LMS Stanier Class 5 4-6-0

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LMS Stanier Class 5 4-6-0
44949 Manchester Victoria.jpg
No:44949 at Manchester Victoria in 1968.
Type and origin
Power type Steam
Designer William Stanier
Builder
Serial number AW: 1166–1265, 1280–1506
VF: 4565–4614, 4618–4667
Build date 1934–1951
Total produced 842
Specifications
Configuration 4-6-0
UIC classification 2′C h2
Gauge 4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm)
Leading wheel
diameter
3 ft 3 12 in (1.003 m)
Driver diameter 6 ft 0 in (1.829 m)
Length 63 ft 7 34 in (19.40 m) or 63 ft 11 34 in (19.50 m)
Locomotive weight 72.2 long tons (73.4 t) to 75 long tons (76.2 t)
Fuel type Coal
Fuel capacity 9 long tons (9.1 t)
Water capacity 4,000 imp gal (18,000 l; 4,800 US gal)
Boiler LMS type 3B
Boiler pressure 225 lbf/in2 (1.55 MPa) superheated
Firegrate area 27 34 or 28 12 sq ft (2.58 or 2.65 m2) or 28.5 sq ft (2.65 m2)
Heating surface:
– Tubes and flues
1,426 to 1,479 sq ft (132.5 to 137.4 m2)
– Firebox 156 or 171 sq ft (14.5 or 15.9 m2)
Superheater area 228 to 365 sq ft (21.2 to 33.9 m2)
Cylinders Two, outside
Cylinder size 18 12 in × 28 in (470 mm × 711 mm)
Valve gear Most Walschaerts; some Caprotti; one outside Stephenson
Performance figures
Tractive effort 25,455 lbf (113.23 kN)
Career
Operator(s) LMS, BR
Power class
  • LMS: 5P5F
  • BR: 5MT
Axle load class BR: Route Availability 7
Withdrawn 1961–1968
Disposition 18 preserved, remainder scrapped

The London Midland and Scottish Railway Class 5 4-6-0, almost universally known as the Black Five, is a class of steam locomotive. It was introduced by William Stanier in 1934 and 842 were built between then and 1951. Members of the class survived to the last day of steam on British Railways in 1968, and eighteen are preserved. This class of locomotive was often a favourite amongst drivers and railway fans.

Origins[edit]

The Black Fives were a mixed traffic locomotive, a "do-anything go-anywhere" type, designed by Stanier, who had previously been with the GWR. In his early LMS days, he designed his Stanier Mogul 2-6-0 in which he experimented with the GWR school of thought on locomotive design. A number of details in this design he would never use again realising the superiority of details not used on the GWR. Stanier realised that there was a need for larger locomotives. These were to be the LMS version of the GWR Halls but not a copy, as the Hall was too wide to run most places in Britain. They shared similar cylinder arrangement (two outside), internal boiler design and size and 6 foot driving wheel diameters.

In their early days the locomotives were known as the "Black Staniers" from their black livery, in contrast to Stanier's other class of 4-6-0, the LMS Stanier Jubilee Class, which were painted crimson (and known until April 1935 as the "Red Staniers"). Later on, the nickname of the former became "Black Five", the number referring to the power classification. This was originally 5P5F, but from 1940 was shown on cabsides as the simple figure 5.[1]

Construction[edit]

There were a number of detail variations in the locomotives and they did not all remain in the same condition as built. Some locomotives built under British Railways administration were used as test beds for various design modifications with a view to incorporating the successful modifications in the Standard Classes of locomotives built from 1951 onwards. These modifications included outside Caprotti valve gear, roller bearings (both Timken and Skefco types) on the coupled and tender axles in varying combinations, and an experimental steel firebox. Other locomotives had modified draughting to "self clean" the smokebox (thereby reducing turn-around and disposal times and eliminating or mitigating one of the most unpopular jobs).

The domeless engines[edit]

45073 at Rose Grove shed, spring 1968. Although a domeless boiler, the casing over the top feed is often mistaken for a dome

Numbering started from 5000, with the first twenty being ordered from Crewe Works in April 1934, and a further fifty (5020–5069) ordered from the Vulcan Foundry in 1933.[2] The first of the Vulcan Foundry engines entered service in 1934, and the entire order of 50 was delivered before the first Crewe-built engine, no. 5000, was completed in February 1935.[3] The first 57 locomotives were built with domeless boilers with straight throatplates and a low degree of superheat (14 elements in two rows), the boilers of the remaining 13 (5007–5019) were provided with a three-row version (21 elements)[4] having greater total surface area and giving less obstruction to gas flow.[3] The original 57 boilers were converted later to higher superheat (24 elements) and fitted with a dome. Further orders were placed with Crewe (5070–5074), Vulcan Foundry (5075–5124) and Armstrong Whitworth (5125–5224) for a total of 155 locomotives which were also built with domeless boilers with straight throatplates and 21 element superheaters. All these boilers, including the early converted ones with a dome, were fitted indiscriminately to any of the first 225 engines, which could appear at various times with domed or domeless boilers.

However, many of the early frames were converted to accept sloping throatplate boilers, as listed below. This modification was carried out to provide a stock of spare boilers for the early engines, which would minimise the time spent in works by engines awaiting a fresh boiler. All locomotives from no. 5225 were fitted when new with the sloping throatplate boiler. All extra boilers made had the sloping throatplate arrangement, and only one example of a later engine having been fitted with a straight throatplate boiler is known - no. 45433. Several different patterns of boiler were used on the locomotives, running into double figures. The throatplate design was the most significant, but there were also different numbers of superheater flues, firegrate arrangement, stay material, dome and water feed arrangements, washout plug placement, etc. in various combinations.

The following locomotives were built with straight throatplate boilers, but were later fitted with a sloping throatplate boiler (date in brackets). Conversion was done by relocating the frame stretcher immediately in front of the firebox. Some of them reverted to straight throatplate at a later date, and these are also shown where known. Those marked with an asterisk were fitted with a boiler which had the top feed on the front ring on the date shown. In the case of no. 45087 it had previously been converted. The first conversion was carried out on no. 5022, and the last known was on no. 45163, which has been preserved.

5002 (12/37), 45007 (1/60), 45008 (1/60*), 45011 (1/49*+), 5020 (2/37), 5022 (10/36) reverted (10/58), 5023 (2/38) reverted (3/53), 5026 (2/37) reverted (1/59), 5027 (12/36), 5040 (11/36), 5045 (11/54), 5047 (1/37), 45049 (7/54) reverted (8/59), 5054 (1/37), 5057 (11/37), 5058 (11/37), 5059 (7/45), 45066 (4/60), 45082 (12/56*), 45087 (9/55) (12/60*), 5097 (1/37), 5108 (6/45), 45109 (5/48), 5142 (12/37), 45151 (3/51), 45163 (5/61), 45169 (7/55), 45197 (5/60)

+ The subsequent history of 45011 is not clear. Official records have gone missing and have not been relocated. There is a photograph in existence dated April 1963, showing 45011 ex-works with a straight throatplate boiler and simple top feed, i.e. without the dome-like shape.[citation needed]

NB: The official records were not always updated after around 1960/61, although some were. For example in the case of no. 45082, it was fitted with a brand new boiler at the end of 1956, one of the last batch of four boilers that were manufactured for this class. Since it survived in service for a further nine and a half years, there is no doubt that 45082 will have had at least one further boiler lift and indeed a photograph exists of it at Hellifield with a given date of May 1962 showing it with an older boiler with the dome and feed both on the tapered ring. Unfortunately it is not clear from the photo whether it is a straight or sloping throatplate boiler.

The pre-war domed engines[edit]

A further 227 were ordered from Armstrong-Whitworth in 1936, the largest single locomotive order ever given by a British railway to an outside contractor. Crewe built a further 20, which had higher degree superheat boilers, with 28 elements, unlike the AW boilers, which had 24 elements.

5471, built at Crewe in 1938, would be the last built for five years. During the early stages of the Second World War, the priority was for heavy freight engines, and the closely related 8Fs were produced in large numbers.

Wartime and postwar domed engines[edit]

In 1943 construction was restarted, with Derby Works building its first. Construction continued up to no. 5499. As the numbering block from 5500 was allocated to the Patriot Class, a further batch of 200 locomotives were numbered from 4800 to 4999, followed by a batch from 4658 to 4799. By this time the LMS had been nationalised, and British Railways added 40000 to all numbers. Eventually the 842 examples would number 44658–45499.

Ivatt engines and experimental modifications[edit]

From early 1947, engines were built with the top feed on the front ring of the boiler (from no. 4998), and Nos 44658-767 had a longer wheelbase (27 ft 6in rather than 27 ft 2in, with the change in the coupled wheelbase from 7 ft + 8 ft to 7 ft + 8 ft 3in). In 1948, George Ivatt introduced more modifications to bearings and valve gear; other experimental Ivatt features included the use of steel rather than copper fireboxes on certain engines, and the fitting of double blastpipes & chimneys in some instances. 4767 was built with Stephenson link motion in 1947. 44738-57 were built with Caprotti valve gear. The last two, nos. 44686 and 44687 built at Horwich in 1951, were fitted with a new arrangement of Caprotti valve gear, which was later used on some of the BR standard Class fives, and the BR class 8 4-6-2.

Accidents and incidents[edit]

  • On 13 October 1939, locomotive No. 5025 of the class was hauling an express passenger train from Euston to Stranraer (pilot to engine 6130) when it was in collision with locomotive 9169 which was attaching a van to the rear of an Inverness train at Bletchley, Buckinghamshire. Five people were killed and more than 30 were injured.[citation needed]
  • In 1941, locomotive No. 5425 was severely damaged in a Luftwaffe air raid. It was subsequently repaired at Crewe Works.[5]
Main article: Lichfield rail crash
  • On 1 January 1946, locomotive No. 5495 was hauling a freight train that was derailed at Lichfield Trent Valley station, Staffordshire due to faulty points. The train collided with a passenger train, killing twenty people and injuring 21.[6]
  • On 23 January 1955, locomotive No. 45274 was hauling an express passenger train that was derailed due to excessive speed on a curve. Nineteen people were killed and 64 were injured.[7]

Gallery[edit]

Construction details[edit]


Names[edit]

Only four Black Fives are confirmed to have received names, though seven have been named in preservation (see below). All of them were named after Scottish regiments. There is also some evidence that 5155 briefly carried the name The Queens Edinburgh during the Second World War, but photographic confirmation of this is lacking.[8]

Stanier Class 5 4-6-0 names[9]
LMS No. BR No. Name Date named Name removed
5154 45154 Lanarkshire Yeomanry 1937
5156 45156 Ayrshire Yeomanry 1936
5157 45157 The Glasgow Highlander 1936
5158 45158 Glasgow Yeomanry 1936

Withdrawal[edit]

45401 was the first Black Five to be withdrawn from stock in 1961 following a collision at Warrington, although the boiler was re-used and actually lasted to the end of steam on BR. The remainder of the class were withdrawn between 1962 and 1968. Some members of the class survived to the last day of steam on BR in August 1968.

Summary of withdrawals
Year No. withdrawn No(s)
1961 1 45401
1962 21 etc.
1963 29 etc.
1964 67 etc.
1965 97 etc.
1966 171 etc.
1967 305 etc.
1968 151 44663–5/72/83–90
44708/9/11/3/5/28/35/58/61/77/80/1
44800/2–4/6/7/9/15/6/8/29/36/8/42/5/6/8/51/5/64/8/71/4/7/8/84/8–91/4/7/9
44903/6/10/26/9/32/40/2/7/9/50/63/5/71
45001/5/13/7/25/7/34/8/46/54/5/65/73/6/95/6
45101/4/10/431/3/4/49/50/6/87/90
45200–3/6/9/12/27/31/53–5/8/60/2/8/9/79/82/4/7/90/4/6
45305/10/2/6/8/30/42/5/50/3/75/6/81/2/6/8/90–2/4/5/7
45407/11/20/1/4/6/35/6/4/5/7/93

Preservation[edit]

Eighteen locomotives have been preserved:

Number Name† Builder Location Status Image
LMS BR
4767 44767 George Stephenson Crewe Works North Norfolk Railway Operational, returned to steam in 2010. This locomotive was the sole member of the class equipped with Stephenson valve gear. Bishops Lydeard - 44767.jpg
4806 44806 Kenneth Aldcroft
prev. Magpie
Derby Works North Yorkshire Moors Railway Operational, returned to steam in 2007. Sold to North Yorkshire Moors Railway 2013. 44806 Carrog.jpg
4871 44871 Sovereign (former name) Crewe Works East Lancashire Railway Operational and mainline certified; owned by Ian Riley, returned to steam in 2009. Hugh llewelyn 44871 (6647112497).jpg
4901 44901 Crewe Works Private site Awaiting restoration from Barry Scrapyard condition. Boiler sold to Ian Riley. Will be based at the Gloucestershire and Warwickshire Railway.
4932 44932 Horwich Works West Coast Railway Company Mainline operational. 'Black Five' 44932 at Skipton.JPG
5000 45000 Crewe Works Shildon Locomotion Museum On static display, wears LMS livery. Part of the National Collection. Black 5 5000 (5441473814).jpg
5025 45025 Vulcan Foundry Strathspey Railway Undergoing overhaul. Wears LMS livery. Black 5 no.5025 - geograph.org.uk - 511056.jpg
5110 45110 Vulcan Foundry Severn Valley Railway On static display in The Engine House. 45134 Kidderminster (2).jpg
5163 45163 Armstrong Whitworth Colne Valley Railway Under restoration.
5212 45212 Roy 'Korky' Green Railwayman 1926-2001 Armstrong Whitworth Keighley and Worth Valley Railway On long term loan to Ian Riley, currently[when?] undergoing overhaul at Bury. 45212 at Fen Bog on the North Yorkshire Moors Railway.jpg
5231 45231 The Sherwood Forester Armstrong Whitworth West Coast Railway Company Mainline operational. Currently[when?] at Fort William on Jacobite duties for West Coast Railway's. 45231 Rabbit Bridge.jpg
5293 45293 Armstrong Whitworth Colne Valley Railway Under restoration.
5305 45305 Alderman A. E. Draper Armstrong Whitworth Great Central Railway Operational, mainline certified and based at Great Central Railway Loughborough.
Boiler certificate expires 2020. Owned by The Draper Family, Hull. On loan to the Keighley and Worth Valley Railway.
Hugh llewelyn 45305 & 70013 (5829915330).jpg
5337 45337 Armstrong Whitworth Llangollen Railway Operational, returned to steam September 2010. Usually based at East Lancashire Railway, Bury. Preserved steam at Irwell Vale - geograph.org.uk - 331546.jpg
5379 45379 Armstrong Whitworth Mid-Hants Railway Operational; returned to steam 10 September 2010. Crowcombe - 45379.jpg
5407 45407 The Lancashire Fusilier Armstrong Whitworth East Lancashire Railway Operational and mainline certified; owned by Ian Riley. 45407.jpg
5428 45428 Eric Treacy Armstrong Whitworth North Yorkshire Moors Railway Operational, returned to steam April 2010.
'Black Five' 45428.JPG
5491 45491 Derby Works Great Central Railway Under restoration. Only surviving example with boiler with top feed on the front ring in conjunction with Walschaerts valve gear.

† In all cases, names are not historically accurate i.e. they have all been applied since preservation.

  • 44767 carries a plaque on the splasher beneath the nameplate that reads 'This locomotive was named by the Rt. Hon. William Whitelaw C.H. M.C. M.P. at Shildon on 25 August 1975, to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the Stockton and Darlington Railway.'

Operation in Preservation[edit]

Of the eighteen Black 5s preserved 11 have seen main line operation. The engines which currently[when?] or previously worked on the mainline are: Nos. 44767, 44871, 44932, 45000, 45025, 45110, 45231, 45305, 45337, 45407 & 45428.

44767 saw use in the 1980s working in the north of England including the West Highland line between Fort William and Mallaig. 44767 Has appeared in BBC's Steam Days with Miles Kington during his visit to the Scottish highlands, This was also before the route got converted from traditional signaling to Radio control.

45000 was a member of the Severn Valley Railway's fleet and went on the national network working trips alongside fellow SVR based machines and also working a few trips alone.

5025 Only saw main use working specials in Scotland including working the final regular steam to Loch Isle trips in the early 1980s. The loco is now undergoing an overhaul at The Strathspey Railway but has no plans to return to the national network.

45337 was on the main line in the 1980s and saw most use around the North West and North East areas. One of its most noted trips was working the popular Southport Visiter trips from Manchester to Southport and back.

45110 Was the final black 5 to be withdrawn from BR at the end of steam in 1968 and was one of only 3 to work the famous 1T57 on 11 August. Upon withdrawal it passed directly from BR ownership into preservation and has recently being a popular engine on the mainline in recent years. It is now[when?] currently on display inside The Engine House on the Severn Valley Railway and is awaiting an overhaul.

44871, 44932, 45231, 45305 & 45407 all currently[when?] have mainline certificates. 45428 is currently[when?] certified for use between Grosmont and Whitby, Whitby and Battersby during galas.

45212 Recently came under a deal with Bury based engineer Ian Riley for a 10 year loan agreement which will see it work on the mainline in the future alongside fellow Bury based engines 44871 & 45407. 44806 Is also down for mainline use after the completion of its next overhaul which is due in around 4 years time.

Details of the boilers currently fitted to preserved examples[edit]

Sound[edit]

In fiction[edit]

In The Railway Series children's books by the Rev. W. Awdry, the character Henry the Green Engine, in his later form, is based on a Black Five.[10]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • David Hunt, Bob Essery and Fred James with David Jennison and David Clarke LMS Locomotive Profiles (three volumes, three pictorial supplements):
    • No. 5 The mixed traffic class 5s. Part 1. Nos. 5000–5224. (+ pictorial supplement)
    • No. 6 The mixed traffic class 5s. Part 2. Walschaerts and Stephenson valve gear engines from the 5225–5499 and 4658–4999 series. (+ pictorial supplement)
    • No. 7 Mixed traffic class 5s: Caprotti valve gear engines and class summary (+ pictorial supplement)
  • J.S. Whiteley, Gavin Morrison The Power of the Black Fives

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rowledge & Reed 1987, pp. 49, 23.
  2. ^ Rowledge & Reed 1984, p. 48.
  3. ^ a b Rowledge & Reed 1984, p. 50.
  4. ^ Cook 1999, p. 147.
  5. ^ Trevena 1981, p. 29.
  6. ^ Gerard & Hamilton 1981, pp. 66-69.
  7. ^ Earnshaw 1993, p. 28.
  8. ^ see Hunt et al.
  9. ^ Rowledge 1975, p. 11.
  10. ^ Awdry & Awdry 1987, p. 129.