La Convivencia ("the Coexistence") is the period of Spanish history from the Muslim Umayyad conquest of Hispania in the early eighth century until the completion of the Christian Reconquista in the late fifteenth century, when Muslims, Christians and Jews in Moorish Iberia lived in relative peace together within the different kingdoms (during the same time, however, the Christian reclaiming of land conquered by the Moors was ongoing). The phrase often refers to the interplay of cultural ideas between the three groups, and ideas of religious tolerance. James Carroll invokes this concept and indicates that it played an important role in bringing the classics of Greek philosophy to Europe, with translations from Greek to Arabic to Hebrew and Latin.
See also 
Sources and further reading 
- Catlos, Brian. The Victors and the Vanquished: Christians and Muslims of Catalonia and Aragon, 1050-1300. 2004. ISBN 0-521-82234-3
- Esperanza Alfonso, Islamic culture through Jewish eyes : al-Andalus from the tenth to twelfth century. 2007 ISBN 978-0-415-43732-5
- O'Shea, Stephen. Sea of Faith: Islam and Christianity in the Medieval Mediterranean World. Walker & Company: 2006. ISBN 0-8027-1517-6.
- Pick, Lucy. Conflict and Coexistence: Archbishop Rodrigo and the Muslims and Jews of Medieval Spain. Oxbow Books: 2004. ISBN 0-472-11387-9.
- Vivan Mann, et al., eds. Convivencia: Jews, Muslims, and Christians in Medieval Spain. George Braziller: 1992. ISBN 0-8076-1286-3.
- Maria Rosa Menocal. "Ornament of the World: How Muslims, Jews, and Christians Created a Culture of Tolerance in Medieval Spain." 2003. ISBN 0-316-56688-8.
Additional References 
- ^ Carroll, James (2001), Constantine's Sword: The Church and the Jews, Chapter 33. Houghton Mifflin, Co., Boston.
External links