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The Sila (or Italian: La Sila) is the name of the mountainous plateau and historic region located in Calabria, southern Italy. It occupies part of the provinces of Cosenza, Crotone and Catanzaro, and is divided (from north to south) into the Sila Greca, Sila Grande and Sila Piccola ("Greek", "Greater" and "Lesser Sila", respectively) sub-ranges. The highest peaks are the Botte Donato (1,928 m), in the Sila Grande, and Monte Gariglione (1,764 m) in the Sila Piccola.
The Sila houses the eponymous National Park, the Parco Nazionale della Sila, formerly called National Park of Calabria and created in 2002.
The first known settlers of the Sila plateau were the Bruttii, an ancient tribe of shepherds and farmers. After the destruction of Sybaris in 510 BC, Rome began to extend its sphere of influence over Calabria, Sila included. Later it was occupied in turn by the Ostrogoths, the Byzantines and, from the 11th century, the Italo-Normans. The latter favoured the creation of several monasteries, like the Matina of San Marco Argentano, the Sambucina at Luzzi and the Florense Abbey at San Giovanni in Fiore, founded by Joachim of Fiore.
In 1448-1535 immigrants from Albania settled the area towards the Ionian Sea, creating the so-called community of Sila Greca ("Greek Sila"). Today the communes in Sila in which the Albanian language is preserved are 30.
After the annexation to the Kingdom of Italy (late 19th century), Sila became a base of brigandage. New routes were opened to reduce the isolation of the mountain centres, which was dramatic especially in winter: these included the Paola-Cosenza-Crotone road, and mountain railways such as the Cosenza-Camigliatello Silano-San Giovanni in Fiore narrow gauge line (now no longer operating regularly, and only just for tourist special excursions), operated by the Ferrovie Calabro Lucane, and the Paola-Cosenza rack railway, operated by Ferrovie dello Stato.
Today several centres, such as Camigliatello and Palumbo Sila, are becoming tourist resorts.