LGBT rights in Malta
|LGBT rights in Malta|
|Same-sex sexual activity legal?||Legal since 1973|
|Gender identity/expression||May change the indication of sex in official documentation|
|Military service||Gays and lesbians allowed to serve openly|
|Discrimination protections||Yes (both sexual orientation and gender identity)|
|Civil unions since 2014|
|Adoption||Yes, as individuals and jointly if in a civil union|
Rights for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons in Malta have improved in recent years. Both male and female same-sex sexual activity is legal in Malta. A law passed creating civil unions equal to marriage in all but name, with the same rights and obligations including joint adoption rights and recognition of foreign same sex marriage, was enacted in April 2014. Same-sex marriage and both IVF and surrogacy access are still banned for same-sex couples in Malta.
As a British colony, Malta adopted the penal code of Great Britain which criminalised same-sex relations between men. There are examples of individuals caught out by the law - including the lawyer, Guglielmo Rapinett who was arrested for lewd behaviour in the 19th century while trying to seduce a guard. Only in 1973 did the Labour government decide to change Malta's laws to match those of Western Europe.
The Malta Gay Rights Movement (MGRM), founded in 2001, is a socio-political non-governmental organisation that has as its central focus the challenges and rights of the Maltese LGBT community.
In February 2008, MGRM organised and presented a petition to parliament asking for a range of measures to be introduced to protect them through the law. The petition was signed by more than 1,000 people and asked for legal recognition of same-sex couples, an anti-homophobic bullying strategy for the island nation's schools and new laws targeting homophobic and transphobic crimes. The petition received the backing of Alternattiva Demokratika. Harry Vassallo, its leader, said that the recognition of gay rights would be a step forward.
In October 2009, George Abela, the president of Malta, met with the board of the European Region of ILGA at the presidential palace as the group prepared to open its 13th annual conference in Malta. Abela agreed that information and education were important in tackling discrimination and fostering acceptance of differences and that Malta has seen progress in LGBT acceptance. He was said that "love is the most important thing there is and it can't be 'graded' based on sexual orientation". It the first time a head of state met with ILGA-Europe members during one of the group's annual conferences.
Law regarding same-sex sexual activity
In September 2006, Joanne Cassar, a transsexual woman, was denied the right to marry her partner. In 2007 a judge in Malta ordered government officials to issue her the appropriate documentation. The Director of Public Registry successfully contested that ruling in May 2008. Cassar filed a constitutional application in the First Hall of the Civil Court charging a violation of her fundamental human rights. She won that case initially, but lost on appeal in 2011. In April 2013, she reached a settlement with the government that included financial compensation in addition to promised statutory changes. A leader of the Nationalist Party apologized for its part in contesting Cassar's right to marry.
Transgendered persons in Malta who have undergone irreversible gender reassignment surgery may change the sex recorded in official documentation such as identity cards, birth certificates and passports.
In April 2014, Malta became the first European state to add recognition of gender identity to its constitution as a protected category.
Recognition of same-sex relationships
Following a campaign promise during the 2013 elections the Minister for Social Dialogue, Consumer Affairs, and Civil Liberties of the newly elected Labour government announced that the government was entering consultations for a bill granting civil unions to same-sex couples, with the bill presented in Parliament on September 30, 2013.
The Civil Unions Bill, which gives LGBT couples rights equivalent to marriage, including the legal right to adopt children jointly, under the legal name civil union rather than marriage, was debated in October 2013 and approved at the third reading on 14 April 2014. President Marie Louise Coleiro Preca signed it into law on 16 April and it takes effect once a legal notice is published.
In June 2012, a poll commissioned by MaltaToday news website found support for same-sex marriage at a record high, with 41% of the population in favor of same-sex marriage and 52% against it. That contrasted with a 2006 poll that found that 18% of the population supported it. The 2012 data also showed a generational gap, with only 23% of people older than 55 supporting the legalization of same-sex marriage while 60% of those aged 18–35 did so.
Adoption, Surrogacy and IVF
Surrogacy is illegal regardless and IVF access for single women and lesbians is illegal under the Embryo Protection Act 2012
On 14 April 2014, the Parliament of Malta unanimously approved a bill which amends the Constitution to add protection from discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identity. It was signed by the President on 17 April 2014.
In July 2007, Malta's Union of Teachers threatened to publish the details of four attempts to oust gay and lesbian teachers from Roman Catholic school posts. According to the union, Church schools were under pressure from parents to fire the teachers, leading to four interventions in the past five years.
|Same-sex sexual activity legal||(Since 1973)|
|Equal age of consent||(Since 1973)|
|Anti-discrimination laws in employment||(Since 2004)|
|Anti-discrimination laws in the provision of goods and services||(Since 2012)|
|Anti-discrimination laws in all other areas (incl. indirect discrimination, hate speech)||(Since 2012)|
|Recognition of same-sex couples (e.g. civil unions)||(Since 2014)|
|Adoption by single LGBT person||(Since 2008)|
|Step-child adoption by same-sex couples||(Since 2014)|
|Joint adoption by same-sex couples||(Since 2014)|
|Gays and lesbians allowed to serve openly in the military|
|Right to change legal gender|
|Access to surrogacy for gay male couples and IVF access for lesbians|||
|MSMs allowed to donate blood|
- "Maltese President Meets with ILGA-Europe (Baltimore Gay Life - Maryland's LGBT Community Newspaper)". Baltimore Gay Life. 12 November 2009. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
- "maltastar.com". maltastar.com. 6 August 2010. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
- "Dr Inġ. Patrick Attard: Library on Gay-Rights in Malta and Beyond: Leħen is-Sewwa 1973: Ittra Pastorali kontra d-Dekriminilazzjoni ta' l-Omosesswalità". Patrickattard.blogspot.com. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
- "Malta". Age of Consent. 20 August 1998. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
- "Malta transsexual given permission to marry". Pink News. 16 February 2007. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
- "Joanne Cassar loses transsexual marriage case". Times of Malta. 23 May 2011. Retrieved 16 April 2014.
- Borg, Annaliza (16 April 2013). "Settlement between Joanne Cassar and government signed". Malta Independent. Retrieved 16 April 2014.
- Balzan, Jurgen (10 June 2013). "De Marco says PN government let transgender persons down". Malta Today. Retrieved 16 April 2014.
- "The Status Of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual And Transgender Rights In Malta" (PDF). Retrieved 20 January 2011.
- Dalli, Miriam (16 April 2014). "Transgender Europe applauds Malta for naming gender identity". Malta Today. Retrieved 16 April 2014.
- "Parliament meets today - Bill on Civil Unions tops agenda". Timesof Malta. 30 September 2013. Retrieved 23 April 2014.
- "Civil Unions law will give same sex couples same rights, duties, as married couples". timesofmalta.com. 14 October 2013. Retrieved 3 April 2014.
- Camilleri, Neil (17 April 2014). "President signs 'gay marriage' Bill". Malta Independent. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- Vella, Matthew (5 June 2012). "Heartening change in attitudes to put gay unions on political agenda". MaltaToday. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
- "EUROBAROMETER 66 FIRST RESULTS". TNS. European Commission. December 2006. p. 80. Retrieved 6 August 2014.
- Calleja, Claudia (16 January 2013). "Consensus over gay adoption welcomed". Times of Malta. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
- White, Hilary (31 March 2014). "Maltese president refuses to sign bill allowing gay civil unions and expanding gay adoption". Life Site News. Retrieved 15 April 2014.
- Malta's gay group ask for equal rights, Pink News, 21 February 2008
- AN ACT to amend the Equality for Men and Women Act, Cap. 456
- AN ACT to amend the Criminal Code, Cap. 9
- Malta: Gender identity and sexual orientation included in hate crime laws
- Gay rights movement welcomes passing of hate crimes amendments
- Bill No. 18 - Constitution of Malta (Amendment) Bill
- AN ACT to amend the Constitution of Malta
- MUT stops Church from firing gay teachers
- Malta teachers take on Roman Catholic homophobia
- Grech, Joseph (14 January 2013). "Party in the sun on Malta". Gay Star News. Retrieved 23 August 2014.