Lake Matano

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Matano
Matano Sunset.jpg
Lake Matano at sunset
Location South Sulawesi, Indonesia
Coordinates 2°29′7″S 121°20′0″E / 2.48528°S 121.33333°E / -2.48528; 121.33333Coordinates: 2°29′7″S 121°20′0″E / 2.48528°S 121.33333°E / -2.48528; 121.33333
Type Tectonic
Primary outflows Penten River
Basin countries Indonesia
Max. length 28 km[1]
Max. width 8 km[1]
Surface area 164.1 km²
Max. depth 590 m[1]
Surface elevation 382 m[1]

Lake Matano (Indonesian: Danau Matano), also known as Matana, is a natural lake in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. With a depth of 590 m (1,940 ft), it is the deepest lake in Indonesia (ranked by maximum depth), and the 10th deepest lake in the world. The surface elevation from mean sea level is only 382 m (1,253 ft), which means that the deepest portion of the lake is below sea level (cryptodepression). It is one of the two major lakes (the other being Lake Towuti) in the Malili Lake system.

Endemic animals and plants[edit]

Lake Matano is home to many species of endemic fish and other animals (e.g. Caridina shrimps,[2] Parathelphusid crabs[3] and Tylomelania snails[4]) as well as many plants. The endemic fishes of Matano have been compared to the species swarms of the Rift Valley Lakes of Africa. While not as diverse, they are thought to have all arisen from a single ancestor species and diversified into numerous different species, which now fill many of the previously vacant ecological niches, as can be seen in the family Telmatherinidae.[5] Endemic and near-endemic fishes from other families include Glossogobius matanensis, Mugilogobius adeia, Nomorhamphus weberi and Oryzias matanensis. Many of the endemics are seriously threatened due to pollution and predation/competition from a wide range of introduced fishes, including flowerhorn cichlids.[6]

The water snake Enhydris matannensis is only known from the vicinity of Lake Matano and on Muna Island.[7]

Environmental concerns[edit]

Despite Lake Matano's remote location, it is the site of PT Vale Inco Indonesia Tbk (formerly PT. INCO), one of the largest nickel mines in the world, which carries out strip mining in the surrounding rainforest. Although large areas are cleared for mining the company has a well regarded rehabilitation program and award-winning sediment control systems. The vast areas of rainforest are replaced by mono-cultures of largely non-native trees to counter erosion but doing little to address the loss of biodiversity and the environmental services this provides. The waters of Lake Matano are exceptionally clear, visibility is good, and many of the fish species are highly dependent on visual cues and colour perception for their mating behaviour. If the sediment washing into the lake continues to increase, the likelihood is that many of these endemic species will be lost.

Chemistry[edit]

Below the top layer of oxygenated water, Lake Matano's depths are anoxic, free of sulfates, and rich in iron.[8] These conditions make Lake Matano an analog for Earth's oceans during the Archean Eon,[9] which is useful for studying relationships between anoxygenic phototrophs and banded iron formations.[10] The lake contains a population of green sulfur bacteria that conducts photosynthesis with bacteriochlorophyll e.[10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Crowe, Sean A. (2008), "The biogeochemistry of tropical lakes: A case study from Lake Matano, Indonesia", Limnology and Oceanography 53 (1): 319–331, doi:10.4319/lo.2008.53.1.0319 
  2. ^ von Rintelen, K., and Y. Cai (2009). Radiation of endemic species flocks in ancient lakes: systematic revision of the freshwater shrimp Caridina H. Milne Edwards, 1837 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Atyidae) from the ancient lakes Of Sulawesi, Indonesia, with the description of eight new species. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 57: 343-452.
  3. ^ Chia, O. C. K. and Ng, P. K. L. (2006). The freshwater crabs of Sulawesi, with descriptions of two new genera and four new species (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Parathelphusidae). Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Singapore 54: 381–428.
  4. ^ von Rintelen , T., K. von Rintelen, and M. Glaubrecht (2010). The species flock of the viviparous freshwater gastropod Tylomelania (Mollusca: Cerithioidea: Pachychilidae) in the ancient lakes of Sulawesi, Indonesia: the role of geography, trophic morphology and colour as driving forces in adaptive radiation. pp. 485-512 in: Glaubrecht, M., and H. Schneider, eds. (2010). Evolution in Action: Adaptive Radiations and the Origins of Biodiversity. Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany.
  5. ^ Herder, F., J. Pfaender, and U.K. Schliewen (2008). Adaptive sympatric speciation of polychromatic "roundfin" sailfin silverside fish in Lake Matano (Sulawesi). Evolution 62(9): 2178-95
  6. ^ Herder, F., U.K. Schliewen, M.F. Geiger, R.K. Hadiaty, S.M. Gray, J.S. McKinnon, R.P. Walter and J. Pfaender (2012) Alien invasion in Wallace's Dreamponds: records of the hybridogenic “flowerhorn” cichlid in Lake Matano, with an annotated checklist of fish species introduced to the Malili Lakes system in Sulawesi. Aquatic Invasions 7(4): 521–535
  7. ^ Murphy, J. (2010). "Enhydris matannensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 
  8. ^ Perkins, Sid (2009), "The iron record of Earth's oxygen", Science News (2009-06-20) 175 (13): 24–28, doi:10.1002/scin.5591751321, ISSN 0036-8423, retrieved 2009-06-30 
  9. ^ Crowe, Sean (2008), Biogeochemical cycling in iron-rich Lake Matano, Indonesia: An early ocean analogue, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, McGill University, retrieved 2009-06-30 
  10. ^ a b Crowe, Sean; Jones, CarriAyne; Katsev, Sergei; et al., C; O'Neill, AH; Sturm, A; Canfield, DE; Haffner, GD et al. (2008), "Photoferrotrophs thrive in an Archean Ocean analogue", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2008-10-14) 105 (41): 15938–43, doi:10.1073/pnas.0805313105, ISSN 0148-0227, PMC 2572968, PMID 18838679, retrieved 2009-06-30 

See also[edit]