Lactobacillus casei

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Lactobacillus casei
SG Yakult 4 flavours.JPG
Yakult, a drink containing Lactobacillus casei
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Firmicutes
Class: Bacilli
Order: Lactobacillales
Family: Lactobacillaceae
Genus: Lactobacillus
Species: L. casei
Binomial name
Lactobacillus casei
(Orla-Jensen 1916)
Hansen & Lessel 1971

Lactobacillus casei is a species of genus Lactobacillus found in the human intestine and mouth. This particular species of Lactobacillus is documented to have a wide pH and temperature range, and complements the growth of L. acidophilus, a producer of the enzyme amylase (a carbohydrate-digesting enzyme).

Description[edit]

L. casei is considered a probiotic safe for consumption.

Uses[edit]

Dairy production[edit]

The most common application of L. casei is industrial, specifically for dairy production.

L. casei is typically the dominant species of nonstarter lactic acid bacteria (i.e. contaminant bacteria[1]) present in ripening cheddar cheese, and, recently, the complete genome sequence of L. casei ATCC 334 has become available. L. casei is also the dominant species in naturally fermented Sicilian green olives.[2]

Medical[edit]

A commercial beverage containing L. casei strain Shirota has been shown to inhibit the growth of Helicobacter pylori in vivo. But, when the same beverage was consumed by humans in a small trial, H. pylori colonization decreased only slightly, and the trend was not statistically significant.[3] Some L. casei strains are considered to be probiotic, and may be effective in alleviation of gastrointestinal pathogenic bacterial diseases. According to World Health Organization, those properties have to be demonstrated on each specific strain—including human clinical studies—to be valid.[4] L. casei has been combined with other probiotic strains of bacteria in randomized trials studying its effects in preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) and Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) and patients in the trials who were not given the placebo had significantly lower rates of AAD or CDI (depending on the trial) with no adverse effects reported.[5] Additionally, trials have shown significantly shorter recovery times in children suffering from acute diarrhea (primarily caused by rotavirus) when given different L. casei treatments when compared to placebo.[6] Studies suggest that Lactobacillus is a safe and effective treatment for acute and infectious diarrhea.[7] In the preparation of food, L. casei bacteria can be used in the natural fermentation of beans to lower levels of the compounds causing flatulence upon digestion.[8] Pancreatic necrosis if left untreated has an almost 100 percent fatality rate due to bacterial translocation. Lactobacillus casei has been found to have a wide spectrum of coverage against pathogenic organisms that translocate from the gastrointestinal tract thereby demonstrating therapeutic benefit in pancreatic necrosis. The addition of other probiotic strains reduces pro-inflammatory cytokines and further suppresses bacterial overgrowth in the small intestine leading to a reduction in bacterial translocation.[9]

Commercial probiotic[edit]

Among the best-documented, probiotics L.casei, L. casei DN-114001, and L. casei Shirota have been extensively studied[10] and are widely available as BIO-K Plus functional foods (see Actimel, Yakult).

Other[edit]

In the past few years, there have been many studies in the decolorization of azo dyes by lactic acid bacteria such as L. casei TISTR 1500, L. paracasei, Oenococcus oeni, etc. With the azoreductase activity, mono-, di- azo bonds are degraded completely, and generate other aromatic compounds as intermediates.[11]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Banks JM, Williams AG (2004). "The role of the nonstarter lactic acid bacteria in Cheddar cheese ripening". International Journal of Dairy Technology 57 (2–3): 145–152. doi:10.1111/j.1471-0307.2004.00150.x. Retrieved 2013-10-30. 
  2. ^ Randazzo CL, Restuccia C, Romano AD, Caggia C (January 2004). "Lactobacillus casei, dominant species in naturally fermented Sicilian green olives". Int. J. Food Microbiol. 90 (1): 9–14. doi:10.1016/S0168-1605(03)00159-4. PMID 14672826. 
  3. ^ Cats A, Kuipers EJ, Bosschaert MA, Pot RG, Vandenbroucke-Grauls CM, Kusters JG (February 2003). "Effect of frequent consumption of a Lactobacillus casei-containing milk drink in Helicobacter pylori-colonized subjects". Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 17 (3): 429–35. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2036.2003.01452.x. PMID 12562457. 
  4. ^ "Joint FAO/WHO Working Group Report on Drafting Guidelines for the Evaluation of Probiotics in Food". London, Ontario, Canada. April 30 and May 1, 2002.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  5. ^ McFarland, LV (2009). "Evidence-based review of probiotics for antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile infections.". Anaerobe 15 (6): 274–80. doi:10.1016/j.anaerobe.2009.09.002. Retrieved 2012-04-15. 
  6. ^ Isolauri, Erika; et al. (1991). "A Human Lactobacillus Strain (Lactobacillus casei sp strain GG) Promotes Recovery From Acute Diarrhea in Children". Pediatrics 88 (1): 90–97. Retrieved 2012-04-15. 
  7. ^ "Lactobacillus Therapy for Acute Infectious Diarrhea in Children: A Meta-analysis". Pediatrics 109 (4): 678–684. 2002. doi:10.1542/peds.109.4.678. 
  8. ^ Marisela Granito, Glenda Álvarez (June 2006). "Lactic acid fermentation of black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris): microbiological and chemical characterization". Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 86 (8): 1164–1171. doi:10.1002/jsfa.2490. 
  9. ^ Ridwan, BU.; Koning, CJ.; Besselink, MG.; Timmerman, HM.; Brouwer, EC.; Verhoef, J.; Gooszen, HG.; Akkermans, LM. (Jan 2008). "Antimicrobial activity of a multispecies probiotic (Ecologic 641) against pathogens isolated from infected pancreatic necrosis." (PDF). Lett Appl Microbiol 46 (1): 61–7. doi:10.1111/j.1472-765X.2007.02260.x. PMID 17944834. 
  10. ^ Kazuyoshi Takeda and Ko Okumura. "Effects of a Fermented Milk Drink Containing Lactobacillus casei Strain Shirota on the Human NK-Cell Activity". 
  11. ^ Seesuriyachan P, Takenaka S, Kuntiya A, Klayraung S, Murakami S, Aoki K (March 2007). "Metabolism of azo dyes by Lactobacillus casei TISTR 1500 and effects of various factors on decolorization". Water Res. 41 (5): 985–92. doi:10.1016/j.watres.2006.12.001. PMID 17254626.