LMS Coronation Class
||This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (July 2011)|
|LMS Princess Coronation Class|
46229 in so called 'semi-streamlined' condition at Tyseley, 6 May 2006.
|Type and origin|
|Builder||LMS Crewe Works|
|Gauge||4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm)|
|36 in (0.914 m)|
|Driver diameter||81 in (2.057 m)|
|45 in (1.143 m)|
|Length||73 ft 10 1⁄4 in (22.511 m) (conventional),
73 ft 9 3⁄4 in (22.498 m) (streamlined)
|Locomotive weight||105.25 long tons (106,939 kg) (conventional),
108.1 long tons (109,835 kg) (streamlined),
108.5 long tons (110,241 kg) (6256/57) .
|Tender weight||56.35 long tons (57,254 kg)|
|Fuel capacity||10 long tons (10.2 t)|
|Water capacity||4,000 imp gal (18,000 l)|
|Boiler||LMS type 1X|
|Boiler pressure||250 psi (1.7 MPa) superheated|
|Firegrate area||50 sq ft (4.6 m2)|
|2,577 sq ft (239.4 m2)|
|– Firebox||230 sq ft (21 m2)|
|Superheater area||822–856 sq ft (76.4–79.5 m²)|
|Cylinder size||16½×28 in (419×711 mm)|
|Valve gear||Walschaerts for outside cylinders with rocking shafts for inside cylinders, piston valves|
|Tractive effort||40,000 lbf (180 kN)|
|Power class||7P, later 8P|
|Disposition||Three preserved, remainder scrapped|
The London Midland and Scottish Railway (LMS) Coronation Class is a class of express passenger steam locomotives designed by William Stanier. They were an enlarged version of the LMS Princess Royal Class. Several examples were originally built as streamlined, though this was later removed. The non-streamlined locomotives were often referred to as Duchesses, though to enginemen they were often known as Big Lizzies.
They were the most powerful passenger steam locomotives ever to be built for the British railway network, estimated at 3300 horsepower and making them far more powerful than the diesel engines that replaced them.
The first five locomotives, Nos. 6220–6224, were built in 1937 at Crewe. They were streamlined and painted Caledonian Railway blue with silver horizontal lines to match the Coronation Scot train they were built to haul. Stanier was absent from the LMS during the period in which the design was developed, and the chief draughtsman at Derby, Tom Coleman, was responsible for most of the detailed design. It was Coleman who designed the streamlined casing. The streamlining is probably best described as reminiscent of an upside down bathtub and was fitted largely for publicity reasons. Stanier, the designer of the locomotives, felt that the added weight and difficulty in maintenance due to the streamlining was too high a price to pay for the actual benefits gained at high speed. The casing was tested in a wind tunnel, and retained after it was found to be as good as other forms of streamlining. In use its aerodynamic form failed to disturb the air sufficiently to lift the exhaust from the chimney, thus obstructing the driver's vision with smoke.
Prior to the introduction of the Coronation service, No. 6220 underwent speed trials with a special train in 1937. Just south of Crewe, the train achieved a speed of 114 miles per hour (183 km/h), beating the previous record for a steam train (held by the LNER) by a slim margin. Insufficient braking distance had been left before entering a series of crossover points at Crewe, and although the train held the rails, much crockery in the dining car was smashed. After this incident, the LMS and LNER agreed to stop dangerous record-breaking runs which were in effect publicity stunts.
The second five locomotives of the class, Nos. 6225–6229, were also streamlined, but were painted in the more traditional crimson lake, with gilt horizontal lining. This was to match the standard LMS stock and a planned brand new Coronation train made up of articulated coaches. Although a prototype for this was built and exhibited in America it was never put into service due to the outbreak of the Second World War.
The next batch was built without streamlining. They were considered to be very handsome locomotives, particularly by hundreds of "Steam Railway" magazine readers when the magazine conducted a poll about the proposal to streamline "Duchess of Sutherland" as well as "Duchess of Hamilton". The decision to restrict streamlining to the latter locomotive was greeted with relief by the majority of readers, whilst many deplored the decision to re-streamline "Duchess of Hamilton" as an undeserved return to an ugly design with no running merits, although some welcomed the locomotive's return to its original form as, at the least,an historic record of a short-lived styling fashion.
World War Two initially interrupted the building of further locomotives, but given the dire shortage of express motive power, several more were then completed during the war and were turned out in unlined black. Nos. 6253–6256 were turned out in 1946 in LMS lined black. The last two locomotives were constructed to a modified design, with roller bearings, by George Ivatt and were built in 1947 (No. 6256) and 1948 (No. 46257). In 1948, British Railways were nationalised, and the class's numbers were changed; in common with other LMS locomotives, 40000 was added to the original numbers. No. 46257 was completed after nationalisation.
Single chimneys were initially fitted to Nos. 6220–6234 when built. These were replaced with double chimneys between 1939 and 1944. From No. 6235 onwards, the locomotives were built with double chimneys.
Smoke deflectors were added from 1945 due to drifting smoke obscuring the crew's forward vision. The last five locomotives were completed with smoke deflectors fitted.
An unusual feature of Coronation Class tenders was that they were fitted with a steam-operated coal pusher to bring the coal down to the firing plate. When this was in operation a plume of steam could be seen rising from the rear face of the coal bunker backwall. This equipment greatly helped the loco's fireman to meet the high demands for power during the non-stop run of 299 miles (481 km) between London Euston and Carlisle Citadel, when operating the Royal Scot train to and from Glasgow Central.
Removal of streamlining
The streamlining was removed from the fitted locomotives from 1946 onwards. It had been found to be of little value at speeds below 90 mph (140 km/h), and was unpopular with running shed employees as it caused difficulty of access for maintenance. Only three locomotives were still streamlined at the end of the LMS period and they had been stripped by the end of 1949. Only 46243 City of Lancaster carried its British Railways number while streamlined.
Initially, locomotives that had previously been streamlined could be readily recognised by a sloping top to the front of the smokebox, however all were eventually re-equipped with rounded smokeboxes. The sloping top led to the train-spotters' nickname of Semis (i.e. semi-streamlined). The last one to retain the sloping top was 46246 in 1959.
The first five locomotives, Nos. 6220-6224, were painted in Caledonian blue with banding in silver-coloured aluminium paint. Wheels, lining to the edges of the bands, and the background to the chromium-plated nameplates were painted in a darker blue, Navy or Prussian blue. The second batch of streamlined locomotives, Nos. 6225-6229, were painted in crimson lake, with banding in gold lined with vermilion and black. Nameplates had a black background. LMS Shop Grey was carried briefly in service on 6229 Duchess of Hamilton from 7 September 1938 until its return to Crewe Works later that year, on 9 December 1938, to be painted crimson lake as No. 6220, in preparation for the 1939 visit to the New York World's Fair, USA. Insignia for both liveries was in unshaded sans-serif.
The non-streamlined Nos. 6230-6234 were painted in a special version of the standard crimson lake livery. The locomotives were lined out in gold bordered with fine red lines, with serif lettering and numerals in gold leaf and vermillion shading. Handrails and sundry small external fittings were chrome-plated, as were the nameplates, which had a black background.
Streamlined locomotives Nos. 6245-6248 were outshopped at Crewe in 1943 in plain black. The following batch, Nos. 6249-6252, were outshopped without their streamlined fairings, but with streamlined tenders, again painted unlined black with red-shaded yellow numerals and lettering.
In March 1946 No. 6234 Duchess of Abercorn was painted in a blue/grey colour. This was the colour of a proposed new post-war livery, one version of which had a pale straw yellow line along the running plate, yellow and black edging to cab and tender, and unshaded sans-serif numerals and lettering.
No. 6256 Sir William A. Stanier FRS was outshopped in 1947 in black, with lining and edging in maroon with fine straw yellow lining. Lettering and numbering were in a sans-serif grotesque font, in yellow with an inner maroon line.
BR Blue was carried by 27 of the 38 locomotives, the first two being so painted in May 1949. One locomotive is known to have carried the blue livery until June 1954.
BR Green was introduced in November 1951 with 46232 Duchess of Montrose. Between October 1955 and December 1957, all 38 locos carried it concurrently, the only livery the entire class carried. Locomotives allocated to the Scottish Region remained green until withdrawal.
BR Red was carried on 16 locomotives from the late 1950s: Nos. 46225-6, 46228-9, 46236, 46238, 46240, 46243-48, 46251, 46254, 46256 allocated to the London Midland Region. 46245 was the first, in December 1957; a further fifteen examples followed between May and November 1958. The style of lining varied: the first six repaints into crimson (including 46245) were lined out in the LMS style; the last ten received the BR style of lining as used on the standard green livery; no. 46247, originally lined in the LMS style, was given the BR style in July 1959; and by November 1961 those with the BR lining were repainted to match 46245.
From September 1964, a yellow diagonal stripe on the cab side denoted a restriction not to work under the 25kV overhead wires south of Crewe. Within a short time of this being applied, the remainder of the class were withdrawn.
After the formation of British Railways in 1948, some locos ran with tenders carrying BRITISH RAILWAYS lettering. This was applied to three different liveries: the LMS-style lined black livery (nos. 46224, 46225, 46236, 46257); the BR experimental dark blue livery (nos. 46224, 46227, 46230–2, 46241); and the BR experimental lined black livery (nos. 46226, 46234, 46238, 46246, 46248, 46251, 46252, 46256). The early BR crest was applied from 1949, this in turn was replaced by the later crest from 1956.
Accidents and incidents
- On 21 July 1945, locomotive No. 6231 Duchess of Atholl was hauling an express passenger train which overran signals and collided with a freight train that was being shunted at Ecclefechan, Dumfriesshire. Two people were killed and 3 were injured.
Main article: Rail accidents in Winsford
- On 17 April 1948, locomotive No. 6251 City of Nottingham was hauling a mail train which was in a rear-end collision with a passenger train at Winsford, Cheshire. In the first major accident for the newly-formed British Railways, 24 people were killed.
- On 25 April 1949, locomotive No. 46230 Duchess of Buccleugh was hauling a passenger train that overran a signal and was derailed at Douglas Park Signal Box, Motherwell, Lanarkshire. The signalman was suspected of having deliberately moved points under the train.
Main article: Harrow and Wealdstone rail crash
- On 8 October 1952, locomotive No. 46242 City of Glasgow was hauling an express passenger train when it overran signals and crashed into a local passenger train at Harrow and Wealdstone, Middlesex. Another express passenger train ran into the wreckage. In the second deadliest railway accident in the United Kingdom, 112 people were killed at the scene and 10 more died later from their injuries.
- On 3 February 1954, locomotive No. 46250 City of Lichfield was hauling a passenger train that was derailed inside Watford Tunnel, Hertfordshire due to a broken rail. The rear three carriages became divided from the train at Watford Junction station, with one of them ending up on the platform. Fifteen people were injured.
46236 'City of Bradford' approaching Crewe in 1957.
|LMS No.||BR No.||Name||Built||Style||Dbl. Chim.||Casing removed||Smoke Defl.||S’box circular||Withdrawn||Notes|
|6220||46220||Coronation||Jun. 1937||Str.||Dec. 1944||Sep.1946||Sep.1946||Dec. 1955||Apr. 1963||Set speed record of 114 mph (183 km/h) on 29 June 1937|
|6221||46221||Queen Elizabeth||Jun. 1937||Str.||Nov. 1940||May 1946||May 1946||Sep. 1952||May 1963|
|6222||46222||Queen Mary||Jun. 1937||Str.||Aug. 1943||May 1946||May 1946||Aug. 1953||Oct. 1963|
|6223||46223||Princess Alice||Jul. 1937||Str.||Nov. 1941||Aug. 1946||Aug. 1946||Aug. 1955||Oct. 1963|
|6224||46224||Princess Alexandra||Jul. 1937||Str.||May 1940||May 1946||May 1946||Oct. 1954||Oct. 1963|
|6225||46225||Duchess of Gloucester||May 1938||Str.||Jun. 1943||Feb. 1947||Feb. 1947||Jan. 1955||Oct. 1964|
|6226||46226||Duchess of Norfolk||May 1938||Str.||Jul. 1942||Jun. 1947||Jun. 1947||Nov. 1955||Oct. 1964|
|6227||46227||Duchess of Devonshire||Jun. 1938||Str.||Dec. 1940||Aug. 1946||Feb. 1947||May 1953||Dec. 1962|
|6228||46228||Duchess of Rutland||Jun. 1938||Str.||Sep. 1940||Jul. 1947||Jul. 1947||Jan 1957||Oct. 1964|
|6229||46229||Duchess of Hamilton||Sep. 1938||Str.||Apr. 1943||Nov. 1947||Nov. 1947||Feb. 1957||Feb. 1964||Preserved. Newly converted at Tyseley Locomotive Works into original, streamlined form for static display alongside LNER Class A4 Mallard|
|6230||46230||Duchess of Buccleuch||Jul. 1938||Conv.||Oct. 1940||Sep. 1946||Nov. 1963|
|6231||46231||Duchess of Atholl||Jul. 1938||Conv.||Jun. 1940||Sep. 1946||Dec.1962|
|6232||46232||Duchess of Montrose||Jul. 1938||Conv.||Jan 1943||Feb. 1945||Dec. 1962|
|6233||46233||Duchess of Sutherland||Jul.1938||Conv.||Mar. 1941||–||Aug. 1946||–||Feb. 1964||Preserved Currently Repainted in BR Green|
|6234||46234||Duchess of Abercorn||Aug. 1938||Conv.||Feb. 1939||–||Mar. 1946||–||Jan. 1963||Set all time Power output record for steam locomotive at 3333 hp.|
|6235||46235||City of Birmingham||Jul. 1939||Str.||New||Apr. 1946||Apr. 1946||Jul. 1952||Oct. 1964||Preserved as a static exhibit, Birmingham Museum of Science and Industry|
|6236||46236||City of Bradford||Jul. 1939||Str||New||Dec. 1947||Dec. 1947||Nov. 1953||Mar. 1964||1948 Locomotive Exchange locomotive.|
|6237||46237||City of Bristol||Aug. 1939||Str.||New||Jan. 1947||Jan. 1947||May 1956||Oct. 1964|
|6238||46238||City of Carlisle||Sep. 1939||Str.||New||Nov. 1946||Nov. 1946||Oct. 1953||Oct. 1964|
|6239||46239||City of Chester||Sep.1939||Str.||New||Jun. 1947||Jun. 1947||Feb. 1957||Oct. 1964|
|6240||46240||City of Coventry||Mar.1940||Str.||New||Jun. 1947||Jun. 1947||May 1957||Oct. 1964||The nameplate and numberplate of this locomotive have survived. They are at Coventry Station and can be seen from the staircase above platform 2 and 3, together with photographs.|
|6241||46241||City of Edinburgh||Apr. 1940||Str.||New||Jan. 1947||Jan. 1947||Feb. 1958||Sep. 1964|
|6242||46242||City of Glasgow||May 1940||Str.||New||Mar. 1947||Mar. 1947||Nov. 1953||Oct. 1963||Badly damaged in the Harrow and Wealdstone accident, 1952. Rebuilt with non-streamlined style front footplate, which had been removed from another victim of the same accident, number 46202.|
|6243||46243||City of Lancaster||Jun. 1940||Str.||New||May 1949||May 1949||Nov. 1958||Oct. 1964||Last streamlined locomotive to have its casings removed.|
|6244||46244||City of Leeds
King George VI ( Apr. 1941)
|Jul. 1940||Str.||New||Aug. 1947||Aug. 1947||Jul. 1953||Oct. 1964|
|6245||46245||City of London||Jun. 1943||Str.||New||Aug. 1947||Aug. 1947||Dec. 1957||Oct. 1964|
|6246||46246||City of Manchester||Aug. 1943||Str.||New||Sep. 1946||Sep. 1946||May 1960||Jan. 1963|
|6247||46247||City of Liverpool||Sep. 1943||Str.||New||May 1947||May 1947||May 1958||Jun. 1963|
|6248||46248||City of Leeds||Oct. 1943||Str.||New||Dec. 1946||Dec. 1946||Jun. 1958||Sep. 1964|
|6249||46249||City of Sheffield||Apr. 1944||Conv.||New||Nov. 1946||Nov. 1963||Built with streamlined tender.|
|6250||46250||City of Lichfield||May 1944||Conv.||New||Mar. 1946||Oct. 1964||Built with streamlined tender.|
|6251||46251||City of Nottingham||Jun. 1944||Conv.||New||Aug. 1948||Oct. 1964||Built with streamlined tender. Locomotive damaged in the 1948 Winsford rail accident.|
|6252||46252||City of Leicester||Jun. 1944||Conv.||New||Mar. 1945||Jun. 1963||Built with streamlined tender.|
|6253||46253||City of St. Albans||Sep. 1946||Conv.||New||New||Jan. 1963|
|6254||46254||City of Stoke-on-Trent||Sep. 1946||Conv.||New||New||Oct. 1964|
|6255||46255||City of Hereford||Oct. 1946||Conv.||New||New||Oct. 1964|
|6256||46256||Sir William A. Stanier F.R.S.||Dec. 1947||Conv.||New||New||Oct. 1964||Design modified by Ivatt.|
|6257||46257||City of Salford||May 1948||Conv.||New||New||Oct. 1964||Design modified by Ivatt.|
Three Duchesses have been preserved. (4)6229 Duchess of Hamilton, (4)6233 Duchess of Sutherland have both been in service on main line railtours. The third locomotive completed, (4)6235 City of Birmingham, was the centrepiece in the now defunct Birmingham science museum. The locomotive was put in place and the museum built around her. (4)6235 is now located at ThinkTank in Birmingham.
Following a successful appeal run by Steam Railway Magazine, 46229 has been re-streamlined. The locomotive was moved to Tyseley Locomotive Works, where the work was carried out. The project was completed in 2009, and the locomotive returned to York on 18 May, now wearing her pre-war number 6229 and taking her place at the heart of a new National Railway Museum temporary exhibition.
- Roden, p. 3.
- Haresnape 1989, p. 123.
- Bellwood & Jenkinson 1976, p. 73.
- Bellwood & Jenkinson 1976, pp. 73-74.
- Haresnape 1989, p. 115.
- Haresnape 1989, p. 125.
- Talbot 2002, p. 60, plate 77.
- Jennison et al. 2009, p. 19.
- Haresnape 1989, p. 124.
- Haresnape 1989, p. 138.
- Hunt et al. 2008, pp. 105,143,166.
- Jennison et al. 2009, p. 49.
- Binns 1988, p. 18.
- Haresnape 1989, p. 139.
- Haresnape 1989, pp. 140-141.
- Hunt et al. 2008, pp. 143,148,150,166.
- Jennison et al. 2009, p. 51.
- Hunt et al. 2008, p. 153.
- Hunt et al. 2008, p. 157.
- Hunt et al. 2008, p. 136.
- Jennison et al. 2009, p. 118.
- Hunt et al. 2008, pp. 145,147–8.
- Hunt et al. 2008, p. 148.
- Hunt et al. 2008, p. 150.
- Hoole, Ken (1983). Trains in Trouble: Vol. 4. Redruth: Atlantic Books. p. 48. ISBN 0 906899 07 9.
- Earnshaw, Alan (1989). Trains in Trouble: Vol. 5. Penryn: Atlantic Books. p. 30. ISBN 0-906899-35-4.
- Vaughan, Adrian (1989). Obstruction Danger. Wellingborough: Patrick Stephens Limited. pp. 18–19. ISBN 1-85260-055-1.
- Trevena 1980, p. 45.
- Rolt & Kichenside 1982, p. 288.
- Earnshaw 1991, p. 34.
- Hunt et al. 2008, p. 166.
- Bellwood, John E.; Jenkinson, David (May 1976). Gresley and Stanier: A Centenary Tribute. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office. ISBN 0-11-290253-7.
- Binns, Donald (1988). LMS Locomotives at Work - 2, Coronation Class 4-6-2. Skipton: Wyvern Publications. ISBN 0-907941-32-X.
- Doherty, Douglas (1973). The LMS Duchesses. ISBN 0-85242-325-X.
- Earnshaw, Alan (1991). Trains in Trouble: Vol. 7. Penryn: Atlantic Books. ISBN 0-906899-50-8.
- Haresnape, Brian (1989). Railway Liveries 1923-1947. Shepperton: Ian Allan. ISBN 0-7110-1829-4.
- Hunt, David; Jennison, John; Meanley, Bob; James, Fred; Essery, Bob (2008). LMS Locomotive Profiles, No. 11 - The 'Coronation' Class Pacifics. Didcot: Wild Swan. ISBN 978-1-905184-46-0.
- Jennison, John; Meanley, Bob; Essery, Bob; James, Fred; Hunt, David (2009). Pictorial Supplement to LMS Locomotive Profile No. 11 - The 'Coronation' Pacifics. Didcot: Wild Swan. ISBN 978-1-905184-62-0.
- Jenkinson, David (1982). Profile of the Duchesses. Oxford Publishing Company. ISBN 0-86093-176-5.
- Jenkinson, David (1980). The Power of the Duchesses. Oxford Publishing Company. ISBN 0-86093-063-7.
- Longworth, Hugh. British Railway Steam Locomotives 1948-1968. ISBN 0-86093-593-0.
- Mannion, Roger J. (1996). The Duchess, Stanier's Masterpiece. ISBN 0-7509-0903-X.
- Powell, A.J. (1991). Stanier Locomotive Classes. ISBN 0-7110-1962-2.
- Powell, A.J. (1986). Stanier Pacifics at Work. ISBN 0-7110-1534-1.
- Roden, Andrew. The Duchesses: The Story of Britain's Ultimate Steam Locomotives. ISBN 1-84513-369-2.
- Rolt, L.T.C.; Kichenside, Geoffrey M. (1982) . Red for Danger (4th ed.). Newton Abbot: David & Charles. ISBN 0-7153-8362-0.
- Rowledge, J.W.P. (1975). Engines of the LMS, built 1923–51. Oxford: Oxford Publishing Company. ISBN 0-902888-59-5.
- Rowledge, J.W.P. (1987). LMS Pacifics. ISBN 0-7153-8776-6.
- Sixsmith, Ian (1998). The Book of the Coronation Pacifics. ISBN 1-871608-94-5.
- Talbot, Edward (2002). The Coronation Scot, The Streamline Era on the LMS. Stafford: Edward Talbot. ISBN 0-9542787-1-2.
- Talbot, Edward (2011). LMS POWER, The 'Coronation' Class. Stafford: Edward Talbot. ISBN 978-0-9542787-5-5.
- Trevena, Arthur (1980). Trains in Trouble. Vol. 1. Redruth: Atlantic Books. ISBN 0-906899-01-X.
- Princess Royal Locomotive Trust (owners of 6233)
- Thinktank, Birmingham science museum (6235 on display)
- Princess Coronations
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to LMS Princess Coronation Class.|