Lacrosse in Pennsylvania
Lacrosse has been played in Pennsylvania since the 19th century. Today, there are many respected amateur programs at the club, college and high school level, as well as several respected past and present professional teams at the National Lacrosse League (NLL) and Major League Lacrosse (MLL) levels.
- 1 College Lacrosse
- 2 Notable programs
- 3 Notable players from Pennsylvania
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 External links
- see also College Lacrosse - Wikipedia entry
College Lacrosse Beginnings
Intercollegiate lacrosse can trace its roots to 1877, when New York University beat Manhattan College two to zero. Also in 1877, the Boston Lacrosse Club lacrosse was started up at Harvard, though a true "varsity" team at Harvard was not established until 1880. In 1879, the United States Amateur Lacrosse Association was formed by John R. Flannery, a well-known Canadian club player, to coordinate the efforts of private, amateur lacrosse clubs in several Northeast cities, including one club that formed in Bradford, Pennsylvania. Flannery had grown up in Canada, been a member of the Montreal Shamrocks Lacrosse Club, and subsequently moved to the United States where he played for a number of amateur east coast lacrosse clubs. In 1878 he organized a game billed as the 'National Championship' between Union Lacrosse Club and Ravenswood Lacrosse Club of New York City. Encouraged by the turnout of some 40,000 spectators, Flannery set about organizing the disparate lacrosse clubs into a cohesive organization. Ravenswood Lacrosse Club with John Flannery went on to influence lacrosse at several other colleges, playing a well-publicized game against New York University in 1879.
In 1881, the first ever intercollegiate lacrosse tournament was held, with Harvard defeating Princeton in the final. This series led to the formation of a league in 1882, known as the Inter-Collegiate Lacrosse Association (the ICLA, later the ILA), which included New York University, Columbia, Princeton and Harvard. At the same time, Flannery's United States Amateur Lacrosse Association comprised eleven college and club teams, but by 1886 the number of clubs had risen to greater than 40. College organizations, including a varsity team at Lehigh University, soon were seeking admittance to the ILA. Lehigh fielded its first varsity squad in 1885, with the University of Pennsylvania, and Lafayette College at the club level, following suit in 1890. Lehigh and Swarthmore were accepted as members in the ILA in 1888 and 1891, respectively.
The first tournament for lacrosse supremacy during this period was known as the Oelrichs Cup, sponsored by Hermann Oelrichs, and first offered up in a tournament format in 1881. Oelrichs was the first president of the United States National Amateur Lacrosse Association, a precursor to the USILA, and he was a member of the New York Lacrosse Club. The Oelrichs Cup was played for much of the 1880s.
Development of USILA
In 1898, the United States Inter-university Lacrosse League was formed with Harvard, Columbia, Cornell and Pennsylvania as charter members. The first game of the new "inter-university" lacrosse championship (now known as the Ivy League title) was played in New York City between Columbia University and the University of Pennsylvania, resulting in a victory for Penn by the score of 4 to 3 on April 27, 1901. By 1905, sufficient interest in lacrosse had occurred to allow for the official combination of the Inter-Collegiate Lacrosse Association and the United States Inter-university Lacrosse League. In December 1905, representatives from all the colleges in the two leagues met in New York and formed the United States Inter-Collegiate Lacrosse League, the USICLL initially, soon to be known as the USILL. The colleges entering into this association were Columbia, Cornell, Harvard, Johns Hopkins, Lehigh, Pennsylvania, Stevens and Swarthmore.
During the first 30 years of organized varsity college lacrosse, known alternately as the ICLA, ILA, USICLL, USILL and USILA, Lehigh and Swarthmore were dominant teams, with the two teams being voted National Champions of college lacrosse a combined ten seasons. Glenn "Pop" Warner, the Hall of Fame football coach at the Carlisle Indian School (PA) from 1899 to 1903, substituted lacrosse for baseball during the spring season because he said, "Lacrosse is a developer of health and strength. It is a game that spectators rave over once they understand it." It is also likely that lacrosse, a contact sport, helped prepare his football players for the fall season. In 1917, Lehigh, which went undefeated for two straight seasons, won the USILL championship by defeating Penn in overtime 5 to 4 at Franklin Field in a title matchup. By 1920, the USILL had expanded to include teams from Syracuse, Rutgers, Penn State and, encouraged by Pop Warner, even considered adding a varsity team at the University of Pittsburgh. In 1920, college lacrosse realigned their association, adding a Southern Division, which included powerful teams from Lehigh, Penn and Swarthmore along with traditional Maryland power Johns Hopkins. The United States Intercollegiate Lacrosse Association (USILA), the organization still in existence today, officially was formed in November 1925.
Lacrosse Development in Pennsylvania
Lehigh fielded its first varsity squad in 1885, with the University of Pennsylvania, and Lafayette College at the club level, following suit in 1890. Penn played intermittently upon starting up lacrosse, and so lists 1900 as their first official season of varsity lacrosse. Penn State played its first intercollegiate game against Penn in 1913 and in 1940 attempted a college box lacrosse league playing top universities including Yale. An appropriately named College Division dominated lacrosse in 1952, consisting of 17 undergraduate teams from Rensselaer Polytechnic, Army, Virginia, Navy, Hofstra, Yale, Baltimore University, Maryland, Delaware, Drexel, Princeton, Duke, Washington College, Washington and Lee, Johns Hopkins, Loyola, and Western Maryland as well as two club teams from Mount Washington and Maryland Lacrosse Club. Drexel represented Pennsylvania schools well that season reaching as high as number six in the standings. By the mid-1950s with some 60 colleges playing lacrosse, teams were divided into three divisions. While the 'A Division' included traditional national powers Navy and Johns Hopkins, the 'B Division' and 'C Division' consisted of several potent Pennsylvania universities including Penn, Swarthmore, Penn State, Lehigh, Dickinson, Drexel and Lafayette.
In total, Lehigh University won seven national titles under the pre-NCAA United States Intercollegiate Lacrosse Association format of voting for the national champion, while Swarthmore University won four titles. More recently under the NCAA tournament format in place since 1971, Pennsylvania based universities have participated in many NCAA Men's Lacrosse Championship tournaments including Bucknell (2), Cabrini (6), Franklin & Marshall (4), Gettysburg (11), Lehigh (1), Kutztown (1), Messiah College (2), Penn (11), Penn State (2), Swarthmore (1), Widener (6) and Villanova (2). In the 1988 NCAA tournament, Penn led by Tony Seaman and Chris Flynn reached the semi-finals, losing a one goal match to the Gait Brothers led Syracuse Orange.
Among recent highlights at the university level, in 2005, Penn State was named to the NCAA tournament after reaching number eleven in the national rankings. In 2006 Penn upset number three Cornell on their way to getting an at-large berth in the NCAA tournament. Gettysburg has had good success in Division III, regularly appearing in the top five national rankings and reaching the NCAA title games in 2001, 2002 and 2009. Philadelphia has hosted six NCAA Men's Lacrosse Championship tournament in Divisions I, II & III at Franklin Field and Lincoln Financial Field. In 2009, Villanova defeated Towson in the conference finals to gain the team's first ever NCAA tournament bid. In 2009 Chris Bates head coach for ten years at Drexel took the top job at Princeton. In 2007, Drexel upset number one ranked and defending National Champion Virginia, 11 to 10, scoring the game-winning goal with three seconds remaining. In 2010, Lafayette won their first six games including consecutive upsets over Navy and Bucknell reaching a national ranking of number eight. In 2011, for the first time, three Pennsylvania schools were represented in the 16 team NCAA tournament. Penn and Villanova were selected as at-large tournament picks, while Bucknell made the tournament by virtue of an automatic qualifier for winning the Patriot league tournament.
Also for the first time, in 2011, a Pennsylvania school captured the NCAA Division II Championship when Mercyhurst defeated Adelphi 9 to 8. In 2012, Lehigh was seeded number seven in the NCAA tournament, the first seeded Pennsylvania team since Penn was seeded number four in 1988.
Men's University (PA) Lacrosse Titles
- NCAA or USILA National Titles - 12
- Lehigh - 1890, 1893, 1914, 1916, 1917, 1921 - USILA Champions, 1959 - USILA “Class C” National Champions (7)
- Swarthmore - 1901, 1904, 1905, 1910 - USILA Champions (4)
- Mercyhurst - 2011 - NCAA Division II Champions (1)
Women's University Level
Women's lacrosse started up in Scotland at St Leonards School in the 1890s, but was not introduced into the United States until 1926 at The Bryn Mawr School in Baltimore. The United States Women's Lacrosse Association was established in 1931. Penn State started up a women's program in 1965 and Lock Haven University in 1969. And in 1971 The Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women was founded to govern collegiate women's athletics in the United States and to administer national championships.
The most successful programs have been Temple University and Penn State in both the AIAW and NCAA Division I, West Chester University in Division II, as well as Ursinus College and Franklin & Marshall in Division III. Pennsylvania colleges and universities have won a combined 15 AIAW and NCAA women's lacrosse national titles. Temple won championships in 1984 and 1988; Penn State in 1978, 1979, 1980, 1987 and 1989; West Chester in 2002 and 2008; Ursinus in 1986, 1989 and 1990; and Franklin & Marshall in 2007 and 2009. Marsha Florio of Penn State and Gail Cummings of Temple are currently the 3rd and 4th all-time highest scoring Division I players with 380 and 378 career points, respectively. Stephanie Kienle and Katelyn Martin both of West Chester are the 1st and 2nd highest all-time scoring Division II players with 390 and 376 career points, respectively.
In 2009 Franklin & Marshall won the Division III national title defeating Salisbury 11 to 10. In 2011 Gettysburg won the Division III national title defeating Bowdoin 16 to 5.
Women's University (PA) Lacrosse Titles
- NCAA or AIAW Titles - 17
- Penn State - 1978, 1979, 1980 AIAW Division I Champions, 1987, 1989 NCAA Division I Champions (5)
- Temple - 1982 AIAW Division I Champions, 1984, 1988 NCAA Division I Champions (3)
- Ursinus – 1986, 1989, 1990 NCAA Division III Champions (3)
- West Chester – 2002, 2008 NCAA Division II Champions (2)
- Franklin & Marshall – 2007, 2009 NCAA Division III Champions (2)
- Gettysburg – 2011 NCAA Division III Champions (1)
- Millersville State – 1982 AIAW Division III Champions (1)
Lacrosse development at the private preparatory school or public high school level in Pennsylvania by the mid-1950s had progressed more slowly than at the collegiate level. At that time, Lower Merion High School and Swarthmore High School were among only a handful of Pennsylvania schools offering varsity lacrosse as a spring sport at the high school level, usually playing against college level junior varsity squads. But by 1965, a state high school championship system had been put in place. The Hill School was named the first Pennsylvania prep state-wide champion of what became known as the Avery Blake Memorial Trophy. Since 2001, with the expansion of lacrosse programs at high schools throughout the state, a new format the Keystone Cup has been played, where three state sectional champions meet to determine the statewide champion.
In 1973, Sewickley Academy hosted western Pennsylvania's first high lacrosse championship tournament featuring teams from Philadelphia, Detroit and Annapolis. Peet Poillon along with his father started up the lacrosse program at Seneca Valley High School in western Pennsylvania in 2001, while also scoring 410 career goals. In 2009, Emily Garrity of Strath Haven High School shattered the career scoring record for women with 695 total points.
Pennsylvania high schools with the most state lacrosse titles include Lower Merion (7), Ridley (6), Haverford School (5), and Penn Charter (5). In 2008, LaSalle College High won the state title and was ranked fourth in the nation, the highest national ranking of a Pennsylvania prep school up to then. Haverford School regularly appears in the top 15 nationally, and plays recognized programs such as The Gilman and Lawrenceville Schools. Three schools have repeated as champion for three straight years, Harriton High School from 1970 to 1972, Penn Charter from 1974 to 1976 and Ridley from 2001 to 2003. In the 2009 state finals, LaSalle won its second consecutive title in defeating Conestoga High School in its first appearance in the state finals, 7 to 3. LaSalle ended the year ranked 4th in a national poll for the second straight season, while Conestoga finished the year ranked 12th.
In 2011, for the first time by a Pennsylvania prep school, the Haverford School Fords were named National High School lacrosse champions. The Fords topped the national polls in both the Laxpower.com and Inside Lacrosse rankings, while repeat Pennsylvania Public champions Conestoga finished third and fourth nationally, respectively.
- High School National Titles - 1
- The Haverford School - 2011 National Champions
In 1974, the original Philadelphia Wings became the first professional lacrosse team to operate out of Pennsylvania. The team included popular Philadelphia Flyer player Doug Favell, and the well-known Gene Hart announcing games for the team, as well as Canadian star John Grant Sr. father of John Grant, Jr.. The Wings typically drew crowds of over 10,000 at the Spectrum and reached the league finals in 1974. The team folded along with the league in 1975. In 1985, a box lacrosse USA/Canada Superseries, an eight-game series, was played at the Spectrum in Philadelphia. This series revitalized interest in box lacrosse and was a pre-cursor to the Major Indoor Lacrosse League and National Lacrosse League.
The current Philadelphia Wings the oldest franchise in the NLL, started up in 1987 by among others Mike French, have the most championships of any NLL team with six. Early on the Wings made an effort to connect with the local community by drafting local talent including Scott Growney from Harriton High School; J.R. Castle, Mark Moschella, Scott Carruthers from Drexel; Chris Flynn from Penn and Tony Resch from William Penn Charter School. Strong fan support was evident even in the Wings initial season, where the team averaged over 10,000 fans for their home games in 1987. The Wings have an all-time record in 23 seasons of 152-118 during the regular season, and 16-10 in the playoffs. NLL Hall of Famers Gary Gait, Paul Gait, Tom Marechek and Dallas Eliuk are among the notable players who have been a part of the club.
The Pittsburgh Bulls played in the NLL from 1990–1993 including players Dave Pietramala and Kevin Bilger, and the Pittsburgh CrosseFire played a single season in 2000 until they relocated to become the Colorado Mammoth. In 2004, the Philadelphia Barrage of the MLL moved from Bridgeport and played until 2008 when they folded along with three other teams. In five years of operation, the Barrage won three league championships. The team played its home games at United Sports Training Center in West Bradford Township, Pennsylvania.
- NLL or MLL Titles - 9
- Wings - 1989, 1990, 1994, 1995, 1998, 2001 NLL Champions
- Barrage - 2004, 2006, 2007 MLL Champions
Today, the national governing body of lacrosse is US Lacrosse. US Lacrosse services the state of Pennsylvania through three local chapters: the Pittsburgh chapter, the Central Pennsylvania Lacrosse chapter and the Philadelphia Lacrosse Association. All three maintain the Pennsylvania Lacrosse Hall of Fame, which honors the great players, coaches, officials and promoters who have made significant contributions to the game at the professional, college and high school levels in Pennsylvania.
Pennsylvania based College Lacrosse programs have a combined 28 national titles.
- Conestoga High School (Tredyffrin Township, Pennsylvania)
- Episcopal Academy (Merion, Pennsylvania)
- Germantown Academy (Fort Washington, Pennsylvania)
- Haverford School (Haverford, Pennsylvania)
- La Salle College High School (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania)
- Lower Merion High School (Lower Merion, Pennsylvania)
- Penn Charter (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania)
- Ridley High School (Ridley, Pennsylvania)
- Sewickley Academy (Sewickley, Pennsylvania)
- Springfield High School (Springfield, Pennsylvania)
- The Hill School (Pottstown, Pennsylvania)
Notable players from Pennsylvania
|Avery Blake Jr.||Swarthmore College||1950–1953||2-time 1st team All American midfield and attack, 1st 4-time All-American from Pennsylvania. Avery Blake Sr., long-time coach at Swarthmore and Penn, as well as Blake Jr. are both in National Lacrosse Hall of Fame. National Lacrosse Hall of Fame entry|
|Kyle Barrie||Johns Hopkins||2002–2005||1st and 2nd team All-American at attack. Key contributor on 2003 Hopkins' finals team. Won national title in 2005 with Johns Hopkins. Prep All American at The Haverford School.|
|Eric Bishop||Salisbury University||2004–2007||1st team All-American at attack. Key contributor on 2004, 2005 and 2007 championship teams. Prep All American at Penncrest High School. Assistant coach at Swarthmore.|
|Karen Emas Borbee||University of Delaware||1980–1983||3 time All American at University of Delaware. Led Delaware to Championships in 1981, 1982, and 1983. Prep star at Penncrest High School. PA Lacrosse Hall of Fame entry National Lacrosse Hall of Fame entry|
|Johnny Christmas||University of Virginia||2002–2005||2 time All-American attackman. Key contributor to the 2003 Virginia national title and 2005 Final Four teams. Prep All American at Lower Merion. Professional player for Boston Cannons and Philadelphia Wings.|
|Brian Christopher||Johns Hopkins||2006–2009||All-American midfielder and key contributor to 2007 Johns Hopkins national title team. Prep All-American at Springfield High School.|
|Ken Clausen||University of Virginia||2007–2010||3-time 1st team All-American defenseman. Led UVA to 3 straight national semi-finals. Prep All American at The Hill School. Picked 5th by the Denver Outlaws in the 2010 MLL draft.|
|Ralph (Rip) Davy||North Carolina||1979–1982||1st team All-American defenseman, played under Willie Scroggs to develop UNC lacrosse into national college power. Prep star at The Hill School. PA Lacrosse Hall of Fame entry|
|Brian Dougherty||University of Maryland||1993–1996||2-time 1st team All-American and 2-time NCAA Goaltender of the Year. Named 1995 NCAA Championship Outstanding Player leading the Terps to the finals. Prep All American at Episcopal Academy. Played professionally with the Rochester Rattlers, Philadelphia Barrage and Long Island Lizards. PA Lacrosse Hall of Fame entry National Lacrosse Hall of Fame entry|
|James Ferguson||Johns Hopkins||1971–1973||2 time All-American, key to defensive unit that led Hopkins to NCAA Finals in 1972 and 1973 under legendary coach Bob Scott. Prep All American at Lower Merion, one of the first PA Prep stars to play on top tier college lacrosse program. PA Lacrosse Hall of Fame entry|
|Dennis Fink||Drexel University||1976–1978||All-American attackman, led nation in scoring in his senior season with 98 points. Among NCAA Division I all time leading scorers. Prep star at Springfield High School. PA Lacrosse Hall of Fame entry|
|Chris Flynn||University of Pennsylvania||1986-89||1st team All-American midfielder. Prep All-American at Episcopal Academy. Key contributor to the Philadelphia Wings from 1990 to 1999, including on four NLL championship squads. PA Lacrosse Hall of Fame entry|
|Kathleen Geiger||Temple University||1983–1986||2 time All American, 1st team All American in 1985. Led Temple to Championships in 1984. Prep star at Lansdowne-Aldan High School. PA Lacrosse Hall of Fame entry National Lacrosse Hall of Fame entry|
|John Haldy||University of Virginia||2008–2011||Key contributor to 3 straight national semifinal teams and captain of the 2011 Virginia national title team. Prep All-American at The Haverford School.|
|George A. Kruse||Kutztown University||1975-77||All- American attack and longtime lacrosse official. Among all-time leading Division III scorers. PA Lacrosse Hall of Fame entry|
|Kurt Lunkenheimer||Princeton University||1995–1998||2 time All-American Defenseman on 1996, 1997 and 1998 national title teams. Prep All-American at Episcopal Academy.|
|Jeff MacBean||Princeton University||1993–1996||All-Ivy midfielder on 1994 and 1996 national title teams. Overtime assist to Kevin Lowe in 1994 finals gave Princeton the title. Lacrosse coach at Marin Catholic in Northern California. Prep All-American at Episcopal Academy.|
|David Maguire||Ohio Wesleyan University||1995–1998||3 time 1st team All-American attack including Division III Jack Turnbull Award winner in 1997. Sixth all-time in Division III scoring with 225 goals 96 assists and 321 points. Prep All American at Marple Newtown High School.|
|Bill McGlone||University of Maryland||2003–2006||2 time 1st team All-American midfielder on three national semifinal teams. Prep All-American at Ridley High School. Professional player for the Philadelphia Wings and Chicago Machine.|
|Matt McMonagle||Cornell University||2005–2008||1st team All-American goalie, Ensign C. Markland Kelly, Jr. Award winner on 2007 regular season undefeated Big Red squad. Prep star at Episcopal Academy. Professional player with Long Island Lizards.|
|Bill Miller||Hobart||1988–1991||3 time 1st team All-American attack including Division III Player of the Year in 1990 and 1991. Led Hobart to four straight Division III National Titles and is eighth all-time in Division III scoring with 318 points (173g, 145a). Prep star at Episcopal Academy. Professional player with Philadelphia Wings. Miller was inducted into the National Lacrosse Hall of Fame in 2013. PA Lacrosse Hall of Fame entry|
|Brett Moyer||Hofstra University||2003–2006||1st and 2nd team All American defenseman at Hofstra. Prep star at Ridley. Professional player with Philadelphia Wings and Philadelphia Barrage.|
|Amanda O'Leary||Temple, Yale University, University of Florida||1984–1988||Hall of Fame player at Temple and coach at Yale and Florida. 1988 NCAA Player of the Year, led Temple to perfect 19–0 record and NCAA Women's Lacrosse Championship. Spring-Ford High School prep star and All-American in both lacrosse and field hockey at Temple. National Lacrosse Hall of Fame entry|
|Pete Ortale||Duke University||1984–1987||All- ACC midfielder at Duke and Prep All American at Penn Charter. 9-11 Casualty. PA Lacrosse Hall of Fame entry|
|Peet Poillon||UMBC, Ohio State University||2006–2009||2nd Team All-American midfielder for UMBC and All-American at Ohio State. Junior College All-American at Howard (Md.) Community. Prep All- American at Seneca Valley High School. Professional player with Washington Bayhawks, was selected 2010 MLL Most Improved Player.|
|Tony Resch||Yale University||1977–1980||All-American defenseman at Yale, long time coach at National Lacrosse League and Major Lacrosse League levels. PA Lacrosse Hall of Fame entry|
|Gerald Ronon||Princeton University||1982–1985||All-American attack at Princeton and Prep All American at Lower Merion. PA Lacrosse Hall of Fame entry|
|Peter Scott||Johns Hopkins||1981–1984||1st team All-American attack and key contributor to four straight NCAA final teams including 1984 National Championship team. Among all-time Leading Scorers at Johns Hopkins. Prep All-American at Harriton High School. PA Lacrosse Hall of Fame entry|
|Ward Steidle||North Carolina||1979–1982||Key contributor at midfield to 2 straight NCAA national title teams including 1981 and 1982 National Champions. Prep star at Harriton High School.|
|Kyle Sweeney||Georgetown||2000–2003||3 time All-American at Georgetown and Prep All American at Springfield High School. Longtime MLL player for several teams and 6 year veteran for the Philadelphia Wings.|
|Cindy Timchal||West Chester University, University of Maryland||1973–present||Prep and college star at Haverford High and West Chester. Coached Maryland to seven NCAA Championships and an NCAA record 50 straight wins in the 1990s and 2000s. All-time leader in career coaching wins with a record of 349 wins and 90 losses at Maryland, Northwestern and Navy. PA Lacrosse Hall of Fame entry|
|Greg Traynor||University of Virginia||1992–1995||All-American midfield and key contributor to 1994 NCAA finals team. Prep All American at Conestoga High School. Professional with the Philadelphia Wings, Boston Cannons, Long Island Lizards, New Jersey Pride. Member of 1998 USA Men’s World Championship Team. PA Lacrosse Hall of Fame entry|
|Greg Waller||Princeton University||1989–1992||All American midfielder scored tying goal sending 1992 National Championship game into overtime, which Tigers won in two overtimes. Prep star at West Chester East High School.|
|Kyle Wharton||Johns Hopkins||2008–2011||2 time All-American attack, 20th all-time in goals scored at Hopkins and contributor to 2008 NCAA Hopkins finals team. Prep All American at The Haverford School.|
- = in National Lacrosse Hall of Fame
- = won NCAA National Title
- History of lacrosse
- Pennsylvania Interscholastic Athletic Association
- List of the oldest lacrosse teams
- Ebook and Texts Archive > The Library of Congress > The Official National Collegiate Athletic Association lacrosse guide
- "A Lacrosse National Association". The New York Times. 21 June 1879. p. 2.
- "A CONTEST AT LACROSSE.; THE RAVENSWOODS BEAT THE UNIVERSITY CLUB AFTER A HARD STRUGGLE". The New York Times. 17 May 1879. p. 2.
- "A Great Boom in Lacrosse: Champion teams to play in this neighborhood this season". The New York Times. 22 March 1886. p. 8.
- "SPORT ON LAND AND WATER; PLAYING LACROSSE FOR MR. OELRICHS'S CHALLENGE CUP. AN INTERESTING CONTEST ON THE GROUNDS OF THE POLO CLUB--THE PRIZE WON BY THE NEW-YORK CLUB". The New York Times. June 26, 1881. p. 8.
- "List of alumni who played for the New York Lacrosse Club". New York Lacrosse Club.
- "Inter-University Lacrosse: Pennsylvania Beat Columbia in Opening Game of the Series". The New York Times. 28 April 1901. p. 9.
- Scott, Bob (1978). Lacrosse: Technique and Tradition. Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-2060-1.
- "Lehigh Keeps Its Title: Pennsylvania Beaten In Extra Period Game of Lacrosse". The New York Times. 28 May 1917. p. Sports 14.
- "New Lacrosse League: Johns Hopkins, Lehigh, and Swarthmore in an Association". The New York Times. 6 December 1901. p. 10.
- "Lacrosse League Seeks Expansion: Syracuse Is Admitted and Army and Rutgers Will Be Invited—May Change Rules". The New York Times. 11 January 1920. p. 91.
- "Lacrosse with Penn". Penn State Collegian. 21 May 1913.
- "Nittany Stickmen Win Box Lacrosse Match". Penn State Collegian. 3 March 1940.
- "Skull 'em! Hip 'em! Score!". Sports Illustrated. 9 May 1955.
- "NCAA Men's Lacrosse Records". NCAA.
- "Gettysburg Blasts Bowdoin to Claim Div. III Title". Laxpower.com.
- "Fulton Owes Fame to Lower Merion". The Daily Collegian. 27 May 1954.
- "Pennsylvania State Champions: Avery Blake Memorial Trophy Winners". Philadelphia Lacrosse Association.
- "Lacrosse Play Slated". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. May 23, 1973.
- "Manheim Township's Tim Stratton Sets National Career Scoring Record". Central Pennsylvania Lacrosse. June 8, 2007.
- "Boys lacrosse national career records". ESPN RISE. June 28, 2011.
- "La Salle handles Conestoga in lacrosse final". Delaware County Times. June 7, 2009.
- "Haverford School (PA) is the LaxPower High School Boys' Lacrosse National Champion for 2011". Laxpower. June 20, 2011.
- "Under Armour High School Power Rankings". Inside Lacrosse. June 22, 2011.
- "1985 Box Lacrosse USA/Canada Superseries". Lax-TV.
- "WingsZone History Page". WingsZone.com.
- "2009 Philadelphia Wings Media Guide". WingsLax.com. January 26, 2009.
- "Pennsylvania Lacrosse Hall of Fame". Philadelphia Lacrosse Association.
- "National Lacrosse Hall of Fame". US Lacrosse.
- 1985 Box Lacrosse USA/Canada Superseries
- Eastern Pennsylvania Lacrosse Association
- E-Lacrosse The Birth of Modern North American Lacrosse 1850-1900
- Hall of Fame entry John R. Flannery
- Pennsylvania Interscholastic Athletic Association
- Pennsylvania Lacrosse Hall of Fame
- Philadelphia Lacrosse Association
- US Lacrosse Central Pennsylvania Chapter
- Western Pennsylvania Scholastic Lacrosse Association
- WingsZone Official Home of the Philadelphia Wings Fan Club