Lactobacillus rhamnosus

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Lactobacillus rhamnosus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Division: Firmicutes
Class: Bacilli
Order: Lactobacillales
Family: Lactobacillaceae
Genus: Lactobacillus
Species: L. rhamnosus
Binomial name
Lactobacillus rhamnosus
(Hansen 1968)
Collins et al. 1989

Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a bacterium that was originally considered to be a subspecies of L. casei, but later genetic research found it to be a species of its own. Some strains of L. rhamnosus are being used as probiotics. The species is sometimes used in yogurt and other dairy products. Some studies have been done on its in vivo effects. While frequently considered a beneficial organism, L. rhamnosus has been discovered to be pathogenic in certain circumstances.[1]

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103)[edit]

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103) is a strain of L. rhamnosus isolated in 1983 from the intestinal tract of a healthy human being; filed for patent on 17 April 1985, by Sherwood Gorbach and Barry Goldin.[2] (The 'GG' derives from the first letters of their surnames').[3] The patent refers to a strain of "L. acidophilus GG" with American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) Accession No. 53103; later reclassified as a strain of L. rhamnosus. The patent claims the L. rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103) strain is acid- and bile-stable, has a great avidity for human intestinal mucosal cells, and produces lactic acid. Since of the discovery of the L. rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103) strain, it has been extensively studied on its various health benefits and currently L. rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103) strain is the world's most studied probiotic bacterium with over 800 scientific studies.

The genome sequence of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103) has been decoded.[4][5]

Medical research and use[edit]

While Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103) is able to survive the acid and bile of the stomach and intestine[6] and is claimed to colonize the digestive tract and to balance intestinal microflora, evidence suggests that Lactobacillus rhamnosus is likely a transient inhabitant, and not autochthonous.[7] Regardless, it is considered a probiotic useful for treatment of various maladies, as it works on many levels. However, most of the molecular mechanisms are not known.

Diarrhea[edit]

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG has been shown beneficial in the prevention of rotavirus diarrhea in children. The prevention and treatment of various types of diarrhea has been shown both in children and in adults.[8][9][10][11]

Respiratory tract infections[edit]

L. rhamnosus GG has also been associated with a reduction in the risk of respiratory tract infections in children.[12][13]

Atopic dermatitis[edit]

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG has also shown potential in treatment and primary prevention of atopic dermatitis, but the results of intervention trials have been mixed.[14] A clinical trial with seven-year follow-up shows L. rhamnosus GG is useful in the prevention of atopic dermatitis in children at high risk of allergy.[15][16]

Urogenital tract[edit]

The clinical health effects of L. rhamnosus GG have been widely studied. Both L. rhamnosus GG and L. rhamnosus GR-1 appear to protect the urogenital tract by excreting biosurfactants to inhibit the adhesion of vaginal and urinary pathogens.[citation needed]

Intestinal tract permeability[edit]

L. rhamnosus has been found to reduce intestinal permeability in children who suffer from irritable bowel syndrome,[17] and also it has been found to counter alcohol-related intestinal permeability.[18][19]

Gastrointestinal carriage of VRE[edit]

In 2005, L. rhamnosus GG was first successfully used to treat gastrointestinal carriage of vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE) in renal patients.[20]

Anxiety[edit]

Research published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences on August 29, 2011 reported this bacterium may have an effect on GABA neurotransmitter receptors. Mice that were fed L. rhamnosus had less anxiety and had different levels of a brain-chemical sensor and stress hormones.[21]

Weight Loss[edit]

Research published in the British Journal of Nutrition in 2013 suggests that Lactobacillus rhamnosus may increase weight loss in women who are dieting. The research was initiated after several studies showed that the gut bacteria in obese individuals differs significantly from those in thin people. Women in the study lost nearly twice the weight that the placebo group lost. No difference was observed in men, however. [22]

Risks[edit]

The use of L. rhamnosus GG for probiotic therapy has been linked with very rare cases of sepsis in certain risk groups, primarily those with a weakened immune system or infants.[23] Ingestion of L. rhamnosus GG is, nevertheless, considered to be safe, and data from Finland show a significant growth in the consumption of L. rhamnosus GG at the population level has not led to an increase in the number of Lactobacillus bacteraemia cases.[24]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Avlami A, Kordossis T, Vrizidis N, Sipsas NV (2001). "Lactobacillus rhamnosus endocarditis complicating colonoscopy". J. Infect. 42 (4): 283–5. doi:10.1053/jinf.2001.0793. PMID 11545575. 
  2. ^ US 4839281 
  3. ^ Silva M, Jacobus NV, Deneke C, Gorbach SL (1987). "Antimicrobial substance from a human Lactobacillus strain". Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 31 (8): 1231–3. doi:10.1128/aac.31.8.1231. PMC 174909. PMID 3307619. 
  4. ^ Kankainen M, et al.; Paulin, L.; Tynkkynen, S.; von Ossowski, I.; Reunanen, J.; Partanen, P.; Satokari, R.; Vesterlund, S.; Hendrickx, A. P. A.; Lebeer, S.; De Keersmaecker, S. C. J.; Vanderleyden, J.; Hamalainen, T.; Laukkanen, S.; Salovuori, N.; Ritari, J.; Alatalo, E.; Korpela, R.; Mattila-Sandholm, T.; Lassig, A.; Hatakka, K.; Kinnunen, K. T.; Karjalainen, H.; Saxelin, M.; Laakso, K.; Surakka, A.; Palva, A.; Salusjarvi, T.; Auvinen, P.; De Vos, W. M. (2009). "Comparative genomic analysis of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG reveals pili containing a human- mucus binding protein". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 106 (40): 17193–8. doi:10.1073/pnas.0908876106. PMC 2746127. PMID 19805152. 
  5. ^ Morita H, Toh H, Oshima K, Murakami M, Taylor TD, Igimi S, Hattori M (2009). "Complete genome sequence of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103". J. Bacteriol. 191 (24): 7630–1. doi:10.1128/JB.01287-09. PMC 2786603. PMID 19820099. 
  6. ^ Conway PL, Gorbach SL, Goldin BR (1987). "Survival of lactic acid bacteria in the human stomach and adhesion to intestinal cells". J. Dairy Sci. 70 (1): 1–12. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(87)79974-3. PMID 3106442. 
  7. ^ Walter, J. (2008). "The ecological role of lactobacilli in the gastrointestinal tract: Implications for fundamental and biomedical research". Appl. Environ. Microbiol. Ahead of Print 6 June 2008. 
  8. ^ Canaani, RB; Cirillo P, Terrin G, Cesarano L, Spagnuolo MI, De Vincenzo A, Albano F, Passariello A, De Marco G, Manguso F, Guarino A (2007). "Probiotics for treatment of accute diarrhoea in children: randomised clinical trial of five different preparations". BMJ 335 (7615): 340. doi:10.1136/bmj.39272.581736.55. PMC 1949444. PMID 17690340. 
  9. ^ Österlund, P; Ruotsalainen T; Korpela R; Saxelin M; Ollus A; Valta P; Kouri M; Elomaa I; Joensuu H (2007). "Lactobacillus supplementation for diarrhoea related to chemotherapy of colorectal cancer: a randomised study". Br. J. Cancer 97 (8): 1028–34. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6603990. PMC 2360429. PMID 17895895. 
  10. ^ Guandalini, S; Pensabene L, Zikri MA, Dias JA, Casali LG, Hoekstra H, Kolacek S, Massar K, Micetic-Turk D, Papadopoulou A, de Sousa JS, Sandhu B, Szajewska H, Weizman Z (2000). "Lactobacillus GG administered in oral rehydration solution to children with acute diarrhea: a multicenter European trial". J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 30 (1): 54–60. doi:10.1097/00005176-200001000-00018. PMID 10630440. 
  11. ^ Vanderhoof,Jon A.; et al. (1999). "LactobacillusGG in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children". The Journal of Pediatrics 135 (5): 564–568. doi:10.1016/S0022-3476(99)70053-3. Retrieved 2012-04-15. 
  12. ^ Hojsak, I; Snovak N; Abdović S; Szajewska H; Mišak Z; Kolaček S (2009). "Lactobacillus GG in the prevention of gastrointestinal and respiratory tract infections in children who attend day care centers: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial". Clin. Nutr. 29 (3): 312–6. doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2009.09.008. PMID 19896252. 
  13. ^ Hatakka, K; Savilahti E; Pönkä A; Meurman JH; Poussa T; Näse L; Saxelin M; Korpela R (2001). "Effect of long term consumption of probiotic milk on infections in children attending day care centres: double blind, randomised trial". BMJ 322 (7238): 1327. doi:10.1136/bmj.322.7298.1327. PMC 32161. PMID 11387176. 
  14. ^ Boyle RJ, Bath-Hextall FJ, Leonardi-Bee J, Murrell DF, Tang ML (2009). "Probiotics for the treatment of eczema: a systematic review.". Clin Exp Allergy 39 (8): 1117–27. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2222.2009.03305.x. PMID 19573037. 
  15. ^ Kalliomäki, M; Salminen S; Poussa T; Isolauri E (2007). "Probiotics during the first 7 years of life: a cumulative risk reduction of eczema in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial". J Allergy Clin Immunol. 119 (4): 1019–21. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2006.12.608. PMID 17289135. 
  16. ^ Kalliomäki, M; Salminen S; Arvilommi H; Kero P; Koskinen P; Isolauri E (2001). "Probiotics in primary prevention of atopic disease: a randomised placebo-controlled trial". The Lancet 357 (9262): 1076–9. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(00)04259-8. PMID 11297958. 
  17. ^ Francavilla, R.; Miniello, V.; Magistà, AM.; De Canio, A.; Bucci, N.; Gagliardi, F.; Lionetti, E.; Castellaneta, S. et al. (Dec 2010). "A randomized controlled trial of Lactobacillus GG in children with functional abdominal pain". Pediatrics 126 (6): e1445–52. doi:10.1542/peds.2010-0467. PMID 21078735. 
  18. ^ Wang, Y.; Liu, Y.; Sidhu, A.; Ma, Z.; McClain, C.; Feng, W. (Jul 2012). "Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG culture supernatant ameliorates acute alcohol-induced intestinal permeability and liver injury". Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 303 (1): G32–41. doi:10.1152/ajpgi.00024.2012. PMID 22538402. 
  19. ^ Forsyth, CB.; Farhadi, A.; Jakate, SM.; Tang, Y.; Shaikh, M.; Keshavarzian, A. (Mar 2009). "Lactobacillus GG treatment ameliorates alcohol-induced intestinal oxidative stress, gut leakiness, and liver injury in a rat model of alcoholic steatohepatitis". Alcohol 43 (2): 163–72. doi:10.1016/j.alcohol.2008.12.009. PMID 19251117. 
  20. ^ Manley KJ, Fraenkel MB, Mayall BC, Power DA (2007). "Probiotic treatment of vancomycin-resistant enterococci: a randomised controlled trial". Med J Aust 186 (9): 454–7. PMID 17484706. 
  21. ^ Science News, Belly bacteria boss the brain, August 29th, 2011
  22. ^ British Journal of Nutrition, [1]
  23. ^ Gupta, V; Garg, R (2009). "Probiotics". Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology 27 (3): 202–9. doi:10.4103/0255-0857.53201. PMID 19584499. 
  24. ^ Salminen, MK; Tynkkynen S; Rautelin H; Saxelin M; Vaara M; Ruutu P; Sarna S; Valtonen V; Järvinen A (2002). "Lactobacillus bacteremia during a rapid increase in probiotic use of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in Finland". Clin. Infect. Dis. 35 (10): 1155–60. doi:10.1086/342912. PMID 12410474. 

Further reading[edit]

Salminen MK, Rautelin H, Tynkkynen S, et al. (2004). "Lactobacillus bacteremia, clinical significance, and patient outcome, with special focus on probiotic L. rhamnosus GG". Clin. Infect. Dis. 38 (1): 62–9. doi:10.1086/380455. PMID 14679449.