LGBT rights in the United Kingdom
|LGBT rights in the United Kingdom|
|Same-sex sexual activity legal?||Legal since 1967 (England and Wales); 1981 (Scotland); 1982 (Northern Ireland)
Age of consent equalised in 2001 (nationwide)
|Gender identity/expression||Right to change legal gender since 2005|
|Military service||No discrimination based on gender identity or sexual orientation allowed since 2010 to and allowed to serve openly since 2000. Military conducted same-sex civil unions since 2005.|
|Discrimination protections||All protections since 2010; some have existed since 2003 for sexual orientation and 1999 for gender identity|
|Civil partnerships since 2005
Legislation for same-sex marriage is pending (Great Britain only, not Northern Ireland)
|Civil partnerships are forbidden in many religious venues and neither adultery nor non-consummation are grounds for dissolution of a civil partnership.
Same-sex marriages conducted outside of the UK are recognised as civil partnerships inside
|Adoption||Joint and stepchild adoption since 2005 (England and Wales); 2009 (Scotland)
Only a single LGBT person can adopt in Northern Ireland
Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) rights in the United Kingdom have evolved dramatically over time. Today, LGBT citizens have most of the same legal rights as non-LGBT citizens and the UK provides one of the highest degrees of liberty in the world for its LGBT communities, though some legal rights vary by jurisdiction in the four countries of the UK. At the time of the formation of the UK, Christianity and homosexuality clashed and any sexual activities that did not result in procreation were characterised as sinful. This was reflected in the Buggery Act legislation of the time, where same-sex activity was outlawed and punishable by death. Any other LGBT rights were non-existent. Between the middle to late 20th century, same-sex sexual activity was decriminalised all over the UK.
Since the turn of the 21st century, LGBT rights have increasingly strengthened in support. Some discrimination protections had existed since 1999 and were extended to all areas under the Equality Act 2010. In 2000, Her Majesty's Armed Forces allowed LGBT individuals to serve openly. The age of consent was equalised, regardless of sexual orientation, in 2001. Transgender people have had the right to change their legal gender since 2005. The same year, same-sex couples were granted the right to enter into a civil partnership, a similar legal structure to marriage, and also to adopt in England and Wales; Scotland followed in 2009. Same-sex marriage is intended to be introduced in Great Britain by 2015, but will remain illegal in Northern Ireland where unequal adoption rights for same-sex couples also exist. In May 2013, ILGA-Europe's annual review of LGBTI rights gave the UK the highest score in Europe, with 77% progress toward "respect of human rights and full equality."
An Integrated Household Survey estimated 1.5% people in Britain identify themselves as gay, lesbian or bisexual – far lower than previous estimates of 5–7%. Interpreting the statistics, an ONS spokeswoman said, "Someone may engage in sexual behaviour with someone of the same sex but still not perceive themselves as gay." There are many LGBT rights organisations and very large LGBT communities across the UK, most notably in Birmingham, Blackpool, Brighton, Leeds, Liverpool, London and Manchester, who all host annual pride parades.
Same-sex sexual activity
Homosexuality as an offence
Years before the formation of the United Kingdom in 1707, English law identified anal sex and zoophilia as offences punishable by hanging as a result of the Buggery Act 1533, which was pioneered by Henry VIII. The Act was the country's first civil sodomy law; such offences having previously been dealt with by the ecclesiastical courts. Whilst it was repealed in 1553 on the accession of Mary I, Elizabeth I re-enacted it in 1563.
Although section 61 of the Offences against the Person Act 1861 removed the death penalty for homosexuality, male homosexual acts still remained illegal and were punishable by imprisonment. The Labouchere Amendment, section 11 of the Criminal Law Amendment Act 1885, extended the laws regarding homosexuality to include any kind of sexual activity between males. Oscar Wilde was convicted under this law and sentenced to 2 years of penal labour. Conversely, lesbians were never acknowledged or targeted by legislation.
In the early 1950s, the police actively enforced laws prohibiting sexual behaviour between men. This policy led to a number of high-profile arrests and trials. One of those involved scientist, mathematician, and war-time code-breaker Alan Turing (1912–1954), convicted in 1952 of "gross indecency." He accepted treatment with female hormones (chemical castration) as an alternative to prison. Turing committed suicide in 1954. In 2009, Prime Minister Gordon Brown, in response to a petition, issued an apology on behalf of the British government for "the appalling way he was treated." In 1953, the trial and eventual imprisonment of Edward Montagu (the 3rd Baron Montagu of Beaulieu), Michael Pitt-Rivers and Peter Wildeblood for committing acts of homosexual indecency caused uproar and led to the establishment of a committee to examine and report on the law covering homosexual offences by appointed by Sir David Maxwell Fyfe and Sir Hugh Lucas-Tooth.
The Wolfenden Committee was set up on 24 August 1954 to consider British law relating to homosexual offences and the Report of the Departmental Committee on Homosexual Offences and Prostitution (better known as the Wolfenden report) was published on 3 September 1957 and recommended that "homosexual behaviour between consenting adults in private should no longer be a criminal offence", finding that "homosexuality cannot legitimately be regarded as a disease, because in many cases it is the only symptom and is compatible with full mental health in other respects."
In October 1957, the Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr. Geoffrey Fisher, spoke in support of the Wolfenden Report, saying that "There is a sacred realm of privacy... into which the law, generally speaking, must not intrude. This is a principle of the utmost importance for the preservation of human freedom, self-respect, and responsibility." The first parliamentary debate on the Wolfenden Report was initiated on 4 December 1957 by Lord Pakenham. Of the seventeen peers who spoke in the debate, eight broadly supported the recommendations in the Wolfenden Report. Maxwell Fyfe, now ennobled as Lord Kilmuir and serving as Lord Chancellor, speaking for the government, doubted that there would be much public support for implementing the recommendations and stated that further research was required. The Homosexual Law Reform Society was founded on 12 May 1958, mainly to campaign for the implementation of the Wolfenden Committee's recommendations.
Decriminalisation of homosexual acts
In 1965, in the House of Lords, Lord Arran proposed the decriminalisation of male homosexual acts (lesbian acts had never been illegal). In 1966 Humphry Berkeley made a similar proposal in the House of Commons; he ascribed his defeat in the 1966 general election to the unpopularity of this action. However, in the new Parliament, Labour MP Leo Abse took up the issue and a Bill progressed.
After almost ten years of campaigning, the Sexual Offences Bill was put before parliament in 1967 in order to implement some of the Wolfenden Committee's recommendations. Lord Arran, a sponsor of the Bill, made the following remarks at the third reading in the Lords:
Because of the Bill now to be enacted, perhaps a million human beings will be able to live in greater peace. I find this an awesome and marvellous thing. The late Oscar Wilde, on his release from Reading Gaol, wrote to a friend:My Lords, Mr. Wilde was right: the road has been long and the martyrdoms many, monstrous and bloody. Today, please God! sees the end of that road. I ask one thing and I ask it earnestly. I ask those who have, as it were, been in bondage and for whom the prison doors are now open to show their thanks by comporting themselves quietly and with dignity. This is no occasion for jubilation; certainly not for celebration. Any form of ostentatious behaviour; now or in the future any form of public flaunting, would be utterly distasteful and would, I believe, make the sponsors of the Bill regret that they have done what they have done. Homosexuals must continue to remember that while there may be nothing bad in being a homosexual, there is certainly nothing good. Lest the opponents of the Bill think that a new freedom, a new privileged class, has been created, let me remind them that no amount of legislation will prevent homosexuals from being the subject of dislike and derision, or at best of pity. We shall always, I fear, resent the odd man out. That is their burden for all time, and they must shoulder it like men—for men they are.Yes, we shall win in the end; but the road will be long and red with monstrous martyrdoms.—Lord Arran
The Sexual Offences Act 1967 was accordingly passed. It maintained the general prohibitions on buggery and indecency between men, but provided for a limited decriminalisation of homosexual acts where three conditions were fulfilled. Those conditions were that the act had to be consensual, take place in private and involve only people that had attained the age of 21. This was a higher age of consent than that for heterosexual acts, which was set at 16. Further, "in private" limited participation in an act to two people. This condition was interpreted strictly by the courts, which took it to exclude acts taking place in a room in a hotel, for example, and in private homes where a third person was present (even if that person was in a different room).
The 1967 Act extended only to England and Wales. Organisations such as the Campaign for Homosexual Equality and the Gay Liberation Front therefore continued to campaign for the goal of full equality in Scotland and Northern Ireland where all homosexual behaviour remained illegal. Homosexual activities were legalised in Scotland on the same basis as in the 1967 Act, by section 80 of the Criminal Justice (Scotland) Act 1980, which came into force on 1 February 1981. An analogous amendment was also made to the law of Northern Ireland, following the determination of a case by the European Court of Human Rights (see Dudgeon v. United Kingdom); the relevant legislation was an Order in Council, the Homosexual Offences (Northern Ireland) Order 1982, which came into force on 8 December 1982.
An equal age of consent
In 1979, the Home Office Policy Advisory Committee's Working Party report, Age of Consent in Relation to Sexual Offences, recommended that the age of consent for homosexual activities should be reduced to 18, but no such legislation was enacted as a result.
In February 1994 Parliament considered reform of the law on rape and other sexual offences during the passage of the Criminal Justice and Public Order Bill. On 21 February, Conservative MP Edwina Currie tabled an amendment to equalise the age of consent at 16. Many Labour MPs supported the amendment, including Tony Blair, who said:
People are entitled to think that homosexuality is wrong, but they are not entitled to use the criminal law to force that view upon others... A society that has learned, over time, racial and sexual equality can surely come to terms with equality of sexuality.—Tony Blair
Edwina Currie's amendment was defeated by 307 votes to 280. Those who voted for it included John Smith, Neil Kinnock, Paddy Ashdown and William Hague. Those voting against included David Blunkett and Ann Taylor. There were angry scenes outside the Palace of Westminster at the defeat of the amendment, when those involved in a demonstration organised by the group OutRage! clashed with police.
This vote was followed immediately by one on Sir Anthony Durant's amendment to lower the age of consent to 18. This amendment was passed by 427 votes to 162, and supporters included Michael Howard and John Major. It was opposed by such MPs as John Redwood, Michael Heseltine and John Gummer. An amendment tabled by Simon Hughes which was intended to equalise the age of consent for homosexuals and heterosexuals at 17 was not voted upon. The Bill as a whole was given a second reading in the Lords by 290 votes to 247. Lord Longford then sought to reintroduce 21 as the minimum age in the Lords, but this was defeated by 176 votes to 113. An amendment by the deputy Labour leader in the House of Lords, Lord MacIntosh of Haringey, that would have equalised the age of consent at 16, was rejected by 245 votes to 71.
In its decision of 1 July 1997 in the case of Sutherland v. United Kingdom, the European Commission of Human Rights found that Articles 8 and 14 of the European Convention on Human Rights were violated by a discriminatory age of consent, on the ground that there was no objective and reasonable justification for maintaining a higher minimum age for male homosexual acts. On 13 October 1997 the Government submitted to the European Court of Human Rights that it would in the summer of 1998 propose a Bill to Parliament for a reduction of the age of consent for homosexual acts from 18 to 16.
On 22 June 1998, the Crime and Disorder Bill was put before Parliament. Ann Keen proposed amendments to lower the age of consent to 16. The House of Commons accepted these provisions with a majority of 207, but they were rejected by the House of Lords with a majority of 168. Subsequently, the Sexual Offences (Amendment) Bill was introduced on 16 December 1998 and, again, the equalisation of the age of consent was endorsed on 25 January 1999 by the House of Commons, but was rejected on 14 April 1999 by the House of Lords.
Those campaigning against the amendment said they were simply acting to protect children. Baroness Young, the leader of the campaign against the amendment, said, "Homosexual practices carry great health risks to young people".
The Government reintroduced the Bill in 1999. With the prospect of it being passed by the Commons in two successive sessions of Parliament, the Parliament Acts 1911 and 1949 were available to enact the Bill should the Lords have rejected it a third time. The Lords passed the Bill at Second Reading, but made an amendment during committee stage to maintain the age of consent for buggery at 18 for both sexes. However, as the Bill had not completed its passage through the Lords at the end of the Parliamentary session on 30 November 2000, the Speaker of the House of Commons Michael Martin certified that the procedure specified by the Parliament Acts had been complied with. The Bill received Royal Assent a few hours later, and was enacted as the Sexual Offences (Amendment) Act 2000. The provisions of the Act came into force throughout the United Kingdom on 8 January 2001, lowering the age of consent to 16. This Act also introduced, for the first time, an age of consent for lesbian sexual acts, as previously there had been no legislation concerning this.
On 1 May 2004 the Sexual Offences Act 2003 entered into force. It swept away all of the previous sex-specific legislation, including the 1967 Act, and introduced instead neutral offences. Thus the previous conditions relating to privacy were removed, and sexual acts were viewed by the law without regard to the sex of the participants.
There was no legal recognition of same-sex relationships in the UK until 2005, following the legalisation of civil partnerships under the passage of the Civil Partnership Act on 18 November 2004. Civil partnerships are a separate union which (without being classified as marriage) provide the legal consequences of marriage. The first civil partnership ceremony took place at 11:00 (GMT) on 5 December 2005 between Matthew Roche and Christopher Cramp at St Barnabas Hospice, Worthing, West Sussex. The usual 14 day waiting period was waived as Roche was suffering from a terminal illness. He died the next day. The first civil partnership ceremonies after the statutory waiting period then took place in Northern Ireland on 19 December, with ceremonies following the next day in Scotland and the day after that in England and Wales.
Same-sex marriage in the United Kingdom has been the subject of much debate over the past decade, but is intended to be introduced in Great Britain by 2015. There was public consultation on whether to allow both civil and religious marriage for same-sex couples in England and Wales in 2011. Proposed legislation was brought forward for England and Wales in 2012 and the Marriage (Same Sex Couples) Bill received its first reading on 24 January 2013. On 21 May 2013, the House of Commons debated the bill as amended in the Report Stage, and approved it on third reading in a 366–161 vote. On 4 June 2013, the bill passed its second reading in the House of Lords and proceeded to a final committee review, following a 2 day debate of a motion intended as a "wrecking amendment" that was ultimately rejected 390 votes to 148. Very similar legislation for same-sex marriage underwent public consultation in Scotland between 2012 and 2013; its Bill is expected to be introduced in June 2013. Both require further legislative procedure, but could see civil and religious same-sex marriage (with some restrictions, see below) legal in all three countries of Great Britain by 2015. However, the Northern Ireland Assembly voted against same-sex marriage legislation in April 2013.
Adoption and family planning
In the Adoption and Children Act 2002 Parliament provided that an application to adopt a child in England and Wales could be made by either a single person or a couple. The previous condition that the couple be married was dropped, thus allowing a same-sex couple to apply. The Lords rejected the proposal on one occasion before it was passed. Supporters of the move in Parliament stressed that adoption was not a "gay rights" issue but one of providing as many children as possible with a stable family environment rather than seeing them kept in care. Opponents raised doubts over the stability of relationships outside marriage, and how instability would impact on the welfare of adopted children. Similar legislation was adopted in Scotland which came into effect on 28 September 2009.
The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 2008 was given Royal Assent on 13 November 2008. The legislation allows for lesbians and their partners (both civil and de facto) equal access to legal presumptions of parentage in cases of in vitro fertilisation ("IVF") or assisted/self insemination (other than at home) from the moment the child is born. Since the law also allows both partners to be identified on the child's birth certificate by the words "parent".  The law came into force from 6 April 2009 and is not retroactive (it does not apply before that date). Parental orders for gay men and their partners since 6 April 2010 have been available for surrogacy arrangements.
Since 31 August 2009, legislation granting lesbians equal birth rights in England and Wales came into effect, meaning both can now be named on a child's birth certificate, amending the Registration of Births and Deaths Regulations 1987. The legislation was criticised by those who believe it was "damaging the traditional notion of a family". Stonewall Head of Policy and Research Ruth Hunt said the new law makes life easier for lesbian families and stated "Now lesbian couples in the UK who make a considered decision to start a loving family will finally be afforded equal access to services they help fund as taxpayers". The United Kingdom's Home Office minister, Lord Brett was full of praise in his comments:
This positive change means that, for the first time, female couples who have a child using fertility treatment have the same rights as their heterosexual counterparts to be shown as parents in the birth registration. It is vital that we afford equality wherever we can in society, especially as family circumstances continue to change. This is an important step forward in that process.
LGBT people have been allowed to serve openly in the Her Majesty's Armed Forces since 2000, and discrimination on both a sexual orientation and gender identity basis is forbidden. It is also forbidden for someone to pressure LGBT people to come out. All personnel are subject to the same rules against intolerance, bullying and sexual harassment, regardless of gender identity or sexual orientation. The British military also recognise civil partnerships and grants same-sex couples the same rights to allowances and housing as opposite-sex couples.
The British military actively recruits LGBT people and have deployed recruiting teams to many Pride events: the Royal Navy advertises for recruits in gay magazines and has allowed gay sailors to hold civil partnership ceremonies on board ships and, since 2006, to march in full naval uniform at gay pride marches; British Army and Royal Air Force personnel could march but had to wear civilian clothes until 2008, now all military personnel are permitted to attend such marches in uniform.
The current policy was accepted at the lower ranks first, with many senior officers worrying for their troops without a modern acceptance of homosexuality that their personnel had grown up with. One Brigadier resigned but with little impact. Since the change support at the senior level has grown. General Sir Richard Dannatt, the Chief of the General Staff (head of the Army), told members of the Army-sponsored Fourth Joint Conference on LGBT Matters that homosexuals were welcome to serve in the Army. In a speech to the conference in 2008, the first of its kind by any Army chief, General Sir Richard said that respect for LGBT officers and soldiers was now "a command responsibility" and was vital for "operational effectiveness."
The British Army requires all soldiers to undergo Equality and Diversity training as part of their Military Annual Training Tests and stress tolerance, specifically citing homosexual examples in training videos, in line with the British Army Core Values and Standards, including "Respect for Others" and "Appropriate Behaviour." It considers its Core Values and standards as central to being a professional soldier.
In 2009, on the tenth anniversary of the change of law that permitted homosexuality in the Armed Forces, newspapers reported that the lifting of the ban had no perceivable impact on the operational effectiveness on the military. The anniversary was widely celebrated, including in the Army's in house publication Soldier Magazine, with a series of articles including the July 2009 cover story and newspapers articles.
In December 2002, the British Lord Chancellor's office published a Government Policy Concerning Transsexual People document that categorically states "What transsexualism is not...It is not a mental illness." Since 4 April 2005, as per the Gender Recognition Act 2004, it is possible to change one's legal gender in the United Kingdom. There is also formal approval of medical gender reassignment available either on the National Health Service (NHS) or privately.
Some discrimination protections on gender identity had existed since 1999. Regulations were introduced for discrimination protections on sexual orientation in employment on 1 December 2003, following the adoption of an EC Directive in 2000, providing for the prohibition of discrimination in employment on the grounds of sexual orientation.
On 30 April 2007, the Sexual Orientation Regulations came into force, following the introduction of similar provisions in Northern Ireland in 2006. They provided a general prohibition of discrimination in the provision of goods and services on the grounds of sexual orientation. Similar legislation had long previously been in force in respect of discrimination on the grounds of sex, race, disability and marital status. The introduction of the Regulations was controversial and a dispute arose between the Government and the Roman Catholic Church in England and Wales over exemptions for Catholic adoption agencies. Archbishop Vincent Nichols of Birmingham declared his opposition to the Act, saying that the legislation contradicted the Catholic Church's moral values. Several Catholic adoption agencies requested exemption from sexual orientation regulations, and the adoption charity Catholic Care obtained a judgement on 17 March 2010 instructing the Charity Commission to reconsider its case. The Charity Commission again found no grounds to make an exception for Catholic Care, a decision upheld on appeal. In August 2011 the Upper Tribunal agreed to hear the charity's fourth appeal in the case. In November 2012, the appeal was dismissed by the Upper Tribunal, with the Tribunal ruling in favour of the Charity Commission. Catholic Care stated its intention to appeal the judgement.
In October 2007, the Government announced that it would seek to introduce an amendment to the Criminal Justice and Immigration Bill to create a new offence of incitement to hatred on the grounds of sexual orientation. This followed the creation of an offence on religious hatred that had proved controversial in 2006 (see Racial and Religious Hatred Act 2006). Incitement to hatred on the grounds of sexual orientation was already illegal in Northern Ireland.
The Equality Act 2010 received Royal Assent on 8 April 2010. The primary purpose of the Act was to codify the complicated and numerous array of Acts and Regulations, which formed the basis of anti-discrimination law in the United Kingdom including the Equal Pay Act 1970, the Sex Discrimination Act 1975, the Race Relations Act 1976, the Disability Discrimination Act 1995 and three major statutory instruments protecting discrimination in employment on grounds of religion or belief, sexual orientation and age. This legislation has the same goals as the US Civil Rights Act 1964 and four major EU Equal Treatment Directives, whose provisions it mirrors and implements. It requires equal treatment in access to employment as well as private and public services, regardless of gender, race, disability, sexual orientation, transgender status, belief and age. The Act amended the Approved Premises (Marriage and Civil Partnership) Regulations 2005 to allow civil partnership ceremonies on religious premises in England and Wales. It also extended trans rights, banning discrimination by schools on the grounds of gender reassignment
Other initiatives have included the establishment of the Commission for Equality and Human Rights on 1 October 2007 which is tasked with working for equality in all areas and replaced the previous commissions dedicated to sex, race and disability alone; the setting up of the Sexual Orientation and Gender Advisory Group within the Department of Health; a provision of the Criminal Justice Act 2003 that a court must treat hostility based on sexual orientation as an aggravating factor for sentencing a person; guidance from the Crown Prosecution Service on dealing with homophobic crime; and a commitment from the Government to work for LGBT rights at an international level.
The 1980s saw a setback for LGBT rights. The availability in the libraries of schools run by the Inner London Education Authority of a book considered by some to 'promote' homosexuality led to protests and a campaign for new legislation. Consequently, in 1988, the Local Government Act included a provision prohibiting "the intentional promotion of homosexuality" by any local authority and "the teaching in any maintained school of the acceptability of homosexuality as a pretended family relationship". The provision was known as Section 28, and amended section 2A of the earlier Local Government Act of 1986. Changes in the structure of local government since that date led to some confusion over the precise circumstances in which the new law applied, including the question of whether or not it applied at all in state schools. Section 28 was repealed by the Labour government in November 2003. In June 2009, David Cameron then leader of the Conservative Party, formally apologised for his party introducing the law, stating that it was a mistake and had been offensive to gay people.
Section 28 (called Section 2A in Scotland) was repealed in Scotland within the first two years of the existence of the Scottish Parliament, by the Ethical Standards in Public Life etc. (Scotland) Act 2000. A move to remove the provision in England and Wales was prevented following opposition in the House of Lords, again led by the Baroness Young. Following her death in 2002 it was finally repealed in a new Local Government Act, which took effect on 18 November 2003. During the passage of the Bill no attempt was made to retain the section, and an amendment seeking to preserve it using ballots was defeated in the House of Lords. This showed that a significant shift had taken place in the consideration of LGBT issues.
LGBT rights movement
The Homosexual Law Reform Society, founded on 12 May 1958, in response to the findings of the Wolfenden Report was one of the first LGBT groups in the UK. Now Stonewall exists as the largest LGB equality organisation not only in the UK but also in Europe.
LGBT people have been serving openly in politics since the 1970s. The first openly lesbian MP was Maureen Colquhoun (Labour Party, MP 1974-79), who was outed in 1976. LGBT people are also allowed to serve openly in police and, in 1990, the Lesbian and Gay Police Association (LAGPA), now the Gay Police Association (GPA), was founded.
Many gay pride festivals are hosted in the UK every year. The first gay marches were in London in 1970, followed by the debut of the UK Gay Pride Rally there in 1972. Pride London is the biggest and oldest festival, and has been organised annually since. Pride festivals are also very popular summer events in Birmingham, Blackpool, Brighton, Leeds, Liverpool and Manchester, where there are large LGBT communities, and local pride events are hosted in smaller communities.
An illustration of social attitudes towards homosexuality in the United Kingdom was provided in May 2007 in a survey by YouGov. The poll indicated that legislation outlawing discrimination on the grounds of sexual orientation was supported by 90% of British subjects. It also showed positive public perceptions of gay people in particular, but recognised the extent to which prejudice still exists. A poll in June 2009 conducted by Populus for The Times reported that the majority of the public supports same-sex marriage; 61% of respondents agreed that "Gay couples should have an equal right to get married, not just to have civil partnerships".
Controversy over conversion therapy
Peel, Clarke and Drescher wrote in 2007 that only one organisation in the United Kingdom could be identified with conversion therapy, a religious organisation called The Freedom Trust (part of Exodus International): "whereas a number of organisations in the US (both religious and scientific/psychological) promote conversion therapy, there is only one in the UK of which we are aware". The paper reported that practitioners who did provide these sorts of treatments between the 1950s and 1970s now view homosexuality as healthy, and the evidence suggests that 'conversion therapy' is a historical rather than a contemporary phenomenon in the United Kingdom, where treatment for homosexuality has always been less common than in the USA.
In 2007, the Royal College of Psychiatrists, the main professional organization of psychiatrists in the United Kingdom, issued a report stating that: "Evidence shows that LGB people are open to seeking help for mental health problems. However, they may be misunderstood by therapists who regard their homosexuality as the root cause of any presenting problem such as depression or anxiety. Unfortunately, therapists who behave in this way are likely to cause considerable distress. A small minority of therapists will even go so far as to attempt to change their client's sexual orientation. This can be deeply damaging. Although there are now a number of therapists and organisation in the USA and in the UK that claim that therapy can help homosexuals to become heterosexual, there is no evidence that such change is possible."
In 2008, the Royal College of Psychiatrists stated: "The Royal College shares the concern of both the American Psychiatric Association and the American Psychological Association that positions espoused by bodies like the National Association for Research and Therapy of Homosexuality (NARTH) in the United States are not supported by science. There is no sound scientific evidence that sexual orientation can be changed. Furthermore so-called treatments of homosexuality as recommended by NARTH create a setting in which prejudice and discrimination can flourish."
In 2009, a research survey into mental health practitioners in the United Kingdom concluded "A significant minority of mental health professionals are attempting to help lesbian, gay and bisexual clients to become heterosexual. Given lack of evidence for the efficacy of such treatments, this is likely to be unwise or even harmful." Scientific American reported on this: "One in 25 British psychiatrists and psychologists say they would be willing to help homosexual and bisexual patients try to convert to heterosexuality, even though there is no compelling scientific evidence a person can willfully become straight", and explained that 17% of those surveyed said they had tried to help reduce or suppress homosexual feelings, and 4% said they would try to help homosexual people convert to heterosexuality in the future.
Please note: when a jurisdiction is not specified, the right applies to the whole of the UK.
|Same-sex sexual activity|
|Same-sex sexual acts legal||Since 1967 (England and Wales)
Since 1981 (Scotland)
Since 1982 (Northern Ireland)
|Homosexuality declassified as an illness||Since 1968|
|Equal age of consent for same-sex and opposite-sex sexual acts||Since 2001|
|Civil partnerships for same-sex couples||Since 2005[note 1]|
|Civil partnerships in places of worship||Since 2011 (England and Wales)
Illegal (Northern Ireland)
|Civil and religious same-sex marriage||Pending (England and Wales)[note 2]
Illegal (Northern Ireland)
|Adoption and family planning|
|Joint- and step-adoption for LGBT persons and same-sex couples||Since 2005 (England and Wales)
Since 2009 (Scotland)
Only a single LGBT person can adopt in Northern Ireland
|Equal access to IVF for all couples and individuals||Since 2009|
|Same-sex couples as both parents on a birth certificate||Since 2009|
|Equal access to surrogacy for all couples and individuals||Since 2010|
|Commercial surrogacy for gay male couples||Illegal for heterosexual couples also|
|LGBT people allowed to serve openly in military||Since 2000|
|Transsexualism declassified as an illness||Since 2002|
|Right to change legal gender||Since 2005|
|Right to change legal gender without having to end marriage or civil partnership||Pending (England and Wales)[note 3]
Illegal (Northern Ireland)
|Laws against hate speech based on sexual orientation and gender identity||Since 2008 for sexual orientation only (England and Wales)
No laws exist (Scotland and Northern Ireland)
|Laws against inciting hatred on sexual orientation and gender identity through an aggravating circumstance||Since 2004 for sexual orientation only (Northern Ireland)
Since 2008 for sexual orientation only (England and Wales)
Since 2010 for sexual orientation and gender identity (Scotland)
|Anti-discrimination laws in all areas on sexual orientation and gender identity (including harassment, victimisation, direct and indirect discrimination)||Since 2010, though some protection has existed since 2003 for sexual orientation and 1999 for gender identity|
|LGBT sex education and relationships taught in schools||Personal, Social and Health Education (PSHE), which includes sex and relationships, is not compulsory
Schools in England must comply with the Equality Act's Public Sector Equality Duty (2012) which includes LGBT equality
Ofsted assesses the inclusion of LGBT people in policies and the curriculum
|MSMs allowed to donate blood||Since 2011, subject to 1 year deferral from sexual activities (Great Britain)
Not available (Northern Ireland)
|Immigration equality and rights for LGBT individuals and same-sex couples||Since 2006|
|Recognition of sexual orientation and gender identity for asylum requests||Guidelines not applied consistently
Some cases recognised since 1999 including that of HJ and HT v Home Secretary
Plans for guidance on asylum claims brought on by sexual orientation but not gender identity
Civil partnerships in the UK are almost identical to the rights given to marriage between heterosexual couples, but there are recognition issues in other countries and with the use of courtesy titles. Civil partnerships cannot include religious readings, music or symbols and are forbidden in many religious venues across the UK. Adultery and non-consummation are also not grounds for the dissolution of a civil partnership.
See Civil Partnership Act 2004 and Civil partnership in the United Kingdom
Same-sex marriages in England and Wales will be almost identical to marriage between heterosexual couples but, like civil partnerships, same-sex marriages will be forbidden in many religious venues across the UK and adultery and non-consummation will not be grounds for divorce.
See Marriage (Same-Sex Couples) Bill and Same-sex marriage in the United Kingdom
Existing marriages will continue where one or both parties change their legal gender and both parties wish to remain married. Civil partnerships will continue where only both parties change their gender simultaneously and wish to remain in their civil partnership.
See Marriage (Same-Sex Couples) Bill and Same-sex marriage in the United Kingdom
- Timeline of LGBT history in Britain
- Hall–Carpenter Archives
- Gay Rights Working Party—1980s work in London to combat discrimination and police abuse
- History of violence against LGBT people in the United Kingdom
- Human rights in the United Kingdom
- LGBT rights by country or territory
- LGBT rights in Scotland
- Sexual orientation and military service
- Stonewall (charity)
- LGBT Network
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- "Same-sex marriage law bid fails". Belfast Telegraph. Retrieved 29 April 2013.
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- Stephenson, Wesley (4 October 2010). "In the closet or not?". BBC News Magazine (BBC). Retrieved 5 October 2010.
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- "The Homosexual Offences (Northern Ireland) Order 1982 (No. 1536 (N.I. 19))". The UK Statute Law Database. Office of Public Sector Information. 27 October 1982. Retrieved 2 January 2010.
- Blair, Tony (1996). New Britain: my vision of a young country. Fourth Estate. p. 188. ISBN 978-1-85702-436-4.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: LGBT in the United Kingdom|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: LGBT history in the United Kingdom|
- LGBT History Month United Kingdom website
- GLBTQ website article on the history of LGBT life in the United Kingdom from the Middle Ages to the Nineteenth Century.
- GLBTQ website article on the history of LGBT life in the United Kingdom from 1900 to the present.
- Comprehensive UK and International LGBT news website
- (UK) LGBT History Project's Wiki