]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
South Sudan South Sudan No Illegal
Penalty: Up to 10 years imprisonment.
No No Constitutional ban since 2011 No No No No
Sudan Sudan No Illegal
Penalty: Corporal Punishment. Death penalty for men on third offense. Death penalty on fourth offense for women.
No No No No No No
Tunisia Tunisia No Illegal
Penalty: Fine or 3-10 years imprisonment.[14]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No

Western Africa[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity legal Recognition of same-sex relationships Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples Gays and lesbians allowed to serve openly in military Anti-discrimination Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Benin Benin Yes Legal [15] No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Burkina Faso Burkina Faso Yes Legal No No Constitutional ban since 1991 No Emblem-question.svg No No
Cape Verde Cape Verde Yes Legal since 2004
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No Emblem-question.svg Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[2] Emblem-question.svg
Ivory Coast Côte d'Ivoire Yes Legal No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
The Gambia Gambia No Illegal
Penalty: up to 14 years imprisonment
No No No No No No
Ghana Ghana No Male illegal
Penalty: 10 years imprisonment or more

Yes Female legal [16]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Guinea Guinea No
Penalty: 6 months to 3 years imprisonment
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Guinea-Bissau Guinea-Bissau Yes Legal since 1993[2]
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Liberia Liberia No Illegal
Penalty: 1 year imprisonment
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Mali Mali Yes No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Mauritania Mauritania No Illegal
Penalty: Death penalty. However, no public executions for any crime since 1987. Some reports say gay boys are subject to clandestine executions.
No No No No No No
Niger Niger Yes Legal No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Nigeria Nigeria No Illegal
Penalty: Imprisonment, fines, corporal punishment or even death penalty.[17]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Senegal Senegal No Illegal
Penalty: 1 to 5 years imprisonment
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Sierra Leone Sierra Leone No Male illegal
Penalty: Up to life imprisonment (although seldom enforced)

Yes Female legal [2]
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Togo Togo No Illegal
Penalty: Fine & 3 years imprisonment
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No

Middle Africa[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity legal Recognition of same-sex relationships Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples Gays and lesbians allowed to serve openly in military Anti-discrimination Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Cameroon Cameroon No Illegal
Penalty: Fines to 5 years imprisonment
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Central African Republic Central African Republic Yes Legal [2]
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Chad Chad Yes Legal [2] No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Democratic Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo
(formerly Zaire)
Yes Legal [2] No No Constitutional ban since 2005 No Emblem-question.svg No No
Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinea Yes Legal [2] No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Gabon Gabon Yes Legal [2]
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Republic of the Congo Republic of the Congo Yes [2] No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Saint Helena Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
(Overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 2001[2] Emblem-question.svg No No Yes UK's responsibility. Allowed since 2000 Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination Yes Since 2013
São Tomé and Príncipe São Tomé and Príncipe Yes Legal since 2012
+ UN decl. sign.[18]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No

Southeast Africa[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex relationships Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination (Sexual orientation) Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Burundi Burundi No Illegal since 2009
Penalty: 3 months to 2 years imprisonment[19]
No No Constitutional ban since 2005 No Emblem-question.svg No No
Kenya Kenya No Male illegal
Penalty: up to 14 years imprisonment

Yes Female legal
No NoConstitution since 2010 specifically mentions only opposite sex marriage[20] No No No No
Rwanda Rwanda Yes Legal[2]
+ UN decl. sign.
No No Constitutional ban in Article 26 since 2003 No Emblem-question.svg No No
Uganda Uganda No Male illegal
Penalty: Up to life imprisonment

No Female illegal since 2000. Penalty: Up to 7 years imprisonment
No No Constitutional ban since 2005 No No No No
Tanzania Tanzania No Illegal
Penalty: Up to life imprisonment[2]

Yes Female Legal
except in Zanzibar
No No No A couple must be married to adopt a child. Emblem-question.svg No No

Horn of Africa[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex relationships Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination (Sexual orientation) Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Djibouti Djibouti Yes Legal[2] No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Eritrea Eritrea No Illegal
Penalty: Up to 3 years imprisonment [2]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Ethiopia Ethiopia No Illegal[2]
Penalty: 10 years imprisonment or more.
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Somalia Somalia No Illegal[2]
Penalty: Up to 3 years imprisonment
No No No No No No

Indian Ocean States[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex relationships Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination (Sexual orientation) Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Comoros Comoros No Illegal[2]
Penalty: 5 years imprisonment & fines
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Madagascar Madagascar Yes Legal No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Mauritius Mauritius No Male illegal
Penalty: Up to 5 years imprisonment.(Moderate and reasonably ignored)

Yes Female legal
[2][21]+ UN decl. sign.
No No No Emblem-question.svg Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[22][23] No
Mayotte Mayotte
(Overseas department of France since 2011)
Yes Legal since 1841 Yes Civil solidarity pact Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes However, it requires sterilization for sex change.
Réunion Réunion
(Overseas department of France)
Yes Legal since 1791 Yes Civil solidarity pact Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes However, it requires sterilization for sex change.
Seychelles Seychelles No Male illegal
Penalty: Up to 14 years imprisonment, decriminalization proposed

Yes Female legal
+ UN decl. sign.
No No No Emblem-question.svg Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[2] No

Southern Africa[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex relationships Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination (Sexual orientation) Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Angola Angola No Illegal[2]
Penalty: fines, restrictions or penal labor (Penalty: Articles 70 and 71 of the Angolan Penal Code provides for the imposition of security measures on people who habitually practice acts against nature)
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Botswana Botswana No Illegal
Penalty: Fine - 7 years, though not enforced
No No No Emblem-question.svg Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[2] No
Lesotho Lesotho Yes Legal since 2012[2] No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Malawi Malawi No Illegal
Penalty: Up to 14 years imprisonment & whippings (No more arrests under Anti-gay laws)
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Mozambique Mozambique Yes Legal[24] No No No No Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[2][22] No
Namibia Namibia No Male Illegal
Not enforced[2][25]

Yes Female legal[26]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
South Africa South Africa Yes Male legal since 1998, retroactive to 1994; female always legal; UN decl. sign. Yes Limited recognition of unregistered partnerships since 1998; Same-sex marriage since 2006. Yes Legal since 2006 Yes Legal since 2002 (joint and step-parent) Yes Since 1998 Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes Anti-discrimination laws are interpreted to include gender identity; legal gender may be changed after surgical or medical treatment.
Swaziland Swaziland No Male illegal

Yes Female legal. However, there is a pending law that will include outlawing lesbian sex conduct.[2]
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Zambia Zambia No Illegal
Penalty: up to 14 years imprisonment
No No No Emblem-question.svg No No
Zimbabwe Zimbabwe No Male illegal
Yes Female legal[2]
No No Constitutional ban since 2013 No Emblem-question.svg No No

Partially recognized/Unrecognized states[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex relationships Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination (Sexual orientation) Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Western Sahara Western Sahara
(80% controlled by Morocco)
Emblem-question.svg Emblem-question.svg Emblem-question.svg Emblem-question.svg Emblem-question.svg Emblem-question.svg Emblem-question.svg
Somaliland Somaliland Emblem-question.svg Emblem-question.svg Emblem-question.svg Emblem-question.svg Emblem-question.svg Emblem-question.svg Emblem-question.svg


See also[edit]


References[edit]

  1. ^ ""Africa's lesbians demand change", BBC News, reported by Joanna Jolly, 27 February 2008". Retrieved 10 October 2014. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab State-sponsored Homophobia: A world survey of laws prohibiting same sex activity between consenting adults The International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association, authored by Lucas Paoli Itaborahy, May 2013
  3. ^ ""Cameron threat to dock some UK aid to anti-gay nations", BBC News, 30 October 2011". BBC News. Retrieved 10 October 2014. 
  4. ^ ""Ghana refuses to grant gays' rights despite aid threat", BBC News, 2 November 2011". BBC News. Retrieved 10 October 2014. 
  5. ^ ""Uganda fury at David Cameron aid threat over gay rights", BBC News, 31 October 2011". BBC News. Retrieved 10 October 2014. 
  6. ^ "Gay and Lesbian People are affronted by CONTRALESA's stance on Same Sex Marriage", Joint Working Group
  7. ^ "Zimbabwe Rejects UN Appeal for Gay Rights, Denies Torture Claims", Zimbio, reported by Rod McCullom, 21 May 2012
  8. ^ ""Homosexuality and Africans: Pan-African position on Gay Rights", African Holocaust, July 2011". Retrieved 10 October 2014. 
  9. ^ ""Gambian President Says No to Aid Money Tied to Gay Rights", Voice of America, reported by Ricci Shryock, 22 April 2012". VOA. Retrieved 10 October 2014. 
  10. ^ "Nigeria's LGBTQ-Clensing Law", LA Progressive, 20 February 2014]
  11. ^ http://ilga.org/ilga/en/countries/EGYPT/Law
  12. ^ http://ilga.org/ilga/en/countries/LIBYAN%20ARAB%20JAMAHIRIYA/Law
  13. ^ http://ilga.org/ilga/en/countries/MOROCCO/Law
  14. ^ http://ilga.org/ilga/en/countries/TUNISIA/Law
  15. ^ http://ilga.org/ilga/en/countries/BENIN/Law
  16. ^ http://ilga.org/ilga/en/countries/GHANA/Law
  17. ^ http://ilga.org/ilga/en/countries/NIGERIA/Law
  18. ^ 2012 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Sao Tome and Principe, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, U.S. Department of State, page 10
  19. ^ Burundi abolishes the death penalty but bans homosexuality 27 April 2009.
  20. ^ Kenya Constitution
  21. ^ The Sexual Offences Bill 2007
  22. ^ a b Africa: Outspoken activists defend continent's sexual diversity
  23. ^ EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES ACT 2008
  24. ^ Mozambique Gay Rights Group Wants Explicit Constitutional Protections
  25. ^ Country Reports on Human Rights Practices
  26. ^ http://www.lgbtnet.dk/countries/africa/namibia

External links[edit]