Lahnda (Western Punjabi)
|ISO 639-2 / 5: ISO 639-3:||lah lah|
The Lahnda (Western Punjabi) is a linguistic term which refers to the dialect continuum belonging to the Indo-Aryan language family spoken in western parts of the Pakistani province of Punjab which are transitional between Majhi (Eastern/Standard Punjabi dialect) and the Sindhi language.
Lahnda means "western" in Punjabi. It was coined by linguists for a group which had no local name. Southern varieties are locally called Saraiki, and northern varieties Hindko and Panjistani.
Classification Problematic 
Since Sindhi, Punjabi, Urdu and Hindi are spoken in a region that has witnessed significant ethnic and identity conflict, all have been exposed to the dialect versus language question. Each of these languages possesses a central standard on which its literature is based, and from which there are multiple dialectal variations. Recently Two of Lahanda Varieties Saraiki and Hindko are standardized as language. The development of the standard written language began after the founding of Pakistan in 1947, driven by a regionalist political movements.:838 The national census of Pakistan has tabulated the prevalence of Saraiki and Hindko speakers since 1981.:46. However this standardization is controversial to date because Saraiki, Hindko and other Lahnda varieties are also considered as dialects of mainstream Punjabi on the basis that they are mutually intelligible, morphologically and syntactically similar with standard Punjabi by a majority of local linguists such as Dulai, K. Narinder, Gill, Harjeet Singh Gill, A. Henry. Gleason (Jr.), Koul, N. Omkar, Siya Madhu Bala, Afzal Ahmed Cheema, Aamir Malik, Amar Nath  as well as modern linguistics publications such as the US National Advisory Committee-based UCLA Language Materials Project (LMP) along with modern linguists such as Cardona and Nataliya Ivanovna Tolstaya classifying Saraiki, Hindko and other Lahnda varieties as dialects of the Punjabi language.
The varieties of Lahnda are:
- Hindko proper
- A problematic group of northern dialects in need of a linguistic survey: Sawain (Sohain), Hindki of Hazara (Kagani), Tinauli, Dhundi-Kairali, Chibhali and Punchhi. Recently this "North-Eastern Lahnda" cluster (including mirpur panjabi? /mirpuri lahnda) is part of "Greater Panjistani" lanaugage nowadays.
Khetrani is commonly included, but may be a remnant Dardic language. Some of the northern dialects of what has for geographical reasons been considered Gujarati are actually closer to Lahnda. There is also a Lahnda language in Afghanistan and Ukraine in the form of Jakati.
(also: Mirpur Punjabi — ?)
Lahnda has several traits that distinguish it from standard Punjabi, such as a future tense in -s-. Like Sindhi, Siraiki retains breathy-voiced consonants, has developed implosives, and lacks tone. Hindko, also called Panjistani or (ambiguously) Pahari, is more like Punjabi in this regard, though the equivalent of the low-rising tone of Punjabi is a high-falling tone in Peshawar Hindko.
Sindhi, Lahnda, Standard Punjabi, and Western Pahari form a dialect continuum with no clear-cut boundaries. Ethnologue classifies the western dialects of Punjabi as Lahnda, so that the Lahnda–Panjabi isogloss approximates the Pakistani–Indian border. However, this does not accord with linguistic description, and is not accepted by specialists.
See also 
- Ernst Kausen, 2006. Die Klassifikation der indogermanischen Sprachen (Microsoft Word, 133 KB)
- Bailey, Rev. T. Grahame. 1904. Panjabi Grammar. Lahore: Punjab Government Press.
- Shackle, "Lahnda", in Brown & Ogilvie, eds, Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World
- Rahman, Tariq. 1997. Language and Ethnicity in Pakistan. Asian Survey, 1997 Sep., 37(9):833-839.
- Shackle, C. 1977. Saraiki: A Language Movement in Pakistan. Modern Asian Studies, 11(3):379-403.
- Javaid, Umbreen. 2004. Saraiki political movement: its impact in south Punjab. Journal of Research (Humanities), 40(2): 55–65. Lahore: Faculty of Arts and Humanities, University of the Punjab. (This PDF contains multiple articles from the same issue.)
- Dulai, Narinder K. 1989. A Pedagogical Grammar of Punjabi. Patiala: Indian Institute of Language Studies.
- Gill, Harjeet Singh Gill and Henry A. Gleason, Jr: A Reference Grammar of Punjabi: Patiala University Press
- Koul, Omkar N. and Madhu Bala :Punjabi Language and Linguistics: An Annotated Bibliography: New Delhi: Indian Institute of Language Studies
- Malik, Amar Nath, Afzal Ahmed Cheema : 1995 : The Phonology and Morphology of Panjabi: New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers
- Masica (1991)