LMS Stanier Class 5 4-6-0
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|LMS Stanier Class 5 4-6-0|
|Type and origin|
|Serial number||AW: 1166–1265, 1280–1506
VF: 4565–4614, 4618–4667
|UIC classification||2′C h2|
|Gauge||4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm)|
|3 ft 3 1⁄2 in (1.003 m)|
|Driver diameter||6 ft 0 in (1.829 m)|
|Length||63 ft 7 3⁄4 in (19.40 m) or 63 ft 11 3⁄4 in (19.50 m)|
|Locomotive weight||72.2 long tons (73.4 t) to 75 long tons (76.2 t)|
|Fuel capacity||9 long tons (9.1 t)|
|Water capacity||4,000 imp gal (18,000 l; 4,800 US gal)|
|Boiler||LMS type 3B|
|Boiler pressure||225 lbf/in2 (1.55 MPa) superheated|
|Firegrate area||27 3⁄4 or 28 1⁄2 sq ft (2.58 or 2.65 m2) or 28.5 sq ft (2.65 m2)|
– Tubes and flues
|1,426 to 1,479 sq ft (132.5 to 137.4 m2)|
|– Firebox||156 or 171 sq ft (14.5 or 15.9 m2)|
|Superheater area||228 to 365 sq ft (21.2 to 33.9 m2)|
|Cylinder size||18 1⁄2 in × 28 in (470 mm × 711 mm)|
|Valve gear||Most Walschaerts; some Caprotti; one outside Stephenson|
|Tractive effort||25,455 lbf (113.23 kN)|
|Axle load class||BR: Route Availability 7|
|Disposition||18 preserved, remainder scrapped|
The London Midland and Scottish Railway Class 5 4-6-0, almost universally known as the Black Five, is a class of steam locomotive. It was introduced by William Stanier in 1934 and 842 were built between then and 1951. Members of the class survived to the last day of steam on British Railways in 1968, and eighteen are preserved. This class of locomotive was often a favourite amongst drivers and railway fans.
- 1 Origins
- 2 Construction
- 3 Accidents and incidents
- 4 Gallery
- 5 Construction details
- 6 Names
- 7 Withdrawal
- 8 Preservation
- 9 Details of the boilers currently fitted to preserved examples
- 10 Sound
- 11 In fiction
- 12 See also
- 13 Further reading
- 14 References
The Black Fives were a mixed traffic locomotive, a "do-anything go-anywhere" type, designed by Stanier, who had previously been with the GWR. In his early LMS days, he designed his Stanier Mogul 2-6-0 in which he experimented with the GWR school of thought on locomotive design. A number of details in this design he would never use again realising the superiority of details not used on the GWR. Stanier realised that there was a need for larger locomotives. These were to be the LMS version of the GWR Halls but not a copy, as the Hall was too wide to run most places in Britain. They shared similar cylinder arrangement (two outside), internal boiler design and size and 6 foot driving wheel diameters.
In their early days the locomotives were known as the "Black Staniers" from their black livery, in contrast to Stanier's other class of 4-6-0, the LMS Stanier Jubilee Class, which were painted crimson (and known until April 1935 as the "Red Staniers"). Later on, the nickname of the former became "Black Five", the number referring to the power classification. This was originally 5P5F, but from 1940 was shown on cabsides as the simple figure 5.
There were a number of detail variations in the locomotives and they did not all remain in the same condition as built. Some locomotives built under British Railways administration were used as test beds for various design modifications with a view to incorporating the successful modifications in the Standard Classes of locomotives built from 1951 onwards. These modifications included outside Caprotti valve gear, roller bearings (both Timken and Skefco types) on the coupled and tender axles in varying combinations, and an experimental steel firebox. Other locomotives had modified draughting to "self clean" the smokebox (thereby reducing turn-around and disposal times and eliminating or mitigating one of the most unpopular jobs).
The domeless engines
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (May 2012)|
Numbering started from 5000, with the first twenty being ordered from Crewe Works in April 1934, and a further fifty (5020–5069) ordered from the Vulcan Foundry in 1933. The first of the Vulcan Foundry engines entered service in 1934, and the entire order of 50 was delivered before the first Crewe-built engine, no. 5000, was completed in February 1935. The first 57 locomotives were built with domeless boilers with straight throatplates and a low degree of superheat (14 elements in two rows), the boilers of the remaining 13 (5007–5019) were provided with a three-row version (21 elements) having greater total surface area and giving less obstruction to gas flow. The original 57 boilers were converted later to higher superheat (24 elements) and fitted with a dome. Further orders were placed with Crewe (5070–5074), Vulcan Foundry (5075–5124) and Armstrong Whitworth (5125–5224) for a total of 155 locomotives which were also built with domeless boilers with straight throatplates and 21 element superheaters. All these boilers, including the early converted ones with a dome, were fitted indiscriminately to any of the first 225 engines, which could appear at various times with domed or domeless boilers.
However, many of the early frames were converted to accept sloping throatplate boilers, as listed below. This modification was carried out to provide a stock of spare boilers for the early engines, which would minimise the time spent in works by engines awaiting a fresh boiler. All locomotives from no. 5225 were fitted when new with the sloping throatplate boiler. All extra boilers made had the sloping throatplate arrangement, and only one example of a later engine having been fitted with a straight throatplate boiler is known - no. 45433. Several different patterns of boiler were used on the locomotives, running into double figures. The throatplate design was the most significant, but there were also different numbers of superheater flues, firegrate arrangement, stay material, dome and water feed arrangements, washout plug placement, etc. in various combinations.
The following locomotives were built with straight throatplate boilers, but were later fitted with a sloping throatplate boiler (date in brackets). Conversion was done by relocating the frame stretcher immediately in front of the firebox. Some of them reverted to straight throatplate at a later date, and these are also shown where known. Those marked with an asterisk were fitted with a boiler which had the top feed on the front ring on the date shown. In the case of no. 45087 it had previously been converted. The first conversion was carried out on no. 5022, and the last known was on no. 45163, which has been preserved.
5002 (12/37), 45007 (1/60), 45008 (1/60*), 45011 (1/49*+), 5020 (2/37), 5022 (10/36) reverted (10/58), 5023 (2/38) reverted (3/53), 5026 (2/37) reverted (1/59), 5027 (12/36), 5040 (11/36), 5045 (11/54), 5047 (1/37), 45049 (7/54) reverted (8/59), 5054 (1/37), 5057 (11/37), 5058 (11/37), 5059 (7/45), 45066 (4/60), 45082 (12/56*), 45087 (9/55) (12/60*), 5097 (1/37), 5108 (6/45), 45109 (5/48), 5142 (12/37), 45151 (3/51), 45163 (5/61), 45169 (7/55), 45197 (5/60)
+ The subsequent history of 45011 is not clear. Official records have gone missing and have not been relocated. There is a photograph in existence dated April 1963, showing 45011 ex-works with a straight throatplate boiler and simple top feed, i.e. without the dome-like shape.
NB: The official records were not always updated after around 1960/61, although some were. For example in the case of no. 45082, it was fitted with a brand new boiler at the end of 1956, one of the last batch of four boilers that were manufactured for this class. Since it survived in service for a further nine and a half years, there is no doubt that 45082 will have had at least one further boiler lift and indeed a photograph exists of it at Hellifield with a given date of May 1962 showing it with an older boiler with the dome and feed both on the tapered ring. Unfortunately it is not clear from the photo whether it is a straight or sloping throatplate boiler.
The pre-war domed engines
A further 227 were ordered from Armstrong-Whitworth in 1936, the largest single locomotive order ever given by a British railway to an outside contractor. Crewe built a further 20, which had higher degree superheat boilers, with 28 elements, unlike the AW boilers, which had 24 elements.
5471, built at Crewe in 1938, would be the last built for five years. During the early stages of the Second World War, the priority was for heavy freight engines, and the closely related 8Fs were produced in large numbers.
Wartime and postwar domed engines
In 1943 construction was restarted, with Derby Works building its first. Construction continued up to no. 5499. As the numbering block from 5500 was allocated to the Patriot Class, a further batch of 200 locomotives were numbered from 4800 to 4999, followed by a batch from 4658 to 4799. By this time the LMS had been nationalised, and British Railways added 40000 to all numbers. Eventually the 842 examples would number 44658–45499.
Ivatt engines and experimental modifications
From early 1947, engines were built with the top feed on the front ring of the boiler (from no. 4998), and Nos 44658-767 had a longer wheelbase (27 ft 6in rather than 27 ft 2in, with the change in the coupled wheelbase from 7 ft + 8 ft to 7 ft + 8 ft 3in). In 1948, George Ivatt introduced more modifications to bearings and valve gear; other experimental Ivatt features included the use of steel rather than copper fireboxes on certain engines, and the fitting of double blastpipes & chimneys in some instances. 4767 was built with Stephenson link motion in 1947. 44738-57 were built with Caprotti valve gear. The last two, nos. 44686 and 44687 built at Horwich in 1951, were fitted with a new arrangement of Caprotti valve gear, which was later used on some of the BR standard Class fives, and the BR class 8 4-6-2.
Accidents and incidents
- On 13 October 1939, locomotive No. 5025 of the class was hauling an express passenger train from Euston to Stranraer (pilot to engine 6130) when it was in collision with locomotive 9169 which was attaching a van to the rear of an Inverness train at Bletchley, Buckinghamshire. Five people were killed and more than 30 were injured.
- In 1941, locomotive No. 5425 was severely damaged in a Luftwaffe air raid. It was subsequently repaired at Crewe Works.
- On 1 January 1946, the Lichfield rail crash, in which locomotive No. 5495 was hauling a freight train that was derailed at Lichfield Trent Valley station, Staffordshire due to faulty points. The train collided with a passenger train, killing twenty people and injuring 21.
- On 23 January 1955, locomotive No. 45274 was hauling an express passenger train that was derailed due to excessive speed on a curve, in the Sutton Coldfield rail crash. Nineteen people were killed and 64 were injured.
Preserved 45379 visiting Oldland Common railway station
|LMS No.||BR No.||Lot No.||Date||Built at||Boiler type||Valve gear (Walschaerts unless stated)||Bearings (plain unless stated)||Additional notes|
|44658–67||199||1949||Crewe||Forward topfeed||Coupled wheelbase 7'+ 8'3"|
|-||44668/9||199||1949||Horwich||Forward topfeed||Skefco roller bearings on driving axles||Coupled wheelbase 7'+ 8'3"|
|-||44670–7||199||1950||Horwich||Forward topfeed||Skefco roller bearings on driving axles||Coupled wheelbase 7'+ 8'3"|
|-||44678–85||199||1950||Horwich||Forward topfeed||Skefco roller bearings throughout||Coupled wheelbase 7'+ 8'3"|
|-||44686/7||199||1951||Horwich||Forward topfeed||British Caprotti||Skefco roller bearings throughout||Coupled wheelbase 7'+ 8'3"|
|-||44688–97||199||1950||Horwich||Forward topfeed||Timken roller bearings on driving axles||Coupled wheelbase 7'+ 8'3"|
|-||44698–717||192||1948||Horwich||Forward topfeed||Coupled wheelbase 7'+ 8'3"|
|-||44718–27||192||1948||Crewe||Forward topfeed||Steel firebox, Coupled wheelbase 7'+ 8'3"|
|-||44728–37||192||1948||Crewe||Forward topfeed||Coupled wheelbase 7'+ 8'3"|
|-||44738–47||187||1948||Crewe||Forward topfeed||Caprotti||Timken roller bearings throughout||Coupled wheelbase 7'+ 8'3"|
|4748–53||44748–53||187||1948||Crewe||Forward topfeed||Caprotti||Timken roller bearings throughout||Coupled wheelbase 7'+ 8'3"|
|-||44754–5||187||1948||Crewe||Forward topfeed||Caprotti||Coupled wheelbase 7'+ 8'3"|
|-||44756–7||187||1948||Crewe||Forward topfeed||Caprotti||double chimney, Coupled wheelbase 7'+ 8'3"|
|4758–66||44758–66||187||1947||Crewe||Forward topfeed||Timken roller bearings throughout||Coupled wheelbase 7'+ 8'3"|
|4767||44767||187||1948||Crewe||Forward topfeed||Stephenson link motion||Timken roller bearings throughout||double chimney, preserved - Coupled wheelbase 7'+ 8'3"|
|4997–9||44997–9||187||1947||Horwich||Forward topfeed||4997 was fitted with boiler 12462 from new which had the top feed on the 2nd ring, the other two had later pattern boilers.|
Only five Black Fives received names during their mainline working lives, a remarkably tiny percentage of the total produced, although seven more have been named in preservation (see below). All of those named in mainline service were named after Scottish regiments. Locomotive 5155 carried the name The Queen's Edinburgh for only two years during the Second World War. Some sources have noted that no photographic confirmation of this naming is extant, although this is neither unique to the class, nor unexpected given restrictions on photography during wartime. The evidence for the naming of the locomotive is set out in full in various sources.
|LMS No.||BR No.||Name||Date named||Name removed|
|5154||45154||Lanarkshire Yeomanry||1937||1966 (withdrawal from service)|
|5155||45155||The Queen's Edinburgh||1942||1944 (remained in service until 1964)|
|5156||45156||Ayrshire Yeomanry||1936||1968 (withdrawal from service)|
|5157||45157||The Glasgow Highlander||1936||1962 (withdrawal from service)|
|5158||45158||Glasgow Yeomanry||1936||1964 (withdrawal from service)|
45401 was the first Black Five to be withdrawn from stock in 1961 following a collision at Warrington, although the boiler was re-used and actually lasted to the end of steam on BR. The remainder of the class were withdrawn between 1962 and 1968. Some members of the class survived to the last day of steam on BR in August 1968.
Eighteen locomotives have been preserved:
|4767||44767||George Stephenson||Crewe Works||North Norfolk Railway||Operational, returned to steam in 2010. This locomotive was the sole member of the class equipped with Stephenson valve gear.|
|Derby Works||North Yorkshire Moors Railway||Operational, returned to steam in 2007. Sold to North Yorkshire Moors Railway 2013.|
|4871||44871||Sovereign (former name)||Crewe Works||East Lancashire Railway||Operational and mainline certified; owned by Ian Riley, returned to steam in 2009.|
|4901||44901||Crewe Works||Private site||Awaiting restoration from Barry Scrapyard condition. Boiler sold to Ian Riley. Will be based at the Gloucestershire and Warwickshire Railway.|
|4932||44932||Horwich Works||West Coast Railway Company||Mainline operational.|
|5000||45000||Crewe Works||Shildon Locomotion Museum||On static display, wears LMS livery. Part of the National Collection.|
|5025||45025||Vulcan Foundry||Strathspey Railway||Undergoing overhaul. Wears LMS livery.|
|5110||45110||Vulcan Foundry||Severn Valley Railway||On static display in The Engine House.|
|5163||45163||Armstrong Whitworth||Colne Valley Railway||Under restoration.|
|5212||45212||Roy 'Korky' Green Railwayman 1926-2001||Armstrong Whitworth||Keighley and Worth Valley Railway||On long term loan to Ian Riley, currently[when?] undergoing overhaul at Bury.|
|5231||45231||The Sherwood Forester||Armstrong Whitworth||West Coast Railway Company||Mainline operational.|
|5293||45293||Armstrong Whitworth||Colne Valley Railway||Under restoration.|
|5305||45305||Alderman A. E. Draper||Armstrong Whitworth||Great Central Railway||Operational, mainline certified and based at Great Central Railway Loughborough.
Boiler certificate expires 2020. Owned by The Draper Family, Hull. On loan to the Keighley and Worth Valley Railway.
|5337||45337||Armstrong Whitworth||Llangollen Railway||Operational, returned to steam September 2010. Now based at the Llangollen Railway.|
|5379||45379||Armstrong Whitworth||Mid-Hants Railway||Operational; returned to steam 10 September 2010.|
|5407||45407||The Lancashire Fusilier||Armstrong Whitworth||East Lancashire Railway||Operational and mainline certified; owned by Ian Riley.|
|5428||45428||Eric Treacy||Armstrong Whitworth||North Yorkshire Moors Railway||Operational, returned to steam April 2010.|
|5491||45491||Derby Works||Great Central Railway||Under restoration. Only surviving example with boiler with top feed on the front ring in conjunction with Walschaerts valve gear.|
† In all cases, names are not historically accurate i.e. they have all been applied since preservation.
- 44767 carries a plaque on the splasher beneath the nameplate that reads 'This locomotive was named by the Rt. Hon. William Whitelaw C.H. M.C. M.P. at Shildon on 25 August 1975, to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the Stockton and Darlington Railway.'
Operation in Preservation
Of the eighteen Black 5s preserved 11 have seen main line operation. The engines which currently work or previously worked on the mainline are: Nos. 44767, 44871, 44932, 45000, 45025, 45110, 45231, 45305, 45337, 45407 & 45428.
44767 saw use in the 1980s working in the north of England including the West Highland line between Fort William and Mallaig. 44767 Has appeared in BBC's Steam Days with Miles Kington during his visit to the Scottish highlands, This was also before the route got converted from traditional signaling to Radio control.
45000 was a member of the Severn Valley Railway's fleet and went on the national network working trips alongside fellow SVR based machines and also working a few trips alone.
5025 Only saw main use working specials in Scotland including working the final regular steam to Loch Isle trips in the early 1980s. The loco is now undergoing an overhaul at The Strathspey Railway but has no plans to return to the national network.
45337 was on the main line in the 1980s and saw most use around the North West and North East areas. One of its most noted trips was working the popular Southport Visiter trips from Manchester to Southport and back.
45110 Was the final black 5 to be withdrawn from BR at the end of steam in 1968 and was one of only 3 to work the famous 1T57 on 11 August. Upon withdrawal it passed directly from BR ownership into preservation and has recently being a popular engine on the mainline in recent years. It is now[when?] currently on display inside The Engine House on the Severn Valley Railway and is awaiting an overhaul.
45212 Recently came under a deal with Bury based engineer Ian Riley for a 10 year loan agreement which will see it work on the mainline in the future alongside fellow Bury based engines 44871 & 45407. 44806 Is also down for mainline use after the completion of its next overhaul which is due in around 2 years time.
Details of the boilers currently fitted to preserved examples
||This section possibly contains original research. (August 2014)|
|Loco Number||Boiler Number||First Loco when new||Description - ( sloping throatplate unless otherwise stated )|
|44767||12870||4790||28 element with dome on second ring, and top feed on front ring|
|44806||9349||5229||24 element with dome and top feed on second ring|
|44871||9478||5358||24 element with dome and top feed on second ring|
|44901||11322||Spare||28 element with dome and top feed on second ring, manufactured 5/42, first used on 5455 7/43|
|44932||10344||5457||28 element with dome and top feed on second ring|
|45000||9030||5100||21 element domeless, vertical throatplate|
|45025||9018||5088||21 element domeless, vertical throatplate|
|45110||8963||5183||21 element domeless, vertical throatplate|
|45163||9459||5339||24 element with dome and top feed on second ring|
|45212||8682||5065||24 element, vertical throatplate with dome. Originally 14 element domeless, re-built to 24 element|
|45231||9358||5238||24 element with dome and top feed on second ring|
|45293||9514||5394||24 element with dome and top feed on second ring|
|45305||9515||5395||24 element with dome and top feed on second ring|
|45337||12136||4932||28 element with dome and top feed on second ring|
|45379||9455||5335||24 element with dome and top feed on second ring|
|45407||9509||5389||24 element with dome and top feed on second ring|
|45428||9567||5447||24 element with dome and top feed on second ring|
|45491||12823||4778||28 element with dome on second ring, and top feed on front ring|
- David Hunt, Bob Essery and Fred James with David Jennison and David Clarke LMS Locomotive Profiles (three volumes, three pictorial supplements):
- No. 5 The mixed traffic class 5s. Part 1. Nos. 5000–5224. (+ pictorial supplement)
- No. 6 The mixed traffic class 5s. Part 2. Walschaerts and Stephenson valve gear engines from the 5225–5499 and 4658–4999 series. (+ pictorial supplement)
- No. 7 Mixed traffic class 5s: Caprotti valve gear engines and class summary (+ pictorial supplement)
- J.S. Whiteley, Gavin Morrison The Power of the Black Fives
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LMS Stanier Class 5 4-6-0.
- Rowledge & Reed 1987, pp. 49, 23.
- Rowledge & Reed 1984, p. 48.
- Rowledge & Reed 1984, p. 50.
- Cook 1999, p. 147.
- Trevena 1981, p. 29.
- Gerard & Hamilton 1981, pp. 66-69.
- Earnshaw 1993, p. 28.
- See details and commentary at Heritage Railway Magazine on-line.
- See, for example, David Hunt, Bob Essery and Fred James with David Jennison and David Clarke, LMS Locomotive Profiles (three volumes, with pictorial supplements).[full citation needed]
- See, for example, J W P Rowledge and Brian Reed, "The Stanier 4-6-0s of the LMS. (Jubilees, Class 5s, and the BR Standard class 5s), published by Newton Abbot: David & Charles, 1977, page 74.
- Rowledge 1975, p. 11.
- Awdry & Awdry 1987, p. 129.
- Awdry, Wilbert; Awdry, G. (1987). The Island of Sodor: Its People, History and Railways. Kaye & Ward. ISBN 0-434-92762-7.
- Cook, A.F. (1999). Raising Steam on the LMS. Railway Correspondence and Travel Society. ISBN 0-901115-85-1.
- Rowledge, J.W.P. (1975). Engines of the LMS built 1923–51. Oxford: Oxford Publishing Company. ISBN 0-902888-59-5.
- Earnshaw, Alan (1993). Trains in Trouble: Vol. 8. Penryn: Atlantic Books. ISBN 0-906899-52-4.
- Gerard, Malcolm; Hamilton, J. A. B. (1981) . Trains to Nowhere. London: George Allen & Unwin. ISBN 0-04-385084-7.
- Rowledge, John Westbury Peter; Reed, Brian (1984) . The Stanier 4-6-0s of the LMS. Newton Abbot: David & Charles. ISBN 0-7153-7385-4.
- Trevena, Arthur (1980). Trains in Trouble. Vol. 1. Redruth: Atlantic Books. ISBN 0-906899-01-X.
- Trevena, Arthur (1981). Trains in Trouble: Vol. 2. Redruth: Atlantic Books. ISBN 0-906899-03-6.