The labiodental approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. It is similar to an English w pronounced with the teeth and lips held in the position used to articulate the letter vee. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ʋ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is P or v\.
In practice, some scholars transcribe the labiodental approximant as ⟨v⟩, i.e. as if it were a fricative. This does not happen in rare cases when a language contrasts the labiodental approximant with the voiced labiodental fricative, e.g. in case of Northern Standard Dutch.
Features of the labiodental approximant:
- Its manner of articulation is approximant, which means it is produced by narrowing the vocal tract at the place of articulation, but not enough to produce a turbulent airstream.
- Its place of articulation is labiodental, which means it is articulated with the lower lip and the upper teeth.
- Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- Because the sound is not produced with airflow over the tongue, the central–lateral dichotomy does not apply.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
|Assyrian Neo-Aramaic||hawa||[ha:ʋa]||'wind'||Predominant in the Urmia dialects. For some speakers, [v] is used. Corresponds to [w] in the other varieties.|
|Danish||véd||[ʋe̝ːˀð̠˕ˠ]||'know(s)'||See Danish phonology|
|Dutch||Netherlandic||wang||[ʋɑŋ]||'cheek'||In southern dialects of the Netherlands realised as [β̞]. See Dutch phonology|
|English||red||[ʋe̞d̥]||'red'||Mostly idiosyncratic but somewhat dialectal (especially in London and South East England). See English phonology and R-labialization|
|Finnish||vauva||[ˈʋɑuʋːɑ]||'baby'||See Finnish phonology|
|German||was||[ʋas]||'what'||Some speakers, especially in the South. See German phonology|
|Guaraní||avañe'ẽ||[ʔãʋ̃ãɲẽˈʔẽ]||'Guaraní language'||Contrasts with /w/ and /ɰ/|
|Hawaiian||wikiwiki||[ʋikiʋiki]||'fast'||May also be realized as [w] or [v]. See Hawaiian phonology|
|Hindi||वरुण||[ʋəruɳ]||'Varuna'||See Hindustani phonology|
|Marathi||वजन||[ʋəzən]/[ʋədzən]||'weight'||See Marathi phonology|
|Norwegian||Standard Eastern||venn||[ʋɛ̝nː]||'friend'||See Norwegian phonology|
|Portuguese||Some speakers (European?)||louvo||[ˈloːʋu]||'I praise'||Very rare intervocalic allophone of /v/ in unstressed syllables. See Portuguese phonology|
|Miyako||[ʋ̩tɑ]||'thick'||In this language sonorant (including [ʋ]) and fricatives can be syllabic|
|Serbo-Croatian||цврчак / cvrčak||[t͡sʋř̩ːt͡ʃak]||'cricket'||May also be realized as [v], depending on dialect. See Serbo-Croatian phonology|
|Swedish||vän||[ʋɛn]||'friend'||Some speakers. See Swedish phonology|
|Tamil||வாய்||[ʋɑj]||'mouth'||See Tamil phonology|
|Turkish||ev||[e̞ʋ]||'house'||See Turkish phonology|
- For example Grønnum (1998) and Vanvik (1979)
- Dum-Tragut (2009:20)
- Grønnum (1998)
- Foulkes & Docherty (1999:?)
- Kristoffersen (2000:22 and 25)
- Vanvik (1979:41)
- Principais Fenómenos de Variação Registados nas Transcrições das Amostras do Arquivo Dialetal do CLUP (Portuguese)
- Thomas Pellard, Why it is important to study the Ryukyuan languages (presentation)
- Dum-Tragut, Jasmine (2009), Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company
- Foulkes, Paul; Docherty, Gerard J., eds. (1999), Urban Voices, Arnold
- Grønnum, Nina (1998), "Illustrations of the IPA: Danish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 28 (1 & 2): 99–105, doi:10.1017/s0025100300006290
- Kristoffersen, Gjert (2000), The Phonology of Norwegian, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-823765-5
- Vanvik, Arne (1979), Norsk fonetikk, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo, ISBN 82-990584-0-6