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02-0667 1b.jpg
Lesions of Weissella confusa in the mona monkey (hematoxylin and eosin stain): A) liver: portal triads with neutrophilic infiltration (x10); A1, presence of bacterial emboli inside the vein (arrow) (x40). B) acute pneumonia: edema, congestion, and leukocyte cells exudation in the pulmonary alveoli (x10). C) encephalitis: congestion and marginalized neutrophils in nervous vessels (x10)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Division: Firmicutes
Class: Bacilli
Order: Lactobacillales


The Lactobacillales are an order of Gram-positive bacteria that comprise the lactic acid bacteria (LAB). They are prolific in nature, and are found in soil, water, plants, and animals. They are widely used in the production of fermented foods, including dairy products such as yogurt, cheese, butter, buttermilk, kefir, and koumiss. LAB are also responsible for the malolactic fermentation process in wine production, and the fermenting of salted cabbage to sauerkraut.


The currently accepted taxonomy is based on the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature [1] [2] and the phylogeny is based on 16S rRNA-based LTP release 106 by 'The All-Species Living Tree' Project [3]


Aerosphaera taetraHutson & Collins 2000

Carnococcus allantoicusTanner et al. 1995


Granulicatella Collins and Lawson 2000

Atopobacter phocae Lawson et al. 2000

Bavariicoccus seileri Schmidt et al. 2009

Trichococcus Scheff et al. 1984 emend. Liu et al. 2002

Lactobacillus algidus Kato et al. 2000

Lactobacillus species group 2

Lactobacillus Beijerinck 1901 emend. Cai et al. 2012


Lactobacillus species group 3

Lactobacillus species group 4

Lactobacillus species group 5

Lactobacillus species group 6

Pediococcus Claussen 1903

Lactobacillus species group 7

Carnobacterium Collins et al. 1987

Isobaculum melis Collins et al. 2002

Carnobacteriaceae 2 [incl. various Carnobacterium sp.]

Desemzia incerta (Steinhaus 1941) Stackebrandt et al. 1999

Enterococcaceae & Streptococcaceae


Lactobacillales part 2 (continued)[edit]

Lactobacillales part 2

Vagococcus fessus Hoyles et al. 2000

Vagococcus Collins et al. 1990

Catellicoccus marimammalium Lawson et al. 2006

Enterococcus (ex Thiercelin and Jouhaud 1903) Schleifer and Kilpper-Bälz 1984

Enterococcus phoeniculicola Law-Brown and Meyers 2003

Enterococcus species group 2 [incl. Melissococcus plutonius & Tetragenococcus]

Enterococcus species group 3

Enterococcus species group 4

Enterococcus raffinosus Collins et al. 1989

Enterococcus avium (ex Nowlan and Deibel 1967) Collins et al. 1984

Enterococcus pallens Tyrrell et al. 2002

Enterococcus hermanniensis Koort et al. 2004

Pilibacter termitis Higashiguchi et al. 2006


♠ Strains found at the National Center for Biotechnology Information, but not listed in the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature

Lactic acid bacteria genera[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ See the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature. Data extracted from J.P. Euzéby. "Lactobacillales". Retrieved 2012-05-17. 
  2. ^ See the NCBI webpage on Lactobacillales Data extracted from Sayers et al. "NCBI Taxonomy Browser". National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved 2012-05-17. 
  3. ^ See the 'The All-Species Living Tree' Project [1]. Data extracted from the "16S rRNA-based LTP release 106 (full tree)". Silva Comprehensive Ribosomal RNA Database. Retrieved 2012-05-17.