La Leche League International
La Leche League International (LLLI) (La Leche is Spanish for "the milk") is an international nonprofit organization that distributes information on and promotes breastfeeding. It was founded in 1956 in Franklin Park, Illinois as "La Leche League" and has a presence in sixty-eight countries.
The founders of La Leche League were seven mothers from Illinois who had breastfed their own children and were motivated to help mothers who, for a variety of different reasons (often related to social expectations and misinformation) had difficulties with and questions about breastfeeding. Marian Tompson and her friend Mary White began with a conversation about the joys and difficulties of breastfeeding while at a local church picnic in August 1956. They each invited other friends to join the discussion; Mary Ann Cahill, Edwina Froehlich, Mary Ann Kerwin, Viola Lennon, and Betty Wagner. These women are considered the founders of La Leche League.
Drs. Herbert Ratner and Gregory White were invited to meet with them and advised the group about medical aspects of breastfeeding, providing access to the small amount of medical literature about breastfeeding then available.
The first formal La Leche League meeting was held in October, 1956. The seven Leaders originally held meetings in private homes; more recently, hospitals, parenting centres, and other public venues have provided meeting spaces.
In 1957, Dr. Grantly Dick-Read, considered the father of the natural childbirth movement, also came to speak with them.
The first La Leche League Group outside of the United States formed in 1960 in Jonquiere, Quebec, Canada. The La Leche League became La Leche League International, Inc. (LLLI) in 1964 with groups in Canada, Mexico and New Zealand. In 1964 the first international conference was held in Chicago with 425 adults and 100 babies in attendance.
In 1981 LLLI was granted consultative status with the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). In 1985 LLLI served on the International Board of Lactation Consultant Examiners, established to develop and administer a voluntary certification program for lactation consultants. The first IBLCE exam was administered in July 1985.
Early in the organization's history, local newspapers rejected meeting notices that used the words breastfed and breastfeeding, calling them inappropriate for family publications. The name comes from the Spanish word, leche (pronounced leh-cheh) meaning milk. It was inspired by a shrine in St. Augustine, Florida, dedicated to “Nuestra Señora de la Leche y Buen Parto”, meaning “Our Lady of Happy Delivery and Plentiful Milk”.
Philosophy and mission
The misson of LLLI is "to help mothers worldwide to breastfeed through mother-to-mother support, encouragement, information, and education, and to promote a better understanding of breastfeeding as an important element in the healthy development of the baby and mother."
- Mothering through breastfeeding is the most natural and effective way of understanding and satisfying the needs of the baby.
- Mother and baby need to be together early and often to establish a satisfying relationship and an adequate milk supply.
- In the early years the baby has an intense need to be with his mother which is as basic as his need for food.
- Breast milk is the superior infant food.
- For the healthy, full-term baby, breast milk is the only food necessary until the baby shows signs of needing solids, about the middle of the first year after birth.
- Ideally the breastfeeding relationship will continue until the baby outgrows the need.
- Alert and active participation by the mother in childbirth is a help in getting breastfeeding off to a good start.
- Breastfeeding is enhanced and the nursing couple sustained by the loving support, help, and companionship of the baby's father. A father's unique relationship with his baby is an important element in the child's development from early infancy.
- Good nutrition means eating a well-balanced and varied diet of foods in as close to their natural state as possible.
- From infancy on, children need loving guidance which reflects acceptance of their capabilities and sensitivity to their feelings.
The primary purpose of LLLI is to encourage, inform, and support mothers primarily via monthly Series Meetings, telephone help, and online through email and the LLLI website. Some Leaders also do home and/or hospital visits.
LLLI leaders are accredited volunteers who have breastfed their own babies and have been specially trained to help mothers with breastfeeding. They facilitate meetings in the morning, afternoon, or evening once a month. Some Leaders develop expertise with particular breastfeeding situations such as breastfeeding an adopted child, special medical or physical situations of the mother or baby, family challenges such as divorce, and many others. In order to be most effective, Leaders keep up-to-date through continued training and study of the most current medical research on breastfeeding.
Most meetings are designed for pregnant and breastfeeding women to provide breastfeeding information, support, and encouragement. In some areas there are specialized meetings for couples, working mothers, teen mothers, or mothers of multiples (twins, triplets or more). Online meetings are available through the LLLI website. While the Leader represents LLLI at Series Meetings, mothers are encouraged to share their own experiences with other mothers. A common theme repeated by Leaders at a LLLI meeting is "take what you need and leave the rest", acknowledging that every mother-baby dyad is unique and each mother knows her own baby best. All meetings are free of charge. A one year membership to LLLI can be purchased for $40.00.
In some places, there is a centralized phone number (for an entire country or a US state, for example) where mothers can either receive help directly or be referred to a Leader in her area. In other areas, these Leaders directly advertise their telephone numbers, and sometimes email, via the LLLI website, telephone books and posters in parenting centres, libraries, doctors' and midwives' offices, health centres and other places where pregnant women and new parents might seek information. Mothers may also submit questions or concerns through online Help Forms available on the LLLI website.
Today, LLLI has grown to help women in more than 60 countries. It publishes a bimonthly breastfeeding and parenting journal, New Beginnings, sent to those who become LLLI members. Anyone may become a LLLI member for an annual fee. LLLI also publishes and sells a variety of books and media for mothers, families, and medical professionals.
The most recent LLLI International Conference was in July 2007 in Chicago, Illinois, and included a seminar for health care professionals. In addition, there are Area parenting and breastfeeding conferences held in many parts of the world every year. Some Areas also offer continuing education seminars for health care professionals as well as ongoing training for Leaders.
La Leche League is often regarded as the most influential organization advocating breastfeeding. The leading voices in breastfeeding and lactation fields come from La Leche League. Many current and former LLL Leaders are prominent in other areas of work improving lives of families, women and children.
La Leche League Österreich was founded in 1979.
Olga Prominski founded La Leche League of Belarus in 2011.
Tanya Ruseva became the first La Leche League Leader in Bulgaria in 2005. This is the official birth year of La Leche League Bulgaria. A lot of the first meetings were held online, but in 2006 the first "live" meeting took place. As of 2011 La Leche League of Bulgaria established the first in the country website for mothers dedicated solely to breastfeeding. They published the first and only breastfeeding magazine for both parents and healthcare workers. They are the sole providers of breastfeeding webinars and organized the first international breastfeeding conference in Bulgaria.
First LLL Group outside of USA, the country of LLL birth, founded in Jonquiere, Quebec.
Liga de La Leche, Dominican Republic was born in 1990. The founding mothers of LLL in the country were Priscilla Stothers, a nurse and health educator from Florida, USA, and Yanet Olivares, who was accredited as a LLL Leader in Puerto Rico before she returned to her own country, the Dominican Republic. The PR group Leader, Gretchen Rivera de Cummings, invited her to become a LLL Leader. Gretchen was often contacted by the mothers from the DR because her group was geographically the closest group and the LLLI office always provided her contact information. .
The first meetings of LLL of France were held in 1973. LLL of France was officially created in 1979. The founding mother of LLL of France was Suzanne Colson.
- Suzanne Colson, PhD, a midwife, is widely known for her research of neonatal reflexes in connection to breastfeeding.
LLL Italy was officially founded in Milan in 1979 by a group of mothers and Leaders Shanda Bertelli and Rosalind Nesticò.
The first meetings of La Leche League in Germany were held at American military bases in 1970s. The first German Leaders were Edda Longman and Hannah Lothrop. April 30, 1977 is the official birthday of La Leche Liga Deutschland.
In 2012 Nadiya Dragan of Ukraine became the 1st La Leche League Leader in Lebanon.
La Leche League Nederland was started in 1976. In 1978 an organization De Vereniging Borstvoeding Natuurlijk sprung from LLL Nederland.
Eli Heiberg Endresen and Elisabet Helsing compiled the first edition of How to breast-feed your child which was published in 1967 based on material from La Leche League and personal experience. In 1968 Helsing started a mother-to-mother breastfeeding support organization called Ammehjelpen (meaning breast-feeding help). This started revival of breastfeeding in Norway. Today the country boasts 98-99% initiation rates of breastfeeding and 80% breastfeeding rates at 6 months.
La Leche League Leader Natalia Gerbeda-Wilson of Ukraine and a Leader Applicant Marina Kopylova of Russia started a Yahoo-mailing list Kormlenie (Russian for breastfeeding)in 2003 to unite mothers who were helping other mothers breastfeed in an attempt to stop high turnover of breastfeeding consultants in the countries of the former USSR. The organization of natural feeding consultants called AKEV (Association of Natural Feeding Constulants, Russian for Ассоциация консультантов по естественному вскармливанию) was born on the mailing list in 2004.
Ekaterina Lokshina became the first LLL Leader in Russia. In 2012 the first Russian-language edition of the Womanly Art of Breastfeeding was published in Moscow, Russia. The book was adapted for the Russian speaking audience.
La Leche League of Serbia was founded in April 2011 by Marija Taraba.
- Kathleen Bruce and Kathleen Auerbach, both LLL Leaders, in 1995 started LACTNET, a network for breastfeeding educators and advocates worldwide to share information, discussion and support focusing on best practices, emerging thoughts and current research.
- Barbara Heiser, a LLL Leader, co-founded the National Allisance of Breastfeeding Advocacy (NABA).
- Kay Hoover and Barbara Wilson-Clay, LLL Leaders and IBCLCs, wrote The Breastfeeding Atlas, a comprehensive visual guide for lactation specialists.
- Valerie McClaine, an LLL Leader, has been raising awareness about human milk patenting.
- Nancy Mohrbaher ~ a La Leche League Leader, IBCLC, FILCA. A co-author with Julie Stock of Breastfeeding Answer Book, one of the first most definitive references for breastfeeding counselors. The book was first published in 1991, then revised in 1996 and 2003. Mohrbacher later wrote Breastfeeding Answers Made Simple: A Guide for Helping Mothers (with Kathleen Kendall-Tackett) and Breastfeeding Made Simple: Seven Natural Laws for Nursing Mothers.
- Audrey Naylor, MD and a member of the LLLI Professional Advisory Board relied on the organization's resources in training health care workers around the world through Wellstart International, the nonprofit educational organization she founded in 1983.
- Peggy O'Mara, a LLL Leader, is famous as a publisher, editor and owner of Mothering magazine. She is the author of several books: Having a Baby Naturally: The Mothering Magazine Guide to Pregnancy and Childbirth; Natural Family Living: The Mothering Magazine Guide to Parenting; The Way Back Home: Essays on Life and Family; A Quiet Place: Essays on Life and Family
- Barbara Popper and Elizabeth Hormann, both LLL Leaders, founded Children In Hospitals (CIH), a non-profit, volunteer educational and advocacy organization. CIH conducted a survey of visitation policies at other hospitals, and used the information to advocate for 24-hour family visitation policies at Massachusetts hospitals. Families have Barbara to thank for being able to room in with their hospitalized children.
- Jan Riordan ~ a La Leche League Leader, RN, EdD, IBCLC, co-authored Breastfeeding and Human Lactation, one of the main texts on breastfeeding education, with Katherine G. Auerbach, PhD, LLL Leader, in 1993 and 1996, and with Karen Wambach in 2009.
- Nancy Wainer Cohen, a LLL Leader, coined the term VBAC ( vaginal birth after cesarean) and has written two books on cesarean prevention. "Silent Knife" (with Lois J. Estner) won an award for The Best Book in the Field of Health and Medicine by the American Library Association the year it was written. She co cofounded the first cesarean prevention organization in the world and her work is being archived at the Schlesinger Women's History Library at Harvard University.
- Marian Tompson, a co-founder of LLL, founded AnotherLook, an organization advocating research of breastfeeding in the context of HIV.
- Diana West, LLL Leader, IBCLC wrote Defining Your Own Success : Breastfeeding after Breast Reduction Surgery and The Breastfeeding Mother's Guide to Making More Milk (with Lisa Marasco, LLL Leader, IBCLC, FILCA).
- In 1979 Chele Marmet and Ellen Shell, both LLL Leaders in California, opened the Lactation Institute, the first program in the US providing education specifically for lactation consultants. The program became a model for the emerging lactation consultant profession.
- In 1982 LLLI established a Lactation Consultant Department under the leadership of LLL Leader JoAnne Scott, assisted by Linda Smith, Judy Good, Chele Marmet and other LLL Leaders. In 1985 LLLI loaned $40,000 to found an independent International Board of Lactation Consultant Examiners. JoAnne Scott, Linda Smith, Chele Marmet, Judy Good, Jan Riordan and others jointly designed a certification program that established worldwide lactation consultant competency standard.
- In 1987 LLLI together with Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) agency, the Chicago Board of Health kicked off the first official Peer Counselor Training Program, reaching out to women of various races and socio-economic groups that LLL did not reach through its help.
- In 1996 La Leche League became one of the three partners in LINKAGES, a worldwide government project to promote breastfeeding, appropriate complementary feeding, and maternal dietary practices in six developing countries.
The Weston A. Price Foundation has criticized "The Womanly Art of Breastfeeding", published by LLLI, as providing nutritional advice that may undermine some of the benefits of breastfeeding. However, the maternal nutritional advice given is widely accepted as best practice and is repeated by other breastfeeding organisations worldwide. The book has also been reviewed as easy to read, comprehensive and reliable, though unapologetically pro-breastfeeding.
One study of LLLI's philosophies and practices suggested a series of paradoxes: while promoting a sense of maternal competence, resistance to authority and the reclamation of their bodies, LLLI also promotes a conception of what it is to be a "good mother" that is biologically deterministic and socially prescribed. In an article that focuses on similar themes, Hanna Rosin, a journalist, notes that while La Leche League originally developed in part in reaction against the notion of the medical mother measuring out doctor's office chemicals for her baby, the contemporary LLLI uses a continual diatribe of medical testimony to push women toward their definition of "good motherhood." She suggests that LLLI and other pro-breastfeeding individuals/organizations paint mothers who do not breastfeed as cold and/or unresponsive to their children's needs. She cites studies that suggest that breastfeeding, while nutritionally useful to children, is not so essential to children's well-being that it makes sense to demonize mothers who do not or cannot breastfeed.
- Bazelon, Emily. Edwina Froehlich, b. 1915. Founding Mothers. New York Times, December 28, 2008. Retrieved 2009-09-02.
- "Founders' Bios" (PDF). LLLI.org. La Leche League International. February 1, 2007. Retrieved 2008-09-22.
- "Happy mothers, breastfed babies: La Leche League International 2005 Annual Report". La Leche League International. Retrieved 2008-05-23.
- Ember, Carol; Melvin Ember (2003). "Breast-feeding practices in the west". Encyclopedia of medical anthropology: Health and Illness in the World's Cultures. Springer. p. 234. ISBN 0-306-47754-8, 9780306477546 Check
- "A Brief History of La Leche League International". LLLI.org. La Leche League International. July 2003. Retrieved 2008-09-22.
- Stephen Miller (June 12, 2008). "Edwina Froehlich, 93, La Leche League Founder". The New York Sun. Retrieved 2008-10-10.
- "La Leche League Mission". LLLI.org. La Leche League International. July 19, 2006. Retrieved 2008-09-22.
- "Child Rights Information Network". Retrieved 2008-10-10.
- "La Leche League Philosophy". LLLI.org. La Leche League International. July 19, 2006. Retrieved 2008-09-22.
- Pryor, Gale; Kathleen Huggins (2007). Nursing Mother, Working Mother: The Essential Guide to Breastfeeding Your Baby Before and After You Return to Work. Harvard Common Press. pp. 40, 41. ISBN 1-55832-331-7, 9781558323315 Check
- Fallon, Sally (2002-03-30). "All Thumbs Book Reviews: The Womanly Art of Breastfeeding Review". The Weston A. Price Foundation. Archived from the original on 2008-05-17. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
- Day, J. (ed) (2004) Breastfeeding... naturally (2nd ed) Australian Breastfeeding Association, Victoria
- Harkavy, Susan. "Book review: The Womanly Art of Breastfeeding by La Leche League International". storknet.com. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
- Bobel, CG (2001). "Bounded Liberation: A focused study of La Leche League International". Gender & Society 15 (1): 130–151. doi:10.1177/089124301015001007. Retrieved 2008-06-02.
- Rosin, Hanna. "The Case Against Breastfeeding." The Atlantic Monthly, April 2009. Retrieved 2009-09-02.