LINE (combat system)
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|Also known as||Linear Infighting Neural Override Engagement, 7 Deadly Moves of Combat philosophy|
|Country of origin||United States|
LINE is a close quarters combat system, derived from various martial arts, used by the United States Marine Corps between 1989 and 1998, and then from 1998 through to 2007 for the US Army Special Forces. It was developed by retired combat-arms Marine Ron Donvito.
The system was designed to be executed within specific and stringent combat-oriented conditions:
- (a.) all techniques must not be vision dominant; techniques may be executed effectively in low-light conditions, or other impaired visibility conditions (i.e., smoke or gas)
- (b.) extreme mental and physical fatigue
- (c.) usable by the Marine / soldier while wearing full combat gear
- (d.) proper execution of the techniques must cause death to the opponent
- (e.) gender neutrality; must be usable by- and against- either gender
These parameters are viewed as the most likely conditions that a combat Marine / soldier would face in close-range combat, since most close combat engagements were likely to occur at night or under reduced visibility, while the Marine was fatigued and wearing his combat load, and when facing asymmetrical odds, such as a numerically superior force. These requirements meant that many flamboyant techniques, exotic kicks, or movements requiring extraordinary feats of strength or agility were excluded from consideration under the LINE system. Techniques like classic judo "hip throws", for instance, were excluded because of the possibility of entanglement on a practitioner's war-belt.
The system's techniques were designed to be easily learned and retained through repetition. The requirement and demands that the system be drilled, repeated, and constantly revisited has led to some criticism since the primary users- military and special operations personnel- often have enormous demands upon their time, and as a consequence often lacked the ability to maintain high degrees of proficiency in the techniques.
LINE was adopted by the Marine Corps in 1989 at a Course Content Review Board (CRB) at Quantico, Virginia. All techniques were demonstrated for and deemed medically feasible by the Armed Forces Medical Examiner (given a single attack opponent) and a board of forensic pathologists from the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) in 1991. LINE was replaced by the Marine Corps Martial Arts Program (MCMAP) by Marine Corps Order 1500.54, published in 2002, although it had been actually dropped in 1998, as a "revolutionary step in the development of martial arts skills for Marines and replaces all other close-combat related systems preceding its introduction."  Military combatives instruction programs- and the contracts awarded for it- are undertaken through a system of competition, in which the systems are compared by review boards, and presented by individual subject matter experts. Review boards may, from time to time, choose one system over another, based on the changing needs of the Marine Corps or other military service. In the case of LINE Combatives, the system was repeatedly reviewed and approved for training by many units over more than two decades. LINE Combatives continues to be one of only two systems reviewed and consulted upon by specially tasked and appointed boards of military medical examiners.
The LINE Combatives system is presently sought by advanced students, officers, and military personnel throughout the special operations, high risk law enforcement, government agency, and private contractor industries.
Units trained include (but are not limited to):
- 1st SWTG, United States Army
- Green Beret, United States Army
- SEAL Team II, United States Navy
- 82nd Airborne Division, United States Army
- 101st Airborne Division, United States Army
- 3rd Infantry Division, United States Army
- 4th Infantry Division, United States Army
- 172nd Infantry Brigade Stryker, United States Army
- SOC South, United States Army
- 1st COSCOM, United States Army
- 96th Civil Affairs, United States Army
- 32nd MedCom, United States Army
- 44th MedCom, United States Army
- 112th Signal Bn, United States Army
- 27th Engineer Bn, United States Army
- 8th PsyOps, United States Army
- 9th PsyOps, United States Army
- CGSC, United States Army
- 5th ASOS, United States Air Force
- 22nd STS, United States Air Force
- 5th CBCG, United States Air Force
US Army Special Forces:
The LINE System was adopted in 1998 by U.S. Army Special Forces at the Special Forces Qualification Course (SFQC). Primary instruction took place during phase II and was remediated in phases III and V at Fort Bragg, North Carolina. LINE was replaced by the Modern Army Combatives Program (MACP) in October 2007.
US Air Forces:
In 2007 the Chief of Staff of the Air Force read an article in the Air Force Times about Airmen training in the LINE system and ordered a review of all hand-to-hand combat in the Air Force  which resulted in the Air Force adopting a program based upon the Army Combatives Program.
- List of martial arts
- List of martial arts developers
- Marine Corps Martial Arts Program
- S.C.A.R.S. (military)
- SPEAR System
- United States Army Combatives School
- Todd, Tank. "Ron Donvito and the L.I.N.E. System". Fight Times. ISSN 1176-8266. Retrieved 2008-05-25.
- MCO 1500.54A
- Eric Holmes. "Close combat Why are thousands of airmen learning a brand of fighting ditched by Marines and Army SF?" Air Force Times, cover story. 1 July 2007.]
- MAJ James Blanton. "Hand to Hand Combatives in the US Army" Thesis present to the staff of the US Army Command and General Staff College. 2008.
- Michelle Tan and Erik Holmes. "Combatives training inspires Air Force." Army Times. 29 January 2008.