La fille du régiment

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La fille du régiment (The Daughter of the Regiment) is an opéra comique in two acts by Gaetano Donizetti. It was written while the composer was living in Paris, with a French libretto by Jules-Henri Vernoy de Saint-Georges and Jean-François Bayard.

La figlia del reggimento, a slightly different Italian-language version (in translation by Callisto Bassi), was adapted to the tastes of the Italian public.

Performance history[edit]

Opéra-Comique[edit]

La fille du régiment was first performed on 11 February 1840 by the Paris Opéra-Comique at the Salle de la Bourse. The opening night was "a barely averted disaster."[1] Apparently the lead tenor was frequently off pitch.[2] The noted French tenor Gilbert Duprez, who was present, later observed in his Souvenirs d'un chanteur: "Donizetti often swore to me how his self-esteem as a composer had suffered in Paris. He was never treated there according to his merits. I myself saw the unsuccess, almost the collapse, of La fille du régiment."[3][4]

It received a highly negative review from the French critic and composer Hector Berlioz (Journal des Débats, 16 February 1840), who claimed it could not be taken seriously by either the public or its composer, although Berlioz did concede that some of the music, "the little waltz that serves as the entr'acte and the trio dialogué ... lack neither vivacity nor freshness."[4] The source of Berlioz's hostility is revealed later in his review: "What, two major scores for the Opéra, Les martyrs and Le duc d'Albe, two others at the Renaissance, Lucie de Lammermoor and L'ange de Nisida, two at the Opéra-Comique, La fille du régiment and another whose title is still unknown, and yet another for the Théâtre-Italien, will have been written or transcribed in one year by the same composer! M[onsieur] Donizetti seems to treat us like a conquered country; it is a veritable invasion. One can no longer speak of the opera houses of Paris, but only of the opera houses of M[onsieur] Donizetti."[4] The critic and poet Théophile Gautier, who was not a rival composer, had a somewhat different point of view: "M[onsier] Donizetti is capable of paying with music that is beautiful and worthy for the cordial hospitality which France offers him in all her theaters, subsidized or not."[5]

Despite its bumpy start, the opera soon became hugely popular at the Opéra-Comique. During its first 80 years, it reached its 500th performance at the theatre in 1871 and its 1,000th in 1908.[6]

Outside of France[edit]

The opera was first performed in Italy at La Scala, Milan, on 3 October 1840, in Italian with recitatives by Donizetti replacing the spoken dialogue.[7] It was thought "worthless" and received only six performances. It was not until 1928 when Toti dal Monte sang Marie that the opera began to be appreciated in Italy.[8]

It received its first performance in America on 7 March 1843 at the Théâtre d'Orléans in New Orleans.[9] The New Orleans company premiered the work in New York City on 19 July 1843 with Julie Calvé as Marie.[10] The Spirit of the Times (22 July) counted it a great success, and, although the score was "thin" and not up to the level of Anna Bolena or L'elisir d'amore, some of Donizetti's "gems" were to be found in it.[11] The Herald (21 July) was highly enthusiastic, especially in its praise of Calvé: "Applause is an inadequate term, ... vehement cheering rewarded this talented prima donna."[12] Subsequently the opera was performed frequently in New York, the role of Marie being a favorite with Jenny Lind, Henriette Sontag, Pauline Lucca, Anna Thillon and Adelina Patti.[13]

It was presented at the Metropolitan Opera with Marcella Sembrich, and Charles Gilibert (Sulpice) in 1902/03, then followed by performances at the Manhattan Opera House in 1909 with Luisa Tetrazzini, John McCormack, and Charles Gilibert, and again with Frieda Hempel and Antonio Scotti in the same roles at the Met on 17 December 1917.[14]

The opera was first presented in England on 27 May 1847 in Italian at Her Majesty's Theatre in London (with Jenny Lind and Luigi Lablache), and later on 21 December 1847 in English at the Surrey Theatre in London.[15]

It was revived at the Royal Opera, London in 1966 for Joan Sutherland. On 13 February 1970, in concert at Carnegie Hall, Beverly Sills sang the first performance in New York since Lily Pons performed it at the Metropolitan Opera House in 1943.[16][17]

This opera is famous for the aria "Ah! mes amis, quel jour de fête!" (sometimes referred to as "Pour mon âme"), which has been called the "Mount Everest" for tenors. It features nine high Cs and comes comparatively early in the opera, giving the singer less time to warm up his voice. Luciano Pavarotti's stardom is reckoned from a performance alongside Joan Sutherland at the Met, when he "leapt over the "Becher's Brook" of the string of high Cs with an aplomb that left everyone gasping."[18]

More recently, Juan Diego Flórez performed "Ah! mes amis" at La Scala, and then, on popular demand, repeated it, "breaking a 74-year embargo on encores at the legendary Milanese opera house." He repeated this feat on 21 April 2008, the opening night of the 2007 London production at the Met, with Natalie Dessay as Marie.[19] This Met production was broadcast in high definition video to movie theaters worldwide on 26 April 2008.

W. S. Gilbert wrote a burlesque adaptation of the opera, La Vivandière, in 1867.

Roles[edit]

Juliette Borghèse as Marie and Henry as Sulpice (1840)
Role Voice type Premiere cast, 11 February 1840
(Conductor: Gaetano Donizetti)
Marie, a vivandière coloratura soprano Juliette Borghèse
Tonio, a young Tyrolean tenor Mécène Marié de l'Isle
Sergeant Sulpice bass Henry Deshaynes ("Henri")
The Marquise of Birkenfeld contralto Marie-Julie Halligner ("Boulanger")
Hortensius, a butler bass D. Delaunay-Ricquier
A corporal bass Georges-Marie-Vincent Palianti
A peasant tenor Henry Blanchard
The Duchess of Krakenthorp spoken role Marguerite Blanchard
A notary spoken role Léon
French soldiers, Tyrolean people, domestic servants of the Duchess

Synopsis[edit]

Time: Early 19th century
Place: The Swiss Tyrol[20]
performed by l'Atelier Vocal des Herbiers and piano accompaniment

Problems playing this file? See media help.

Act 1[edit]

In the Tyrolean mountains, Marie, having been found on the battlefield as a baby by the soldiers of the twenty-first (in the Italian version: eleventh) regiment, is adopted by them and follows her "fathers" as a vivandière. Her life is saved by the young Tyriolian (in the Italian version: Swiss) Tonio. She loves him, and as she has sworn only to belong to a member of the regiment, he enlists. She is separated from her lover, however, as she is recognised as her niece by the marchioness from letters which the honest sergeant Sulpice has saved. Marie bids farewell to her beloved regiment and to her lover and follows her relative.

Chorus and ensemble. Duet between Sulpice and Marie: "Ha, it is she, the thunder, the joy"; Marie's song: "On the field of honour." Ensemble.) Tonio is to be shot as a spy, but is rescued by Marie, who declares that he has saved her life. (Marie's song of the regiment: "Does the world not know, does the world not say"; Love duet: "You love me"; Finale, chorus of soldiers; Tonio's song of the recruit: "I join your flag"; Marie's farewell: "Farewell, dear brothers."

Act 2[edit]

Marie's only pleasure, notwithstanding her riches, is conversing with old Sulpice, who has become an invalid and is living at the castle. She is to marry the son of the duchess of Crakentorp and is almost reconciled to her fate when she hears martial music. Her old regiment arrives and with it Tonio as an officer. She throws all her finery into a heap, joyfully hails the troops and rushes into Tonio's arms. The duchess indignantly retires, and when the marchioness, who turns out to be Marie's mother, gives her consent, amid universal rejoicing she is married to Tonio.

Scene: "The young day arises"; Marie's aria of joy at the appearance of her old regiment: "Hail to thee, my country"; Terzett between her, Sulpice and Tonio: "At last we are united.") Finale: Marie tells the story of her life, the marchioness gives her consent and unites her with Tonio. (Final chorus: "Hail to thee, O my country."

Recordings[edit]

Year Cast
(Marie, Tonio, Sulpice, La Marquise)
Conductor,
Opera House and Orchestra
Label[21]
1950 Lina Pagliughi,
Cesare Valletti,
Sesto Bruscantini,
Rina Corsi
Mario Rossi,
RAI Milan Orchestra and Chorus
CD: Aura Music
Cat: LRC 1115
1967 Joan Sutherland,
Luciano Pavarotti,
Spiro Malas,
Monica Sinclair
Richard Bonynge,
Royal Opera House Orchestra and Chorus
CD: Decca «Originals»
Cat: 478 1366
1970 Beverly Sills,
Grayson Hirst,
Fernando Corena,
Muriel Costa-Greenspon
Roland Gagnon,
American Opera Society Carnegie Hall
CD: Opera d'Oro
Cat: B000055X2G
1986 June Anderson,
Alfredo Kraus,
Michel Trempont,
Hélia T'Hézan
Bruno Campanella
Opéra National de Paris Orchestra and Chorus
(Video recording of a performance at the Opéra-Comique,
see Opera, August 1986)
VHS Video: Bel Canto Society
Cat: 628
1995 Edita Gruberová,
Deon van der Walt,
Philippe Fourcade,
Rosa Laghezza
Marcello Panni
Munich Radio Orchestra and Bavarian Radio Chorus
CD: Nightingale
Cat: NC 070566-2
2008 Natalie Dessay,
Juan Diego Flórez,
Alessandro Corbelli,
Felicity Palmer,
Duchess: Dawn French
Bruno Campanella
Royal Opera House Orchestra and Chorus,
from a broadcast on 27 January 2007[22]
DVD: Virgin Classics
Cat: 5099951900298[23]

References[edit]

Notes

  1. ^ Ashbrook 1982, p. 146.
  2. ^ Ashbrook 1982, p. 651, note 45.
  3. ^ Gilbert Duprez, Souvenirs d'un chanteur, 1880, p. 95 (at the Internet Archive).
  4. ^ a b c Quoted and translated by Ashbrook 1982, p. 146.
  5. ^ Ashbrook 1982, p. 651, note 46.
  6. ^ Wolff, S. Un demi-siècle d'opéra-comique (1900-1950). André Bonne, Paris, 1953, p76-77.
  7. ^ Ashbrook 1982, p. 568; Warrack & West 1992, p. 243 (recitatives by Donizetti); Loewenberg 1978, column 804, has 30 October 1840 for Milan.
  8. ^ Ashbrook 1982, p. 651, note 50.
  9. ^ Loewenberg 1978, column 805; Warrack & West 1992, p. 243.
  10. ^ Loewenberg 1978, column 805.
  11. ^ Lawrence, 1988, p. 215.
  12. ^ Quoted in Lawrence, 1988, p. 215.
  13. ^ Kobbé 1919, p. 355; Lawrence 1995, p. 226 (Anna Thillon).
  14. ^ Kobbé 1919, p. 355.
  15. ^ Loewenberg 1978, column 805 (both London performances); Warrack & West 1992, p. 243 (Her Majesty's in London with Lind and Lablache).
  16. ^ Beverly Sills website at beverlysillsonline.com
  17. ^ Metroplitan Opera archives database
  18. ^ James Naughtie, "Goodbye Pavarotti: Forget the Pavarotti with Hankies. He was Better Younger", The Times (London), 7 September 2007. Retrieved 22 April 2008
  19. ^ Manuela Hoelterhoff, "Lederhosen and Laughs as Met Tenor Struts His High C", Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 22 April 2008
  20. ^ Osborne, p. 273
  21. ^ Source for recording information:Recording(s) of La fille du régiment on operadis-opera-discography.org.uk
  22. ^ Royal Opera House 2008: review
  23. ^ Royal Opera House 2008, excerpts on YouTube

Cited sources

Other sources

  • Allitt, John Stewart (1991), Donizetti: in the light of Romanticism and the teaching of Johann Simon Mayr, Shaftesbury: Element Books, Ltd (UK); Rockport, MA: Element, Inc.(USA)
  • Ashbrook, William and Hibberd, Sarah (2001). "Gaetano Donizetti", pp. 224–247 in The New Penguin Opera Guide, edited by Amanda Holden. New York: Penguin Putnam. ISBN 0-14-029312-4.
  • Black, John (1982), Donizetti’s Operas in Naples, 1822—1848. London: The Donizetti Society.
  • Lawrence, Vera Brodsky (1995). Strong on Music: The New York Music Scene in the Days of George Templeton Strong. Volume II. Reverberations, 1850–1856. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-47011-5.
  • Melitz, Leo (1921). The Opera Goer's Complete Guide. (Source of synopsis)
  • Sadie, Stanley, (Ed.); John Tyrell (Exec. Ed.) (2004), The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. 2nd edition. London: Macmillan. ISBN 978-0195170672 (hardcover). ISBN 0195170679 OCLC 419285866 (eBook).
  • Weinstock, Herbert, Donizetti and the World of Opera in Italy, Paris, and Vienna in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century, New York: Pantheon Books, 1963. ISBN 63-13703.

External links[edit]