Lahaina Noon is a tropical solar phenomenon where the sun passes exactly overhead at solar noon (the subsolar point). The term "Lahaina Noon" was coined by the Bishop Museum in Hawaii and is only used locally.
Because the subsolar point travels only through the tropics, Hawaii is the only state in the United States to experience Lahaina Noon. The rest of the states recognize the summer solstice as the event when the sun's rays are closest to being direct.
Hawaii and other locations between the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn receive the sun's direct rays as the apparent path of the sun passes overhead before the summer solstice and retreats to the south afterwards for Hawaii and all other tropical locations in the Northern Hemisphere (retreats to the north afterwards for all tropical locations in the Southern Hemisphere).
For various locations within the Hawaiian Islands, at the exact times of the Lahaina Noon which can occur anywhere from 12:16 to 12:43 p.m. Hawaii-Aleutian Standard Time, objects that stand straight up (like flagpoles, telephone poles, etc.) will not cast a shadow. The most southerly points in Hawaii experience Lahaina Noon on earlier and later dates than the northern parts. For example, in 2001 Hilo on the Island of Hawaiʻi encountered the overhead sun around May 18 and July 24, Kahului, Maui on May 24 and July 18, Honolulu, Oahu on May 26 and July 15 and Lihue, Kauai on May 31 and July 11. Between these two dates, the sun is slightly to the north at noon.
Chosen in a contest sponsored by the Bishop Museum in the 1990s, Lahaina Noon was the selected appellation because lā hainā (the old name for Lahaina, Hawaii) means "cruel sun" in the Hawaiian language. The ancient Hawaiian name for the event was kau ka lā i ka lolo which literally translates as "the sun rests on the brains."
In popular culture
Activities associated with the event, and stories including "Lahaina Noon" by Eric Paul Shaffer (Leaping Dog, 2005) which won the Ka Palapala Po'okela book award for Excellence in "Aloha from beyond Hawai'i."
- Clock, sun rarely match at noon Explanation of Lahaina Noon
- Nancy Alima Ali (May 11, 2010). "Noon sun not directly overhead everywhere". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Retrieved November 12, 2010.
- "‘Lahaina Noon’ coming here soon". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. May 23, 2001. Retrieved November 12, 2010.
- Mary Kawena Pukui, Samuel Hoyt Elbert and Esther T. Mookini (2004). "lookup of Lā-hainā ". in Place Names of Hawai'i. Ulukau, the Hawaiian Electronic Library, University of Hawaii Press. Retrieved November 12, 2010.
- Mary Kawena Pukui and Samuel Hoyt Elbert (2003). "lookup of Lolo ". in Hawaiian Dictionary. Ulukau, the Hawaiian Electronic Library, University of Hawaii Press. Retrieved May 26, 2011.
- http://archives.starbulletin.com/2006/05/27/news/briefs.html 2006 notice
- http://the.honoluluadvertiser.com/article/2007/Apr/29/ln/FP704290342.html 2007 notice
- http://the.honoluluadvertiser.com/article/2008/Jul/11/ln/hawaii807110348.html 2008 notice
- Liliha Library to host 'Lahaina Noon,' 'StarLab' astro events Example of activities from 2008
- 'Lahaina Noon' about a warm, clear feeling Poem by Eric Paul Shaffer
- Ka Palapala Po'okela winners named Excellence in "Aloha from beyond Hawai'i"
- http://www.staradvertiser.com/news/20110526__SHADOW_LESSONS.html 2011 Article
- Pruitt, B. (2002). Explore Kauai. Mutual Publishing. p. 17. ISBN 1-56647-560-0.
- Williams, Jack (May 17, 2005). "Sun beams directly down on Hawaii in May, July". USA Today.
- http://www.bishopmuseum.org/planetarium/planetarium.html Current "Lahaina Noon" dates updated by the Bernice P. Bishop Museum
- http://archives.starbulletin.com/2007/07/17/news/wild.html Picture of "Lahaina Noon" by the Honolulu Star-Bulletin, note the street sign
- http://archives.starbulletin.com/2006/05/28/news/wild.html Picture of "Lahaina Noon" by the Honolulu Star-Bulletin