Labiodental approximant

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Labiodental approximant
ʋ
IPA number 150
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ʋ
Unicode (hex) U+028B
X-SAMPA P or v\
Kirshenbaum r<lbd>
Braille ⠦ (braille pattern dots-236) ⠧ (braille pattern dots-1236)
Sound

The labiodental approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. It is similar to an English w pronounced with the teeth and lips held in the position used to articulate the letter vee. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ʋ, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is P or v\.

In practice, some scholars[1] transcribe the labiodental approximant as v, i.e. as if it were a fricative. This does not happen in rare cases when a language contrasts the labiodental approximant with the voiced labiodental fricative, e.g. in case of Northern Standard Dutch.

Features[edit]

Features of the labiodental approximant:

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Armenian Eastern[2] ոսկի [ʋɔski] 'gold'
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic hawa [ha:ʋa] 'wind' Predominant in the Urmia dialects. For some speakers, [v] is used. Corresponds to [w] in the other varieties.
Danish[3] véd [ʋe̝ːˀð̠˕ˠ] 'know(s)' See Danish phonology
Dutch Netherlandic wang [ʋɑŋ] 'cheek' In southern dialects of the Netherlands realised as [β̞]. See Dutch phonology
English red [ʋe̞d̥] 'red' Mostly idiosyncratic but somewhat dialectal[4] (especially in London and South East England). See English phonology and R-labialization
Finnish vauva [ˈʋɑuʋːɑ] 'baby' See Finnish phonology
German was [ʋas] 'what' Some speakers, especially in the South. See German phonology
Guaraní avañe'ẽ [ʔãʋ̃ãɲẽˈʔẽ] 'Guaraní language' Contrasts with /w/ and /ɰ/
Hawaiian wikiwiki [ʋikiʋiki] 'fast' May also be realized as [w] or [v]. See Hawaiian phonology
Hindi रुण [ʋəruɳ] 'Varuna' See Hindustani phonology
Marathi जन [ʋəzən]/[ʋədzən] 'weight' See Marathi phonology
Norwegian Standard Eastern[5][6] venn [ʋɛ̝nː] 'friend' See Norwegian phonology
Nsenga ŵanthu [ʋaⁿtʰu] 'people'
Portuguese Some speakers (European?)[7] louvo [ˈloːʋu] 'I praise' Very rare intervocalic allophone of /v/ in unstressed syllables. See Portuguese phonology
Miyako [ʋ̩tɑ] 'thick' In this language sonorant (including [ʋ]) and fricatives can be syllabic[8]
Punjabi ਵਾਲ [ʋäːl] 'hair'
Serbo-Croatian цврчак / cvrčak [t͡sʋř̩ːt͡ʃak] 'cricket' May also be realized as [v], depending on dialect. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Swedish vän [ʋɛn] 'friend' Some speakers. See Swedish phonology
Tamil வாய் [ʋɑj] 'mouth' See Tamil phonology
Turkish ev [e̞ʋ] 'house' See Turkish phonology
West Frisian wêr [ʋɛːr] 'where'

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Dum-Tragut, Jasmine (2009), Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company 
  • Foulkes, Paul; Docherty, Gerard J., eds. (1999), Urban Voices, Arnold 
  • Grønnum, Nina (1998), "Illustrations of the IPA: Danish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 28 (1 & 2): 99–105, doi:10.1017/s0025100300006290 
  • Kristoffersen, Gjert (2000), The Phonology of Norwegian, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-823765-5 
  • Vanvik, Arne (1979), Norsk fonetikk, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo, ISBN 82-990584-0-6