Labuan

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This article is about the Malaysian island of Labuan. For other uses, see Labuan (disambiguation).
Federal Territory of Labuan
Wilayah Persekutuan Labuan
Federal Territory
Flag of Federal Territory of LabuanWilayah Persekutuan Labuan
Flag
Official seal of Federal Territory of LabuanWilayah Persekutuan Labuan
Seal
Motto: Maju dan Sejahtera
(Developed and Prosperous)
   Labuan in    Malaysia
   Labuan in    Malaysia
Coordinates: 5°19′13.16″N 115°12′40.42″E / 5.3203222°N 115.2112278°E / 5.3203222; 115.2112278Coordinates: 5°19′13.16″N 115°12′40.42″E / 5.3203222°N 115.2112278°E / 5.3203222; 115.2112278
Country Malaysia
Federal Territories Federal Territory
Capital Victoria
Government
 • Administered by Labuan Corporation
 • Chairman Datuk Rozman Datuk Hj. Isli
Area[1]
 • Total 91.64 km2 (35.38 sq mi)
Population (2010)[2]
 • Total 86,908
 • Density 950/km2 (2,500/sq mi)
Time zone MST (UTC+8)
 • Summer (DST) Not observed (UTC)
Area code(s) 087
Vehicle registration L
SL (before becoming FT)
Website www.pl.gov.my

Labuan /ləˈbən/ is a federal territory off the coast of Borneo in East Malaysia. It is made up of the homonymous Labuan Island and six smaller islands, and is located off the coast of the state of Sabah. Labuan's capital is Victoria and is best known as an offshore financial centre offering international financial and business services via Labuan IBFC since 1990 as well as being an offshore support hub for deepwater oil and gas activities in the region. It is also a tourist destination for people traveling through Sabah, nearby Bruneians and scuba divers. The name Labuan derives from the Malay word labuhan which means harbour.[3]

History[edit]

The signing of the Treaty of Labuan between the Brunei sultanate and the British delegation on 18 December 1846 at the Brunei palace.[4]
Timeline
Brunei Sultanate 15th c[5]
Ceded to the United Kingdom 1846[4]
Became Crown Colony 1848[6][7]
Administered by BNBC 1890[8][9]
Became part of the Straits Settlements 1 Jan 1907[10][11]
Japanese occupation 1941–1945
British Military Administration 1945–1946
Joined North Borneo Crown Colony 15 Jul 1946[12]
Part of Sabah and Malaysia 16 Sep 1963
Ceded to the Federal Government and made into FT 16 Apr 1984[13]
British flag hoisted for the first time on the island in 24 December 1846.

Since the 15th century, the north and west coast of Borneo including the island of Labuan was part of the Sultanate of Brunei.[5] In 18th century, Labuan attracted British interest. James Brooke acquired the island for Britain in 1846 through a treaty with the Sultan of Brunei, Omar Ali Saifuddin II on 18 December 1846.[4] A British naval officer, Rodney Mundy visited Brunei with his ship HMS Iris to keep the Sultan in line until the British Government made a final decision to take the island and he took Pengiran Mumin to witness the island's accession to the British Crown on 24 December 1846.[14] Some sources state that during the signing of the treaty, the Sultan had been threatened by a British navy warship ready to fire on the Sultan's palace if he refused to sign the treaty while another source says the island was ceded to Britain as a reward for assistance in combating pirates.[4][15][16]

The main reason why the British possessed the island was to protect their own interest in the region as a naval base and to suppress piracy in the South China Sea.[17][18] The British also believed the island could be the next Singapore.[19] The island became a Crown Colony in 1848 with James Brooke appointed as the first governor and commander-in-chief, with William Napier as his lieutenant-governor.[6][7][20] In 1849, the Eastern Archipelago Company became the first of several British companies to try to exploit Labuan coal deposits.[21] The company was formed to exploit coal deposits on the island and adjacent coast of Borneo but soon became involved in a dispute with James Brooke.[22][23] Not proving itself a great commercial or strategic asset, administration of Labuan was handed to the British North Borneo Company in 1890.[8][9] In 1894, a submarine communications cable was build by the British to linked the island communications with North Borneo, Singapore and Hong Kong for the first time.[24] By 30 October 1906, the British Government proposed to extend the boundaries of the Straits Settlements to include Labuan. The proposal took effect from 1 January 1907.[10][11]

Japanese Army anchoring at the coast of Labuan on 14 January 1942.
Australian Army anchoring at the coast of Labuan on 10 June 1945 to launch the counter-attack.
Japanese Commander in Borneo, Lieutenant General Masao Baba signing the surrender document dated 9 September 1945 on the Australian 9th Division headquarters in Labuan while been watching by the Australian Major General, George Wootten.

In the World War II, Labuan was occupied by Japan from December 1941 until June 1945 and governed as part of the Northern Borneo military unit by the Japanese 37th Army.[25] The island served as the administrative center for the Japanese forces.[26] During the occupation, the Japanese Government changed the island name to Maida Island (前田島 [Maeda-shima]) on 9 December 1942 after Marquis Toshinari Maeda, as a remembrance to the first Japanese commander in northern Borneo who was killed in an air crash on the island.[26] As the allied counter-attack came closer, the Japanese also developed Labuan and Brunei Bay as a naval base.[14] The liberation of Borneo by the Allied forces began on 10 June 1945 when the Australian Army under the command of Australian Major General, George Wootten launched an attack under the codenamed of Operation Oboe Six. Labuan became the main objective for the Allied forces to repossessed.[27] Soon, the 9th Division of the Australian Army launched the attack with support from massive airstrike and sea bombardments until the capture of the Labuan airstrip.[28][29]

Most of the Labuan island area including the main town of Victoria was under the control of Allied forces within four days after the heavy attacks.[27] On 9 September 1945, the Japanese Lieutenant General, Masao Baba officially surrendered at a place now known as the Surrender Point near the Layang-layang beach which he had been brought to by the 9th Division headquarters on the island to sign the surrender document in front of the Australian 9th Division Army Commander, George Wootten.[30] The name of Labuan was later restored by the British and the island administered under the British Military Administration together with the rest of the Straits Settlements. Labuan then joined the North Borneo Crown Colony on 15 July 1946, which in turn became a part of the state of Sabah and Malaysia in 1963.[12] In 1984, the Government of Sabah ceded Labuan to the federal government which later been accessed to a federal territory.[13] It was declared an international offshore financial centre and free trade zone in 1990.[31]

Postage stamps and postal history[edit]

1885 2c, used in 1891

A post office was operating in Labuan by 1864, and used a circular date stamp as postmark. The postage stamps of India and Hong Kong were used on some mail, but they were probably carried there by individuals, instead of being on sale in Labuan. Mail was routed through Singapore. From 1867, Labuan officially used the postage stamps of the Straits Settlements but began issuing its own in May 1879.

The first stamps of Labuan depict the usual profile of Queen Victoria but are unusual for being inscribed in Arabic and Chinese scripts in addition to "LABUAN POSTAGE". Perennial shortages necessitated a variety of surcharges in between the several reprints and colour changes of the 1880s. The original stamps were engraved, but the last of the design, in April 1894, were done by lithography.

Beginning in May 1894, the designs of North Borneo were printed in different colours, with "LABUAN" either engraved into the vignette or overprinted. On 24 September 1896, the 50th anniversary of the cession was marked by overprinting "1846 / JUBILEE / 1896" on the overprinted North Borneo designs. Additional overprints appeared through the 1890s. In 1899 many types were surcharged with a value of 4 cents.

A last Labuan-only design came out in 1902, depicting a crown and inscribed "LABUAN COLONY". After incorporation into the Straits Settlements in 1906, Labuan ceased issuing its own stamps, although they remained valid for some time. Many of the remainders were cancelled-to-order for sale to collectors and are now worth only pennies; genuine postal uses are worth much more.

Geography[edit]

A map of Labuan island comprising the outlying islands.

Labuan areas comprises the main island (Labuan Island – 87.52 km²) and other six smaller islands such as Big Rusukan, Burung, Daat, Kuraman, Small Rusukan and Papan island with a total area of 91.64 km². The islands lie 8 km off the coast of Borneo, adjacent to the Malaysian state of Sabah and in the top of Brunei Darussalam, on the northern edge of Brunei Bay facing the South China Sea. Labuan Island is mainly flat and undulating with its highest point is Bukit Kubong at 148 meters above the sea level. Over 70% of the island is still covered with vegetation. While the main town area of Victoria is located in a position that facing the Brunei Bay.

Climate[edit]

Labuan has a tropical rainforest climate with no dry season. Over the course of a year, the temperature typically varies from 25°C to 32°C and is rarely below 24°C or above 33°C. The warm season lasts from April 1 to June 13 with an average daily high temperature above 31°C. The hottest day of the year is April 29, with an average high of 32°C and low of 26°C. The cold season lasts from January 7 to February 17 with an average daily high temperature below 30°C. The coldest day of the year is September 8, with an average low of 25°C and high of 31°C.[32] The weather station for Labuan is located at Labuan Airport.

Thunderstorms are the most severe precipitation observed in Labuan during 60% of those days with precipitation. They are most likely around October 30, when it is observed during 53% of all days. Meanwhile, the relative humidity for Labuan typically ranges from 63% (mildly humid) to 96% (very humid) over the course of the year, rarely dropping below 53% (mildly humid) and reaching as high as 100% (very humid).[32]

Climate data for Labuan (Labuan Airport)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 30
(86)
30.3
(86.5)
31.6
(88.9)
32.1
(89.8)
31.9
(89.4)
31.6
(88.9)
31.2
(88.2)
31.4
(88.5)
31.2
(88.2)
30.8
(87.4)
30.8
(87.4)
30.4
(86.7)
31.11
(87.99)
Daily mean °C (°F) 27.3
(81.1)
27.4
(81.3)
28.3
(82.9)
28.7
(83.6)
28.6
(83.5)
28.3
(82.9)
27.9
(82.3)
28.2
(82.7)
27.9
(82.3)
27.7
(81.9)
27.7
(81.9)
27.5
(81.5)
27.96
(82.32)
Average low °C (°F) 24.6
(76.3)
24.5
(76.1)
24.9
(76.8)
25.2
(77.4)
25.3
(77.5)
25
(77)
24.7
(76.5)
24.9
(76.8)
24.7
(76.5)
24.5
(76.1)
24.6
(76.3)
24.6
(76.3)
24.79
(76.63)
Precipitation mm (inches) 175
(6.9)
114
(4.5)
74
(2.9)
230
(9)
307
(12.1)
287
(11.3)
307
(12.1)
290
(11.4)
302
(11.9)
391
(15.4)
335
(13.2)
310
(12.2)
3,122
(122.9)
Source: World Climates [33]

Politics[edit]

Labuan is the one of the federal government territories. The island is administered by the federal government through the Ministry of Federal Territories. Labuan Corporation is the municipal government for the island and is headed by a chairman who is responsible for development and administration of the island. Labuan has one representation in each for the lower house and upper house of parliament. Typically, the current member of parliament of Labuan will be appointed to become chairman of Labuan Corporation.

The island is represented in the lower house of parliament by MP Roszman Datuk Haji Isli and in the upper house by Senator Yunus Kurus. Below is the list of administrator of Labuan from 1847 to current date:

Governor
27 Nov 1847 - Nov 1852 James Brooke (b. 1803 - d. 1868)
1852 - 1856 Spenser St. John (b. 1825 - d. 1910)

Lieutenant Governor
1848 - 1850 William Napier
1850 - 1856 John Scott (b. 1814 - d. 1898)

Governor
1856 - 1861 George Warren Edwards
1861 - 1866 Jeremiah Thomas Fitzgerald Callaghan (b. c.1830 - d. 1881)
1866 - 1867 Hugh Low (b. 1824 - d. 1905)
1867 - 1871 John Pope Hennessy (b. 1834 - d. 1891)
1871 - 1875 Henry Ernest Gascoyne Bulwer (b. 1836 - d. 1914)
9 Aug 1875 - 1879 Herbert Taylor Ussher (b. 1836 - d. 1880)
1879 - 1881 Charles Cameron Lees (b. 1837 - d. 1898)
1881 - 1888 Peter Leys
1888 - 1890 Arthur Shirley Hamilton
1890 - 1906 North Borneo Governor
1906 - 1946 Straits States Governor

Deputy Governor
1906 - 1946 British Resident in Brunei

British Resident
1907 - 19.. M.S.H. McArthur
Feb 1917 - 1918 Geoffrey Edmund Cator (b. 1884 - d. 1973)
1918 - 1934 ....
1934 - 1936 A.D. York (b. 1907)
1936 - 1940 ....
1940 - 3 Jan 1942 A.H.P. Humphrey (b. 1911)

Japanese Commander
3 Jan 1942 - Mar 1945 ....
Mar 1945 - 10 Jun 1945 Hichiro Okuyama

British Residents
1945 - 16 Sep 1963 ....

Labuan Corporation Chairman
2001 - 2003 Dato' Othman Mohd Rijal (b. 1945)
2003 - 2008 Dato' Suhaili Abdul Rahman (b. 1961)
2008 - 2011 Datuk Ahmad Phesal Talib
2011 - 2013 Datuk Yusof Mahal
2013 - current YB roszman Datuk Haji Isli

Administrative Subdivision[edit]

The Federal Territory is administratively subdivided into the capital Bandar Labuan (formerly Victoria) and 27 kampung (administrative villages),[34][35] and which are ruled by appointed Ketua Kampung (headmen):

  1. Bukit Kalam
  2. Durian Tunjung
  3. Tanjung Aru
  4. Pohon Batu
  5. Batu Arang
  6. Patau-Patau 2
  7. Belukut
  8. Sungai Keling
  9. Sungai Bedaun / Sungai Sembilang
  10. Layang-Layangan
  11. Sungai Labu
  12. Pantai
  13. Gersik / Saguking / Jawa / Parit
  14. Sungai Buton
  15. Kilan / Kilan Pulau Akar
  16. Lajau
  17. Rancha-Rancha
  18. Nagalang / Kerupang
  19. Bebuloh
  20. Sungai Lada
  21. Lubok Temiang
  22. Sungai Bangat
  23. Sungai Miri / Pagar
  24. Patau-Patau 1
  25. Batu Manikar
  26. Bukit Kuda
  27. Ganggarak / Merinding

Defence[edit]

Defence is the responsibility of the federal government, with naval patrol vessels, a garrison and an air detachment based on the island. The vigilance of the local Coast Guard and Customs and Excise contribute to the maintenance of Labuan's reputation and status as an international offshore financial centre and free trade zone.

Demography[edit]

Religion in Labuan - 2010 Census[2]
Religion Percent
Islam
  
76.0%
Christianity
  
12.4%
Buddhism
  
9.0%
Hinduism
  
0.4%
Other
  
2.1%
No religion
  
0.1%

According to Malaysia's Department of Statistics, Labuan population for 2010 was at 86,908 and it is projected to be at 91,300 for 2013.[36] The ethnic composition in 2010 in Labuan was: Brunei Malay and Kedayan (30,001), Kadazan-Dusun (7,380), Bajau (6,300), Murut (701), Chinese (10,014), Indian (641), Other ethnic (19,727) and non-Malaysian citizen (12,144).

As of 2010 Census the population of Labuan is 76.0% Muslim, 12.4% Christian, 9.0% Buddhist, 0.4% Hindu, 2.1% follower of other religions, and 0.1% non-religious.

Labuan Ethnic Composition (2010)[36]
Ethnic Groups Ethnics Total
Bumiputera Brunei Malay & Kedayan 30,001
Kadazan-Dusun 7,380
Bajau 6,300
Murut 701
Other Bumiputera 18,212
Non-Bumiputera Chinese 10,014
Indian 641
Others 1,515
Non-Citizen 12,144
Total 86,908

Economy[edit]

Labuan Financial Park complex.

The economy of Labuan thrives on its vast oil and gas resources and international investment and banking services. Labuan is a very much an import-export oriented economy. Virtually all of its commodities including crude oil, methanol, HBI, gas, flour, animal feed, sea products and ceramic tiles are exported either to Peninsular Malaysia or overseas. Raw materials, parts and equipments for industrial uses well as consumer products are imported. In 2004, the total value of Labuan's external trade reached RM 11.8 billion from only RM5.0 billion in 1995 for a net trade surplus of RM5.1 billion. Among its major trade partners are India, Peninsular Malaysia, Sarawak and South Korea. 65% of its exports are petroleum and gas-based products.[37]

The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Labuan is estimated at RM 3.63 billion in 2012 with a growth rate of 5.8 percent. Labuan GDP per capita in 2012 is RM 39,682. The total employment for Labuan is around 39,800 in 2012. The main economic sectors in Labuan is service and manufacturing which contributed 94.6 percent to the island GDP. The service sector consisted mainly of Finance and Insurance and Real Estate and Business Services. Meanwhile, the manufacturing sector consists mainly of oil and gas industry and support.[38]

The Labuan International Business and Financial Centre Labuan IBFC was created as Malaysia’s only offshore financial hub on October 1990 and was operating under the name of Labuan International Offshore Financial Centre (IOFC). At the time it was established to strengthen the contribution of financial services to the Gross National Product (GNP) of Malaysia as well as to develop the island and its surrounding vicinity. The jurisdiction, supervised by the Labuan Offshore Financial Services Authority or LOFSA, offers benefits such as 3% tax on net audited results or a flat rate of Malaysian Ringgit (MYR) 20,000 to trading companies; low operational costs; liberal exchange controls; and a host of other advantages including readily available, experienced and professional service providers. In 2010 the notion "offshore" was excluded from all the statutes of Labuan due to world pressure on the tax havens and offshores.

Since its inception, the jurisdiction has expanded to become a base for more than 6,500 offshore companies and more than 300 licensed financial institutions including world leading banks. Labuan IBFC is embarking on an aggressive growth strategy to become the premier international business and financial centre in the Asia Pacific region.

Labuan's business focus is on five core areas: offshore holding companies, captive insurance, Shariah-compliant Islamic Finance structures, public and private funds and wealth management. Labuan IBFC’s position is further enhanced by the launch of the Malaysian International Islamic Finance Centre initiative in August 2006.

Attractions and places of interest[edit]

Kwang Fook Kong Temple, built in 1952 by a group of migrants from Eu Jian, China are the oldest Chinese Temple in Labuan.

There are several attractions and places of interest on Labuan. The Labuan War Cemetery contains various war graves and memorials to the fallen of World War II. This includes British, Australian, Indian, Sarawakian, Bruneian, North Borneo and Empire troops, making it the largest war grave with 3,908 graves of fallen soldiers. A memorial service is held on Remembrance Day every year.

There is also a memorial celebrating the surrender of the Japanese to the Australian Forces in 1945. There are also remnants of Labuan's history as a Royal Navy Coaling station, including 'the chimney', a well known local landmark. There is also a Labuan Maritime Museum.

Labuan is also the base for diving on four popular wreck dives: the Cement wreck, the American wreck, (the first USS Salute), the Australian wreck and the Blue Water wreck.[39]

Labuan has many schools. However, it has only one international school, Labuan International School.[40] Other places of interest include the Labuan International Sea Sport Complex. Newly proposed is the Marina centre and Labuan Square project which are expected to be completed in next two years from 2008.

Labuan's own institution of higher education is Universiti Malaysia Sabah Labuan International Campus,[41] a branch of Universiti Malaysia Sabah in Sepanggar Bay, Kota Kinabalu. Labuan also has a matriculation college, Kolej Matrikulasi Labuan, the only matriculation college in East Malaysia. Thus, all pre-university students from Sabah, Sarawak and Labuan will take their courses here.

Notable peoples[edit]

Labuan in popular culture[edit]

  • Labuan is often referred to as the pearl of Borneo
  • In the Sandokan series of novels by Emilio Salgari, Lady Marianna is referred to as the pearl of Labuan

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Preliminary Count Report 2010". Department of Statistics, Malaysia. p. 27. Archived from the original on 27 December 2010. Retrieved 24 January 2011. 
  2. ^ a b "2010 Population and Housing Census of Malaysia (Labuan)" (in Malay and English). Department of Statistics, Malaysia. Retrieved 17 June 2012. 
  3. ^ Bradbury & Evans (1856). "Crawfurd, John, A descriptive dictionary of the Indian islands & adjacent countries". London: Columbia University Libraries. p. 203. Retrieved 29 April 2014. 
  4. ^ a b c d Rozan Yunos (7 September 2008). "Loss of Labuan, a former Brunei island". The Brunei Times. Archived from the original on 29 April 2014. Retrieved 29 April 2014. 
  5. ^ a b R. W. McColl (1 January 2005). Encyclopedia of World Geography. Infobase Publishing. pp. 123–. ISBN 978-0-8160-7229-3. 
  6. ^ a b "Opening of the New Colony of Labuan". Sydney Daily Advertiser. National Library of Australia. 23 September 1848. Retrieved 29 April 2014. 
  7. ^ a b Philip Mathews (28 February 2014). Chronicle of Malaysia: Fifty Years of Headline News, 1963-2013. Editions Didier Millet. pp. 15–. ISBN 978-967-10617-4-9. 
  8. ^ a b James Stuart Olson; Robert Shadle (1996). Historical Dictionary of the British Empire. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 645–. ISBN 978-0-313-29367-2. 
  9. ^ a b Frans Welman. Borneo Trilogy Volume 1: Sabah. Booksmango. pp. 162–. ISBN 978-616-245-078-5. 
  10. ^ a b Alexander Wood Renton; Maxwell Anderson Robertson; Frederick Pollock; William Bowstead (1908). Encyclopædia of the laws of England with forms and precedents by the most eminent legal authorities. Sweet & Maxwell. 
  11. ^ a b United States. Hydrographic Office (1917). Asiatic Pilot: The coasts of Sumatra and the adjacent straits and islands. Hydrographic office under the authority of the secretary of the navy. 
  12. ^ a b Paul H. Kratoska (2001). South East Asia, Colonial History: Peaceful transitions to independence (1945-1963). Taylor & Francis. pp. 129–. ISBN 978-0-415-24784-9. 
  13. ^ a b "Laws of Malaysia A585 Constitution (Amendment) (No.2) Act 1984". Government of Malaysia. Department of Veterinary Services. Retrieved 28 April 2014. 
  14. ^ a b Graham Saunders (5 November 2013). A History of Brunei. Routledge. pp. 78 & 123. ISBN 978-1-136-87394-2. 
  15. ^ B.A. Hussainmiya (2006). "Brunei Revival of 1906 (A Popular History) – The Surrender of Labuan and The First Brunei-British Treaty" (PDF). Brunei Press Sdn Bhd. Bandar Seri Begawan: Universiti Brunei Darussalam. pp. 12/34. ISBN 99917-32-15-2. Retrieved 29 April 2014. 
  16. ^ W. H. Treacher, C.M.G. M.A. Oxon (1891). "British Borneo: Sketches of Brunai, Sarawak, Labuan and North Borneo" (PDF). University of California Libraries. Trinity Theological College. pp. 12 / Chapter VI. Pages 84–92. Retrieved 29 April 2014. 
  17. ^ Henry Keppel (2009). The Expedition to Borneo of H. M. S. Dido: 1843 - 1846. BoD – Books on Demand. pp. 304–. ISBN 978-3-941842-95-3. 
  18. ^ "The Straits Times, 14 October 1848, Page 3 (Labuan)". National Library Board. 14 October 1848. p. 3. Retrieved 29 April 2014. 
  19. ^ "The Straits Times, 21 October 1848, Page 3 (Labuan)". National Library Board. 21 October 1848. p. 3. Retrieved 29 April 2014. 
  20. ^ Rodney Mundy; James Brooke (1848). Narrative of events in Borneo and Celebes, down to the occupation of Labuan: from the journals of James Brooke, Rajah of Sarãwak, and governor of Labuan, together with a narrative of the operations of H.M.S. Iris. Murray. pp. 367–. 
  21. ^ Phillip Cottrell (25 May 2012). Investment Banking in England 1856-1881(Rle Banking and Finance). Routledge. pp. 211–. ISBN 978-0-415-53020-0. 
  22. ^ Eastern Archipelago Company (1853). The Queen on the Prosecution of Sir James Brooke, K.C.B. Against the Eastern Archipelago Company; Containing the Judgments of the Queen's Bench and the Exchequer Chamber, Together with Two Articles from the “Times” Newspaper, Etc. W. Clowes & Sons. pp. 9–. 
  23. ^ Eastern Archipelago Company. Annual Report of the Directors of the Eastern Archipelago Company. Eastern Archipelago Company. pp. 149–. 
  24. ^ "Staying connected". The Star. 16 January 2012. Archived from the original on 29 April 2014. Retrieved 30 April 2014. 
  25. ^ T. A. Edwin Gibson; G. Kingsley Ward (1989). Courage remembered: the story behind the construction and maintenance of the Commonwealth's military cemeteries and memorials of the wars of 1914-1918 and 1939-1945. McClelland & Stewart. ISBN 978-0-7710-8786-8. 
  26. ^ a b Keat Gin Ooi (October 2004). Southeast Asia: a historical encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-770-2. 
  27. ^ a b Stanley Sandler (January 2001). World War II in the Pacific: An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. pp. 181–182. ISBN 978-0-8153-1883-5. 
  28. ^ James O'Connor (13 June 1945). "Australians Swarm Ashore on N-W Borneo Coast". The Morning Bulletin. National Library of Australia. Retrieved 30 April 2014. 
  29. ^ Australian Officials (19 June 1945). "Capture of Labuan Airstrip in Borneo". The Sydney Morning Herald. National Library of Australia. Retrieved 30 April 2014. 
  30. ^ "Surrender Point Memorial, Labuan Island". Department of Veterans' Affairs. 19 November 2012. Archived from the original on 1 May 2014. Retrieved 1 May 2014. 
  31. ^ "Chapter 8: Labuan International Offshore Financial Centre". Bank Negara Malaysia. Retrieved 1 May 2014. "Labuan was declared as an International Offshore Financial Centre (IOFC) in October 1990 to complement the activities of the domestic financial market in Kuala Lumpur, strengthen the contribution of financial services to Gross National Products of Malaysia as well as develop the island and areas within its vicinity." 
  32. ^ a b "Average Weather for Labuan". WeatherSpark. Retrieved 21 January 2014. 
  33. ^ "Labuan Climates". world climates. Retrieved 2014-01-20. [dead link]
  34. ^ JADUAL PELAKSANAAN PROGRAM KESEDARAN KITAR SEMULA BAGI KAMPUNG-KAMPUNG DI W.P. LABUAN UNTUK TAHUN 2011
  35. ^ E-Mail of the Territory Administration to Wikipedia 2012-06-11
  36. ^ a b "Demographic Indicator Malaysia 2013" (in Malay and English). Department of Statistics, Malaysia. Retrieved 21 January 2014. 
  37. ^ "Labuan Economy". Labuan Liberty Port Management. Retrieved 2014-01-20. 
  38. ^ "GDP by state, national accounts 2005-2012" (in English and Malay). Department of Statistic, Malaysia. Retrieved 2014-01-20. 
  39. ^ Panagadivers.com
  40. ^ "School". Labuantourism.com.my. Retrieved 2012-02-21. 
  41. ^ "Laman Web Rasmi Universiti Malaysia Sabah Kampus Antarabangsa Labuan". Al.ums.edu.my. Retrieved 2012-02-21. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]