LNER Peppercorn Class A1

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This article is about the locomotives built in 1948–49. For other LNER Class A1 locomotives, see LNER Class A1. For the new locomotive completed in 2008, see LNER Peppercorn Class A1 60163 Tornado.
LNER Peppercorn Class A1
Steam locomotive with four small carrying wheels at the front, six large driving wheels, two small carrying wheels below the cab, and a tender
60155 Borderer by the coaling stage at Gateshead depot in April 1964
Specifications
Power type Steam
Designer Arthur Peppercorn
Builder Doncaster Works
Darlington Works
Build date 1948 - 1949
Configuration 4-6-2
Leading wheel
diameter
3 ft 2 in (0.97 m)
Driver diameter 6 ft 8 in (2.03 m)
Trailing wheel
diameter
3 ft 8 in (1.12 m)
Length 72 ft 11.75 in (22.24 m)
Width 9 ft 2.875 in (2.82 m)
Height 13 ft 1 in (3.99 m)
Axle load 22.1 long tons (22.5 t)
Weight on drivers 66.55 long tons (67.62 t)
Locomotive weight 105.2 long tons (106.9 t)
Tender weight 60.9 long tons (61.9 t)
Locomotive and tender
combined weight
166.1 long tons (168.8 t)
Fuel type Coal
Fuel capacity 9.0 long tons (9.1 t)
Water capacity 5,000 imp gal (23,000 L)
Boiler Diagram 118
6 ft 5 in (1.96 m) diameter
29 ft 2 in (8.89 m) length
Boiler pressure 250 psi (1,700 kPa)
Firegrate area 50.0 sq ft (4.65 m2)
Heating surface:
– Tubes
1,211.6 sq ft (112.56 m2)
– Flues 1,004.5 sq ft (93.32 m2)
– Firebox 245.3 sq ft (22.79 m2)
– Total 2,461.4 sq ft (228.67 m2)
Superheater area 697.7 sq ft (64.82 m2)
Cylinders 3
Cylinder size 19 in × 26 in (480 mm × 660 mm)
Valve gear Walschaerts
Maximum speed 100 mph (160 km/h)
Power output 2,700 PS (2,000 kW)[citation needed]
Tractive effort 37,397 lbf (166.35 kN)
Career
Power class BR: 8P6F
Number in class 49 original, plus 1 completed 2008
Number(s) 60114 - 60162
Locale North Eastern Region of British Railways
First run August 1948
Last run June 1966
Withdrawn October 1962 - June 1966
Scrapped 1962 - 1966
Disposition Original 49 withdrawn and scrapped, 1 built in 2008 and still in service
60133 Pommern passing Leeds-Holbeck High Level Station hauling Leeds Central to Kings Cross Yorkshire Pullman
60131 Osprey at Leeds Neville Hill locomotive shed on 18 April 1965

The London and North Eastern Railway (LNER) Peppercorn Class A1 is a type of express passenger steam locomotive. Forty-nine original Peppercorn Class A1s were built to the design of Arthur Peppercorn (who was the last Chief Mechanical Engineer (CME) of the London and North Eastern Railway) during the early British Railways era, but all were scrapped with the discontinuation of steam, with none of the original production run surviving into preservation. In 2008 a brand new 50th Peppercorn A1 locomotive, 60163 Tornado, was completed.

Background[edit]

Most of the former LNER Class A1 locomotives designed by Sir Nigel Gresley had been rebuilt as LNER Class A3 locomotives prior to this class being conceived. The few straggling LNER Class A1 locomotives that remained unrebuilt during the tenure of Peppercorn's predecessor, Edward Thompson, were redesignated by him as Class A10s in preparation for the construction of his new Class A1 locomotives. Thompson rebuilt the pioneer LNER pacific Great Northern in 1945; originally this was the new Class A1, but the rebuild was not repeated. Instead, initiated by Thompson but largely taken forward by his successor Arthur Peppercorn, Great Northern was designated Class A1/1, and a new class of Peppercorn A1s ordered.

The locomotives were designed to cope with the heaviest passenger trains in the after-war period on the East Coast Mainline (LondonYorkNewcastleEdinburghAberdeen) which consisted normally of trains with up to 15 coaches and up to 550 tons. The Peppercorn A1s were able to pull such a train on the flat at a speed of 60–70 mph (95-110 km/h). Like previous LNER pacifics, the class had a 3-cylinder arrangement. The chimney system was of the type Double-Kylchap.

Original locomotives[edit]

Construction[edit]

The new A1s were ordered by the LNER but delivered after that company had been nationalised to form part of British Railways at the start of 1948. The 49 engines were built at the Eastern Region's Doncaster and Darlington works between 1948 and 1949.

Construction details
Nos Date built Works Order no.[1] Notes
60114-22 1948 Doncaster 382
60123 1949 Doncaster
60124-9 1949 Doncaster 383
60130-43 1948 Darlington
60144-52 1949 Darlington
60153-7 1949 Doncaster 388 Built with Timken roller bearings on all axles
60158-62 1949 Doncaster

Withdrawal[edit]

By summer of 1966 all 49 class members had gone for scrap. The last to be withdrawn from stock was No. 60145 Saint Mungo after a working life of just 17 years.

Withdrawal dates
Year No. withdrawn Nos
1962 6 60115/22/23/35/37/53
1963 6 60136/44/59-62
1964 11 60114/9/20/5/39/41/3/7/9/50/8
1965 24 60116-8/21/26-34/38/40/2/6/8/51/2/4-7
1966 2 60124/45

List of original locomotives[edit]

Below is a list of original Peppercorn A1 Locomotives[2][3][4][5][6][7][8]

No. Name Built Works Withdrawn Notes
60114 AllenW.P. Allen August 1948 Doncaster December 1964
60115 Meg Merrilies September 1948 Doncaster November 1962
60116 Hal o' the Wynd October 1948 Doncaster June 1965
60117 Bois Roussel October 1948 Doncaster June 1965
60118 SturrockArchibald Sturrock November 1948 Doncaster October 1965
60119 StirlingPatrick Stirling November 1948 Doncaster May 1964
60120 Kittiwake December 1948 Doncaster January 1964
60121 Silurian December 1948 Doncaster October 1965
60122 Curlew December 1948 Doncaster December 1962
60123 IvattH.A. Ivatt February 1949 Doncaster October 1962
60124 Kenilworth March 1949 Doncaster March 1966
60125 Scottish Union April 1949 Doncaster July 1964
60126 RavenSir Vincent Raven April 1949 Doncaster January 1965
60127 WorsdellWilson Worsdell May 1949 Doncaster June 1965
60128 Bongrace May 1949 Doncaster January 1965
60129 ManneringGuy Mannering June 1949 Doncaster October 1965
60130 Kestrel September 1948 Darlington October 1965
60131 Osprey October 1948 Darlington October 1965
60132 Marmion October 1948 Darlington June 1965
60133 Pommern October 1948 Darlington June 1965
60134 Foxhunter November 1948 Darlington October 1965
60135 Madge Wildfire November 1948 Darlington November 1962
60136 Alcazar November 1948 Darlington May 1963
60137 Redgauntlet December 1948 Darlington October 1962
60138 Boswell December 1948 Darlington October 1965
60139 Sea Eagle December 1948 Darlington June 1964
60140 Balmoral December 1948 Darlington January 1965
60141 Abbotsford December 1948 Darlington October 1964
60142 FletcherEdward Fletcher February 1949 Darlington June 1965
60143 ScottSir Walter Scott February 1949 Darlington May 1964
60144 King's Courier March 1949 Darlington April 1963
60145 Saint Mungo March 1949 Darlington June 1966
60146 Peregrine April 1949 Darlington October 1965
60147 North Eastern April 1949 Darlington August 1964
60148 Aboyeur May 1949 Darlington June 1965
60149 Amadis May 1949 Darlington June 1964
60150 Willbrook June 1949 Darlington October 1964
60151 Midlothian June 1949 Darlington November 1965
60152 Holyrood July 1949 Darlington June 1965
60153 Flamboyant August 1949 Doncaster November 1962
60154 Bon Accord September 1949 Doncaster October 1965
60155 Borderer September 1949 Doncaster October 1965
60156 Great Central October 1949 Doncaster May 1965
60157 Great Eastern November 1949 Doncaster January 1965
60158 Aberdonian November 1949 Doncaster December 1964
60159 Bonnie Dundee November 1949 Doncaster October 1963
60160 Auld Reekie December 1949 Doncaster December 1963
60161 North British December 1949 Doncaster October 1963
60162 Saint Johnstoun December 1949 Doncaster October 1963

Notes on names[edit]

The names of the A1s [9] were an eclectic mix including:

  • Racehorses: Bois Roussel, Silurian, Scottish Union, Bongrace, Pommern, Foxhunter, Alcazar, Boswell, King's Courier, Aboyeur, Amadis, Willbrook, Flamboyant
  • Names of people: W. P. Allen (an LNER locomotive driver who became a member of the Railway Executive in 1948), Archibald Sturrock, Patrick Stirling, H. A. Ivatt, Sir Vincent Raven, Wilson Worsdell, Edward Fletcher (Locomotive Superintendents of pre-grouping railways), Sir Walter Scott, Saint Mungo
  • Names related to the works of Sir Walter Scott: Meg Merrilies, Hal o’ the Wynd, Kenilworth, Guy Mannering, Marmion, Borderer, Madge Wildfire, Redgauntlet, Bonnie Dundee. Some of these names had previously been used on NBR J class locomotives
  • Pre-grouping railway companies: North Eastern, Great Central, Great Eastern, North British
  • Birds: Kittiwake, Curlew, Kestrel, Osprey, Sea Eagle, Peregrine
  • Place-related names: Balmoral, Abbotsford (Sir Walter Scott's house), Midlothian, Holyrood, Bon Accord (motto of Aberdeen), Auld Reekie (a soubriquet for Edinburgh), Saint Johnstoun (an old name for Perth), Aberdonian

No. 60163 Tornado[edit]

Main article: 60163 Tornado
60163 Tornado, August 2008, Darlington

None of the original production run of 49 Peppercorn A1s survived the scrapyard to be preserved, however in 2008 a brand new 50th A1 based on the Peppercorn patterns, 60163 Tornado, was completed as the evolved member of the class.[10]

Accidents and incidents[edit]

  • On 5 June 1950, locomotive No. 60153 Flamboyant was hauling an express passenger train which was derailed at Tollerton, Nottinghamshire due to heat buckled track.[11]

Models[edit]

Bachmann Branchline and Hornby make models in OO gauge, Graham Farish produce a model in N gauge and Accucraft (UK) make a live steam model in gauge 1.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Boddy, Neve & Yeadon 1978, p. 193
  2. ^ http://www.lner.info/locos/A/a1peppercorn.shtml
  3. ^ Longworth (not including Tornado)
  4. ^ Railuk database (not including Tornado)
  5. ^ RCTS (not including Tornado)
  6. ^ Yeadon (not including Tornado)
  7. ^ A1LST history section (not including Tornado)
  8. ^ Ian Allan ABC of British Railways Locomotives, summer 1961 edition, part 4, pp 26-27 )Names of 60114-60162 are given but it also includes the LNER Thompson Class A1/1 60113 Great Northern in the list, making 50 locomotives.)
  9. ^ http://www.a1steam.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=53&Itemid=69
  10. ^ "New steam loco ready for service". BBC News. 19 November 2008. Retrieved 19 November 2008. "The first new steam engine to be built in the UK for almost 50 years is ready for service after successfully completing all its trial runs ... Tornado, a Peppercorn class A1 Pacific steam locomotive ..." 
  11. ^ Trevena, Arthur (1981). Trains in Trouble: Vol. 2. Redruth: Atlantic Books. p. 34. ISBN 0-906899-03-6. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Boddy, M. G.; Neve, E.; Yeadon, W. B. (April 1973). Fry, E. V., ed. Locomotives of the L.N.E.R., Part 2A: Tender Engines—Classes A1 to A10. Kenilworth: RCTS. ISBN 0-901115-25-8. 
  • Yeadon, W. B. (1991). Yeadon's Register of LNER Locomotives, Volume 3: Raven, Thompson and Peppercorn Pacifics. Irwell Press. 

External links[edit]