La fille du régiment
La fille du régiment (The Daughter of the Regiment) is an opéra comique in two acts by Gaetano Donizetti, set to a French libretto by Jules-Henri Vernoy de Saint-Georges and Jean-François Bayard. It was first performed on 11 February 1840 by the Paris Opéra-Comique at the Salle de la Bourse.
The opera was written by Donizetti while he was living in Paris between 1838 and 1840 preparing a revised version of his then-unperformed Italian opera, Poliuto as Les martyrs for the Paris Opéra. Since Martyrs was delayed, the composer had time to write the music for La fille, his first opera set to a French text, as well as to stage the French version of Lucia di Lammermoor as Lucie de Lammermoor
As La fille, it quickly became a popular success, partly because of the famous aria "Ah! mes amis, quel jour de fête!", which requires of the tenor no fewer than nine high Cs. La figlia del reggimento, a slightly different Italian-language version (in translation by Callisto Bassi), was adapted to the tastes of the Italian public.
At the Opéra-Comique
The opening night was "a barely averted disaster." Apparently the lead tenor was frequently off pitch. The noted French tenor Gilbert Duprez, who was present, later observed in his Souvenirs d'un chanteur: "Donizetti often swore to me how his self-esteem as a composer had suffered in Paris. He was never treated there according to his merits. I myself saw the unsuccess, almost the collapse, of La fille du régiment."
It received a highly negative review from the French critic and composer Hector Berlioz (Journal des Débats, 16 February 1840), who claimed it could not be taken seriously by either the public or its composer, although Berlioz did concede that some of the music, "the little waltz that serves as the entr'acte and the trio dialogué ... lack neither vivacity nor freshness." The source of Berlioz's hostility is revealed later in his review: "What, two major scores for the Opéra, Les martyrs and Le duc d'Albe, two others at the Renaissance, Lucie de Lammermoor and L'ange de Nisida, two at the Opéra-Comique, La fille du régiment and another whose title is still unknown, and yet another for the Théâtre-Italien, will have been written or transcribed in one year by the same composer! M[onsieur] Donizetti seems to treat us like a conquered country; it is a veritable invasion. One can no longer speak of the opera houses of Paris, but only of the opera houses of M[onsieur] Donizetti." The critic and poet Théophile Gautier, who was not a rival composer, had a somewhat different point of view: "M[onsier] Donizetti is capable of paying with music that is beautiful and worthy for the cordial hospitality which France offers him in all her theaters, subsidized or not."
Despite its bumpy start, the opera soon became hugely popular at the Opéra-Comique. During its first 80 years, it reached its 500th performance at the theatre in 1871 and its 1,000th in 1908.
Outside of France
The opera was first performed in Italy at La Scala, Milan, on 3 October 1840, in Italian with recitatives by Donizetti replacing the spoken dialogue. It was thought "worthless" and received only six performances. It was not until 1928 when Toti dal Monte sang Marie that the opera began to be appreciated in Italy.
La fille received its first performance in America on 7 March 1843 at the Théâtre d'Orléans in New Orleans. The New Orleans company premiered the work in New York City on 19 July 1843 with Julie Calvé as Marie. The Spirit of the Times (22 July) counted it a great success, and, although the score was "thin" and not up to the level of Anna Bolena or L'elisir d'amore, some of Donizetti's "gems" were to be found in it. The Herald (21 July) was highly enthusiastic, especially in its praise of Calvé: "Applause is an inadequate term, ... vehement cheering rewarded this talented prima donna." Subsequently the opera was performed frequently in New York, the role of Marie being a favorite with Jenny Lind, Henriette Sontag, Pauline Lucca, Anna Thillon and Adelina Patti.
First given in England in Italian, it appeared on 27 May 1847 at Her Majesty's Theatre in London (with Jenny Lind and Luigi Lablache). Later—on 21 December 1847 in English— it was presented at the Surrey Theatre in London.
20th century and beyond
The Metropolitan Opera gave the first performances with Marcella Sembrich, and Charles Gilibert (Sulpice) during the 1902/03 season. It was then followed by performances at the Manhattan Opera House in 1909 with Luisa Tetrazzini, John McCormack, and Charles Gilibert, and again with Frieda Hempel and Antonio Scotti in the same roles at the Met on 17 December 1917.
It was revived at the Royal Opera, London in 1966 for Joan Sutherland. On 13 February 1970, in concert at Carnegie Hall, Beverly Sills sang the first performance in New York since Lily Pons performed it at the Metropolitan Opera House in 1943.
This opera is famous for the aria "Ah! mes amis, quel jour de fête!" (sometimes referred to as "Pour mon âme"), which has been called the "Mount Everest" for tenors. It features nine high Cs and comes comparatively early in the opera, giving the singer less time to warm up his voice. Luciano Pavarotti's stardom is reckoned from a performance alongside Joan Sutherland at the Met, when he "leapt over the "Becher's Brook" of the string of high Cs with an aplomb that left everyone gasping."
More recently, Juan Diego Flórez performed "Ah! mes amis" at La Scala, and then, on popular demand, repeated it, "breaking a 74-year embargo on encores at the legendary Milanese opera house." He repeated this feat on 21 April 2008, the opening night of the 2007 London production at the Met, with Natalie Dessay as Marie. This Met production was broadcast in high definition video to movie theaters worldwide on 26 April 2008.
Today, it is frequently performed to the point that it has become part of the standard repertoire, with the database, Operabase, reporting that since 1 January 2012 and announced for the near future, 150 performances of 29 productions in 22 cities have occurred or will be staged.
|Role||Voice type||Premiere cast, 11 February 1840
(Conductor: Gaetano Donizetti)
|Marie, a vivandière||coloratura soprano||Juliette Borghèse|
|Tonio, a young Tyrolean||tenor||Mécène Marié de l'Isle|
|Sergeant Sulpice||bass||Henry Deshaynes ("Henri")|
|The Marquise of Birkenfeld||contralto||Marie-Julie Halligner ("Boulanger")|
|Hortensius, a butler||bass||D. Delaunay-Ricquier|
|A corporal||bass||Georges-Marie-Vincent Palianti|
|A peasant||tenor||Henry Blanchard|
|The Duchess of Krakenthorp||spoken role||Marguerite Blanchard|
|A notary||spoken role||Léon|
|French soldiers, Tyrolean people, domestic servants of the Duchess|
- Time: Early 19th century
- Place: The Swiss Tyrol
performed by l'Atelier Vocal des Herbiers and piano accompaniment
|Problems playing this file? See media help.|
In the Tyrolean mountains, Marie, having been found on the battlefield as a baby by the soldiers of the twenty-first (in the Italian version: eleventh) regiment, is adopted by them and follows her "fathers" as a vivandière. Her life is saved by the young Tyriolian (in the Italian version: Swiss) Tonio. She loves him, and as she has sworn only to belong to a member of the regiment, he enlists. She is separated from her lover, however, as she is recognised as her niece by the marchioness from letters which the honest sergeant Sulpice has saved. Marie bids farewell to her beloved regiment and to her lover and follows her relative.
Chorus and ensemble. Duet between Sulpice and Marie: "Ha, it is she, the thunder, the joy"; Marie's song: "On the field of honour." Ensemble.) Tonio is to be shot as a spy, but is rescued by Marie, who declares that he has saved her life. (Marie's song of the regiment: "Does the world not know, does the world not say"; Love duet: "You love me"; Finale, chorus of soldiers; Tonio's song of the recruit: "I join your flag"; Marie's farewell: "Farewell, dear brothers."
Marie's only pleasure, notwithstanding her riches, is conversing with old Sulpice, who has become an invalid and is living at the castle. She is to marry the son of the duchess of Crakentorp and is almost reconciled to her fate when she hears martial music. Her old regiment arrives and with it Tonio as an officer. She throws all her finery into a heap, joyfully hails the troops and rushes into Tonio's arms. The duchess indignantly retires, and when the marchioness, who turns out to be Marie's mother, gives her consent, amid universal rejoicing she is married to Tonio.
Scene: "The young day arises"; Marie's aria of joy at the appearance of her old regiment: "Hail to thee, my country"; Terzett between her, Sulpice and Tonio: "At last we are united.") Finale: Marie tells the story of her life, the marchioness gives her consent and unites her with Tonio. (Final chorus: "Hail to thee, O my country."
(Marie, Tonio, Sulpice, La Marquise)
Opera House and Orchestra
RAI Milan Orchestra and Chorus
|CD: Aura Music
Cat: LRC 1115
Royal Opera House Orchestra and Chorus
|CD: Decca «Originals»
Cat: 478 1366
American Opera Society Carnegie Hall
|CD: Opera d'Oro
Opéra National de Paris Orchestra and Chorus
(Video recording of a performance at the Opéra-Comique,
see Opera, August 1986)
|VHS Video: Bel Canto Society
Deon van der Walt,
Munich Radio Orchestra and Bavarian Radio Chorus
Cat: NC 070566-2
Juan Diego Flórez,
Duchess: Dawn French
Royal Opera House Orchestra and Chorus,
from a broadcast on 27 January 2007
|DVD: Virgin Classics
- Ashbrook 1982, p. 146.
- Ashbrook 1982, p. 651, note 45.
- Gilbert Duprez, Souvenirs d'un chanteur, 1880, p. 95 (at the Internet Archive).
- Quoted and translated by Ashbrook 1982, p. 146.
- Ashbrook 1982, p. 651, note 46.
- Wolff, S. Un demi-siècle d'opéra-comique (1900-1950). André Bonne, Paris, 1953, p76-77.
- Ashbrook 1982, p. 568; Warrack & West 1992, p. 243 (recitatives by Donizetti); Loewenberg 1978, column 804, has 30 October 1840 for Milan.
- Ashbrook 1982, p. 651, note 50.
- Loewenberg 1978, column 805; Warrack & West 1992, p. 243.
- Loewenberg 1978, column 805.
- Lawrence, 1988, p. 215.
- Quoted in Lawrence, 1988, p. 215.
- Kobbé 1919, p. 355; Lawrence 1995, p. 226 (Anna Thillon).
- Loewenberg 1978, column 805 (both London performances); Warrack & West 1992, p. 243 (Her Majesty's in London with Lind and Lablache).
- Kobbé 1919, p. 355.
- Beverly Sills website at beverlysillsonline.com
- Metroplitan Opera archives database
- James Naughtie, "Goodbye Pavarotti: Forget the Pavarotti with Hankies. He was Better Younger", The Times (London), 7 September 2007. Retrieved 22 April 2008
- Manuela Hoelterhoff, "Lederhosen and Laughs as Met Tenor Struts His High C", on Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 22 April 2008
- Report of perfrmances from 1 January 2012 forward on operabase.com Retrieved 9 May 2014
- Osborne, p. 273
- Source for recording information:Recording(s) of La fille du régiment on operadis-opera-discography.org.uk
- Royal Opera House 2008: review
- Royal Opera House 2008, excerpts on YouTube
- Ashbrook, William (1982). Donizetti and His Operas. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23526-X
- Kobbé, Gustav. (1919). The Complete Opera Book, first English edition. London & New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. View at the Internet Archive.
- Lawrence, Vera Brodsky (1988). Strong on Music: The New York Music Scene in the Days of George Templeton Strong, 1836–1875. Volume I: Resonances 1836–1850. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-504199-6
- Loewenberg, Alfred (1978). Annals of Opera 1597–1940 (third edition, revised). Totowa, New Jersey: Rowman and Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-87471-851-5.
- Osborne, Charles (1994). The Bel Canto Operas of Rossini, Donizetti, and Bellini. Portland, Oregon: Amadeus Press. ISBN 0-931340-71-3
- Warrack, John; West, Ewan (1992). The Oxford Dictionary of Opera. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-869164-5.
- Allitt, John Stewart (1991), Donizetti: in the light of Romanticism and the teaching of Johann Simon Mayr, Shaftesbury: Element Books, Ltd (UK); Rockport, MA: Element, Inc.(USA)
- Ashbrook, William and Hibberd, Sarah (2001). "Gaetano Donizetti", pp. 224–247 in The New Penguin Opera Guide, edited by Amanda Holden. New York: Penguin Putnam. ISBN 0-14-029312-4.
- Black, John (1982), Donizetti’s Operas in Naples, 1822—1848. London: The Donizetti Society.
- Lawrence, Vera Brodsky (1995). Strong on Music: The New York Music Scene in the Days of George Templeton Strong. Volume II. Reverberations, 1850–1856. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-47011-5.
- Melitz, Leo (1921). The Opera Goer's Complete Guide. (Source of synopsis)
- Sadie, Stanley, (Ed.); John Tyrell (Exec. Ed.) (2004), The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians. 2nd edition. London: Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-19-517067-2 (hardcover). ISBN 0-19-517067-9 OCLC 419285866 (eBook).
- Weinstock, Herbert, Donizetti and the World of Opera in Italy, Paris, and Vienna in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century, New York: Pantheon Books, 1963. LCCN 63-13703.
- Donizetti Society (London) website
- French Wikisource has original text related to this article: La fille du régiment)
- Media related to La fille du régiment at Wikimedia Commons
- La fille du régiment: Free scores at the International Music Score Library Project
- Public domain score from archive.org (Italian and English