LGBT rights in the Commonwealth of Nations

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

The majority of the countries of the Commonwealth of Nations, formerly known as the British Commonwealth, still criminalize sexual acts between consenting adults of the same sex and other forms of sexual orientation, gender identity and expression. This has been described as being the result of "the major historical influence" or legacy of the British Empire. In most cases, it was former colonial administrators that established anti-gay legislation or sodomy acts during the 19th century. The majority of countries then retained these laws following independence.[1][2]

Recent Developments[edit]

In July 2011 it was reported that the Commonwealth Secretary General, Kamalesh Sharma had spoken out against discrimination towards people who were gay or lesbian while on a visit to Australia, arguing that “vilification and targeting on grounds of sexual orientation are at odds with the values of the Commonwealth”. This was the first time that such a figure had spoken publicly on the issue.[3] Sharma re-emphasised the point in his keynote speech at the opening ceremoney of the Commonwealth Heads of Government meeting, "We recall the 2009 Affirmation of Commonwealth Values and Principles, which includes a clear commitment to tolerance, respect and understanding...Discrimination and criminalisation on grounds of sexual orientation is at odds with our values and I have had occasion to refer to this in the context of our law-related conferences”.[4]

An organisation has been established in London in 2011, called The Kaleidoscope Trust, to lobby Britain's politicians so that ministers discuss LGBT issues whenever they host their foreign counterparts. It specifically aims to revoke anti-gay laws within the Commonwealth, using business and political pressure. The singers Elton John and George Michael have offered support, with Elton John attending the launch.[5]

The British Prime Minister, David Cameron indicated his support. "It's simply appalling how people can be treated — how their rights are trampled on and the prejudices and even the violence they suffer," he said. "I want Britain to be a global beacon for reform".[6] The British Minister for International Development, Andrew Mitchell indicated in October that the UK would withhold aid from countries that had a poor human rights record in relation its homosexual citizens, "In a number of countries in Africa that discrimination against homosexuality has concerned us".[7] Malawi subsequently had £19 million of budget support suspended by the UK following various infractions including poor progress on human rights and media freedoms and concern over the government's approach to gay rights.[8] This was later reinforced by David Cameron who emphasises that those receiving UK aid should "adhere to proper human rights".[9]

The British human rights campaigner Peter Tatchell and the South Australian Labor MLC Ian Hunter called for LGBT rights to be put on the agenda of the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM), to be held in Perth at the end of October.[10] "CHOGM has never even discussed — let alone declared its support for — LGBT equality and human rights. It is long overdue that CHOGM addressed this humanitarian issue, which it has neglected for far too long.” This found further support when the Perth Member of the Legislative Assembly, John Hyde, called on Premier Colin Barnett to use his access to CHOGM delegates to address the issue of human rights for gay men and women.[11] Finally, it was confirmed that the Austraian Foreign Minister, Kevin Rudd, would intervene at the October meeting with a request to scrap anti-gay laws.[12][13]

The discussion on gay rights at the Perth meeting received a muted response from many of the attending delegates despite strong support from the UK, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. Agreement could not e reached to publish a report by Eminent Persons which was looked at the Commonwealth's future relevance and demanded that all member states that outlawed homosexuality lift their bans.[14]

In November 2012, Malawai President Joyce Banda suspended all laws that criminalized homosexuality.

Homosexual activity remains a criminal offence in 40 of the 53 Commonwealth states.

Commonwealth nations where homosexuality is not a criminal offence[edit]

Worldwide laws regarding homosexual
relationships and expression
     Same-sex marriage      Restricted freedom of expression
     Other type of partnership or unregistered cohabitation      Unenforced penalty
     Marriage recognized but not performed      Imprisonment
     Marriage recognized federally but not performed      Up to life in prison
     Same-sex unions not recognized      Death penalty
Click on map to view an enlarged version where rings in various locations become visible. These indicate places with local and/or case-by-case applications of law.
LGBT rights at the United Nations
     Support Countries which have signed a General Assembly declaration of LGBT rights and/or sponsored the Human Rights Council's 2011 resolution on LGBT rights (94 members).
     Oppose Countries which signed a 2008 statement opposing LGBT rights (initially 57 members, now 54 members).
     Neither Countries which, as regards the UN, have expressed neither official support nor opposition to LGBT rights (46 members).

Where same-sex marriage is legal[edit]

Where same sex-relationships are recognised[edit]

With discrimination protections[edit]

Same-sex activity legal, no discrimination protection[edit]

Commonwealth nations where homosexuality is a criminal offence[edit]

Not Enforced[edit]

Punished by Imprisonment[edit]


Death Penalty[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Time Magazine, 21September 2011
  2. ^ 'Institute of Commonwealth Studies', January 2011
  3. ^ The Pink Paper, Great Britain, 15 July 2011
  4. ^ 'Pink News;', http://www.pinknews.co.uk/2011/10/26/commonwealth-secretary-general-backs-gay-rights/, 27 October 2011
  5. ^ The Pink Paper, 12 September 2011
  6. ^ Time Magazine, 21 September 2011
  7. ^ "Pink News" online news site, 17 October 2011
  8. ^ BBC online news, 31 October 2011, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-15511081
  9. ^ BBC online news, 31 October 2011, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-15511081
  10. ^ Star Observer, 7 September 2011
  11. ^ WA Today, 22 September 2011
  12. ^ Pink News, 18 October 2011
  13. ^ http://www.pinknews.co.uk/2011/10/19/australian-foreign-minister-to-call-on-commonwealth-to-repeal-anti-gay-laws/
  14. ^ 'The Independent', http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/politics/commonwealth-nations-to-have-aid-cut-for-gay-rights-abuses-6255009.html 31 October 2011