Lakhta Center

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Coordinates: 59°59′13.7″N 30°10′37.3″E / 59.987139°N 30.177028°E / 59.987139; 30.177028

Lakhta Center
Lakhta Center 07.jpg
Artist's impression of the tower
Former names Okhta Center
General information
Status Under construction
Location Lakhta
Town or city Saint Petersburg
Country Russia
Construction started 2012
Completed 2018 (planned)
Height 462.7 m (1,518 ft)
Technical details
Floor count 86
Design and construction
Architecture firm RMJM London

Lakhta Center (Russian: Ла́хта це́нтр) is a large mixed-use non-residential construction project in Saint Petersburg, Russia. When the project was still planned for its original site next to the historical center of St. Petersburg, it was first called Gazprom City (Russian: Газпро́м си́ти) and later Okhta Center (Russian: О́хта це́нтр). After public outcry over the project's expected effect on the architectural integrity of the city's historical center, and its numerous violations of city laws, the project site was moved to Lakhta.

External video
(Russian) «From Okhta to Lakhta». Animation film about the reasons why the Center was moved from Okhta to Lakhta, Flash Video

Lakhta Center is planned to include the first supertall skyscraper in the city, a scientific and educational complex, sports and leisure facilities, and an outdoor amphitheater.[1] The 463-metre[2] main tower of Lakhta Center, upon its planned completion in 2018,[3] is expected to be the tallest building in Russia and Europe.[4]

The design of the main tower of Lakhta Center project inherited the design of the main tower of the project Okhta Center, which was succeeded by the project Lakhta Center upon the decision of Gazprom and the city of Saint Petersburg to relocate the project of Gazprom's new headquarters in December 2010. The design development of Lakhta Centre is being undertaken by Russian architectural and engineering companies Gorpoekt and ViPS.

In 2008, Arabtec, the construction company involved in construction of the world’s tallest building in Dubai, won a contract to build this 60 billion ruble ($2.56 billion) complex.[5]

At the stage of construction approximately 3 thousand people will be employed. Most of them are from the professional spheres connected to buildings' design and construction. After the construction is completed it is expected to employ a few thousand workers of different occupations in Lakhta Center complex.[6]

Interior design of the most objects of the Lakhta Center is to be made by international Exclusiva Design Srl Bureau which has won an open contest for the designing of the public zones of the Lakhta Center in 2014. According to the concept proposed by Exclusiva Design Srl, Lakhta Center's interiors will be designed in futuristic style.[7]

Lakhta Center: Key Characteristics[edit]

Lakhta Center will contain:

Hotel will be located in the south part of the complex right near the tower.[9] Along with 200 rooms it will include a number of conference halls which will be constructed and equipped in order to meet all the requirements of holding modern public events. Conference halls' interiors will be selected from projects of young architects participating in the "Archichance" contest.[10] 100 people will be employed by the hotel.

  • Sport center with indoor and outdoor skating rings
  • Children's scientific center and museum[11]

Center of Recreational Science with total area of more than 7000 square metres will be situated in the Lakhta Center's North and South buildings.[12] The concept of the Center of Recreational Science was worked out in colllaboration with specialists from the University of information technologies, mechanics and optics (Saint Peterburg).[13] In the South Building it is planned to place an exploratorium type exposition with interactive showpieces. Exposition will be divided to the zones organized according to the participants' age. In the North building there will be a scientific center. These two centers are to be connected by the bridge.[14] In August, 2014 it is planned to sign a contract about the joint construction of the scientific center "Mir Nauki" ("The World of Science") between Saint Petersburgh administration and Gazprom company. After its opening the Center will be included to ECSITE - European Network of Science Centres and Museums.[15]

  • Innovation area for exhibition of scientific achievements of technical universities[16]
  • Planetarium[17]

Planetarium is to be situated in the upper part of the building which directly sides the tower. Planetarium capacity is 140 people. Place will be equipped with up-to-date optic instruments and computers. It will allow to organize events both of entertaining and educational kind.[18]

  • Medical center with pediatric unit
  • Multifunctional auditorium

Multifunctional auditorium is designed to be appropriate for holding both business and entertainment events. It will be possible to use the auditorium as one big hall or to transform it in to two smaller ones. Design of the auditorium makes it possible to regulate the height of walls and seatings, remove or add seating places. [19][20]

  • Open amphitheater for viewing watershows
  • Cinema

Cinema with the total area of 2600 square metres will consist of five cinema halls of different capacity. There will be two standard cinema halls for the audience of 130-150 people, one small hall of 49 seats and one VIP hall with 53 chairs. It is also planned to build a 3D cinema hall. Cinema will be equipped with its own high-speed elevators.[21]

  • Observation deck

Free public observation desk will be located at the uppermost floor of the tower, at the 378m height. The deck will be constructed with 360 degree viewing angle and is to be equipped with modern telescopes. These telescopes are able to work and show the city view in any weather conditions and to be equipped by an interactive map of Saint Petersburg to provide the visitors with information about city's sightseeings at the moment of observation. The deck is planned to be open for visitors in the daytime as well as at night[22][23]

  • Panoramic restaurant, cafes

Panoramic restaurant will be situated on the height of 330m and high speed elevators will transfer visitors to the restaurant in less than in a minute. Besides panoramic restaurants there will be other cafes and restaurants in the complex.[24]

  • Exhibition areas
  • Shop gallery
  • Recreation area[25]

Features of Design[edit]

Interior of the Lakhta Center
  • A box-type foundation consisting of two massive structures, each being one floor high, will be the base of the tower. The bottom of the foundation will be located at the depth of 20m.[26] The box-type foundation is mounted on 264 piles, 2m in diameter and 82m of length each.[27]
External video
(Russian)«"Lakhta Center". Zero cycle. Bottom plate of the foundation. The interview of "Lakhta Center" Construction Director Elena Morozova
External video
(Russian)«"Lakhta Center". Zero cycle. Diaphragm wall». Animation film about Lakhta Center's features of design
  • In the basis of the construction there is a reinforced concrete core in which all the vertical communications like pipes and cables are placed. Besides the structural strength of the skyscraper is provided by outrigger columns owing to which stability of the building will remain even if 30% of all the bearing structures is removed. Outrigger trusses are placed within approximately each 70 metres throughout the entire height of the building.[28]
  • In order to provide high bearing capacity of the building there are 4 outrigger transitions contemplated in the project. These "high-altitude foundations" will let distribute the weight of the tower and compensate the impact from wind load. On each outrigger transition will lean 14 above floors.[29]
  • Two types of piles are used in the construction. In the center of the building where pressures are maximal 65m long piles will be mounted. Piles of 55 m long will be mounted along the perimeter of the building. It is so in order to compensate the forming of the "bowl-like" deformation due to which the yielding in the center of the construction is more than along the edges.
External video
(English) «Lakhta Center». Zero cycle. Piling. Animation film about piling process
  • Several randomly chosen piles were tested on durability in so called "O-cell" (or Ostenberg cell). This system of calibrated hydraulic jacks integrated within one module allows to simulate the load which each of the tested piles will have in reality.[30]
  • Piles integrity is checked up by ultrasonic test. Four ultrasonic sensors are placed along the whole length of the pile. The data received allows to understand whether there are any laminations inside the pile. Besides constructors constantly monitor the level of soil settlement under the piles base using the pressure sensors placed inside the special holes.[31]
  • One of the important parts of the building foundation will be the diaphragm wall. It will hold the walls of the foundation pit with a help of a thrust disk system. Bearing members of the tower foundation will go 82m under the ground.
  • Due to the specific design of the tower - the building is constantly "twisting" around its center - from 189 000 metallic structures and tie beams only two are the same. All other elements differ from each other by 3 degrees.[32]
  • Unique facade structures and window units from cold-bent glass are to be used in order to point out a smooth shape of the tower. Such a quantity of unique facade glass will be used for the first time. The total area of the facades of the mixed-used building makes up 60,000 square meters.[33]
  • In order to calculate the wind load on the future Lakhta Center's building specialists from Canada and Russia placed the model of the building to the wind tunnel. So, the wind load on the facade and the core of the construction were counted up. It was found out that the wind load changes in accordance to the height of the building and makes up from 300 to 500 Pascal (unit).[34]
  • According to the project there will be 34 elevators in the tower but only some of them will go to the topmost floor. Besides these elevators there will be special fire elevators constructed to be used in case of emergency.[35]
  • Lakhta Center's foundation is going to be concreted continuously in round-the-clock mode. Constructors plan to pour 24 thousand cubic metres in 48 hours. The volume of concrete to be poured under the mixed-use building near the tower is 48 thousand cubic metres. This volume is large enough to claim to be included to Guinness Book of Records.[36]
External video
(Russian)"Lakhta Center".Flooring technology
  • It is planned to construct buildings only at 30% of the whole area of the Center. The rest of the territory will be granted for the public needs[37]
  • Around 400,000 cu.m.of concrete will be used for Lakhta Center's construction. During the first stage of foundation concreting 8,500 cu.m. of concrete will be used.[38]

Innovations[edit]

  • Fire-fighting system

In order to provide more effective fire-fighting a mist spray system will be used. When the temperature exceeds 57 °C it will automatically start working. Mist spray system allows to create a dispersion which in turn helps not to inundate rooms with water. Absorption of carbon monoxide and soot as well as the reduction of the level of oxygen is achieved by the high cooling effect of mist spraying. Along with this special elevators capable to work in the cases of emergency and smoke proof stairs are constructed.[39]

  • Facade maintenance system

Unique system of fixing cradles of industrial climbers will allow to clean the facade of Lakhta Center safely and effectively. 300mm in diameter and approximately 500m long rails will be mounted to all 15 ribs of the tower. Platforms with cradles will be placed on these rails. One of the advantages of this system is that it allows to change glass packs easier which is usually quite a problem for such complicated buildings. The system was worked out especially for Lakhta Center and has no analogues in the world at the moment.[40]

  • Kinetic energy

Level of consumption of material and energetic resources is going to be decreased due to conversion of kinetic energy of Center workers and visitors' steps to electric energy. It is planned to illuminate the courtyard of the future complex using this energy.[41]

  • Ice formation control system

While working on the project of Lakhta Center ice formation control system was also considered. Lakhta Center is going to be the first skyscraper in North Western region using such kind of system. At different hight levels different ice formation control systems will be used. Heating of the glass at high floors is planned. It will prevent ice formation and keep good visibility. Double glazing will help minimize the difference of temperatures inside and outside the building. The spire if the Tower is to be made from metal gauze which will not allow solid layer icing to form. It is also planned to cover the whole building with special formulations aiming at preventing of construction contact with ice.[42]

"Green" and Energy-saving Technologies[edit]

While designing Lakhta Center several "green" and energy-saving technologies were planned for further application. They are

  • Double facade. Usage of double glazing will help to increase the level of thermal insulation which allows to lower costs for heating and conditioning.
  • Usage of the excess heat generated by working technical equipment for heating of premises.
  • Usage of economical infrared radiators.
  • Usage of contactless sensors or motion detectors for economizing electric energy and water.
  • Mounting of the systems supporting the optimal level of temperature and humidity inside the building.
  • Constructing of the ice storages which will accumulate up to 1000 ton of ice at night for air conditioning during the daytime. It will help to reduce the differences in the usage of electricity during night and day periods. It also allows to shorten expenditures on electric power on the account of the differences in tariffs for day and night usage of electricity. As the cooling of the building is to be made using accumulative ice generators it will be possible to save on electricity expenditures up to 13 thousand rubles a day.
  • Additional illumination of the tower in the periods of migration of birds (autumn, winter). The color of illumination which will scare birds is under development.[43]
  • Due to the peculiarities of the high humid and windy climate in North Western region of Russia the possibility of icing up of buildings is relatively high. In order to prevent complete icing up of the spire of the Lakhta Center's tower engineers changed glassing to the metal gauze.[44]

All in all while constructing Lakhta Center approximately 100 innovations are to be used. It lets to increase the indexes of energy saving by 40% compared to the buildings where standard techlonogies are in use.[45] Okhta Center project entered to a list of "10 most ecological skyscrapers in the world" made up by Consumer Energy Report. Experts say that the same status may be assigned to Lakhta Center because it will provide even better power efficiency.[46][47]

In experts' opinion period of recoupment of using green and energy-saving technologies in Lakhta Center may be at about 20 years. Lakhta Center's Projection department's specialists though think that this figure is a bit overestimated.[48]

Prehistory of construction[edit]

On November 15, 2005, Gazprom CEO Alexei Miller and Saint Petersburg governor Valentina Matviyenko announced the intention of Sibneft to build the Gazprom City Business center. The plans included a 300 metre-high skyscraper with its headquarters on the right bank of the Neva River 59°56′37.6″N 30°24′27.1″E / 59.943778°N 30.407528°E / 59.943778; 30.407528 (original site), across from the Smolny Cathedral, despite the fact that current regulations forbid construction of a building of more than 42 (48 with expert approval) metres high there. The plans were later revised to increase the height of the skyscraper to more than 400 metres.

On March 20, 2006, Gazprom and the city signed an agreement under which Sibneft agreed to pay 20 billion rubles of taxes to the city annually after moving there, which was supposed to occur in the near future, while St. Petersburg agreed to allocate 60 billion rubles during ten years for the project's construction.[49]

On December 1, 2006, Gazprom and the city authorities announced, live on television, that British architectural firm Robert Matthew Johnson Marshall Ltd., had been chosen to build the center by a committee consisting of four foreign architects, four representatives of the St. Petersburg City Administration, including Matviyenko herself, and representatives of Gazprom: Alexei Miller, Valery Golubev (Deputy CEO Gazprom, Head of the Department for Construction and Investment of Gazprom, former Head of the Vasileostrovsky Administrative District of St. Petersburg) and Alexander Ryazanov (President of Gazprom Neft, fired on November 17 during the competition). In fact, three of the four architects, namely Norman Foster, Rafael Viñoly and Kisho Kurokawa, retired from the jury before it convened, opposing all of the shortlisted designs because of their height.[50] The construction of the entire Gazprom City was supposed to be completed by 2016.

The proposed twisting tower is inspired by a Swedish fortress named Landskrona (not to be confused with the town of that name), which occupied the original Okhta site in the early 14th century, and another fortress Nyenschantz on the site until the 18th century in the form of a five-sided star to maximize views for defensive purposes.[51] The inspiration for the design also comes from energy in water, with the building form deriving its shape from the changing nature of water and ever changing light. It gives a new interpretation to the historical fortresses with modern aesthetics and technology - transparency and democracy, internal and external interactions. It also features a unique environmental strategy, which acts as a low energy double-layered skin of the tower allowing maximum daylight and minimum heat loss in the extreme climate of the city.[52]

In March 2007 the project was renamed from Gazprom City to Okhta Center (after the river of Okhta). It was also decided that Gazprom Neft would allocate 51% of funds for the construction project, while city budget would account for only 49%.[53]

In late 2008, St. Petersburg Governor Valentina Matviyenko introduced an amendment into the city budget delaying investment in the Okhta Center for the first half of 2009. The reason was due to the current financial crisis.[54]

In December 2010, Governor Matviyenko announced that the project plan on the Okhta site was abandoned and will be built in the suburbs.[55] The new planned site is farther from the historic center of St. Petersburg, on the northern shore of the Neva Bay (Gulf of Finland). This site is on the Primorskoye Highway (Приморское Шоссе), in the Lakhta area of the Primorsky District, northwest of Vasilyevsky Island.[56]

Construction of the project at the Lakhta site is supposed to resolve the conflicts that previously existed with the city's laws concerning cultural preservation. Some aspects of the design, including the height of the skyscraper, may need to be adjusted in accordance with the engineering and geologic characteristics of the new site.[57]

Planning and Construction[edit]

10 March 2011 Gazprom bought a site of 140 thousand square metres for the construction of the business center at Lakhtinsky prospect, 2.[58][59] 18 March 2011 press office of Business and Public-service Center "Okhta" CJSC informed that it received from The Committee of State Control, Usage and Protection of Historical and Cultural Monuments in Saint Petersburg the document stating that there were no any historical or cultural restrictions on the territory of the site in Lakhta.[60]

In April, 2011 it was declared that the architectural concept of Lakhta Center was to be created on the basis of the Okhta Center's project.[61] Along with this it became known that Lakhta's soils were appropriate for constructig a building of 500 metres high which let engineers significantly decrease costs of foundation construction.[62]

24 June 2011 public hearing on the Lakhta Center project was held. Tony Kettle, that time International Group Design Director at RMJM presented the conceptual design of Lakhta Center's architecture as well as the data of the research showing how high storey building may affect Saint Petersburg's panoramas. Public hearing participants were mostly interested in knowing how the construction would influence vehicular traffic, ecology and historical appearance of Saint Petersburg.[63] Center's investors highlighted that project involved many ecologic innovations and it was planned to try-out to construct the first energy efficient district on the territory of the site of Lakhta Center.[64] Despite all Commersant newspaper stated that most of the public was against the construction and there were many rejections and reprimands submitted for the public hearing protocol.[65]

External video
Laktha Center's presentation at the public hearing 24 June, 2011. Animation film demonstrating the impact of Lakhta Center on Saint Petersburg's historical views.

5 October 2011 Gorproekt CJSC (Russia) was announced as the contractor for working out project's design documentation. According to the plan presented by Gorproekt CJSC skyscraper and auxiliary buildings were to be designed in spring, 2012 and stylobate part was to be engineered in summer, 2012.[66]

26 January 2012 it became known that Gazprom was planning to build new harbour for yachts near Lakhta Center and Krestovsky Island. A new company for managing these sea assets was to be created.[67]

16 March 2012 it was announced that a new metro station was to be constructed near Lakhta Center. This metro station's building was included into the City development plan of Leningrad in 1980 but only with Lakhta Center construction it again entered the agenda. The plan of the metro station's construction was to be finalized to the end of 2012.[68]

18 July 2012 companies chosen for geodesic and ecologic investigations on the site were announced. They were Trest GRII JSC (Russia) for geodesic and Petrochim-technologiya LLC (Russia) for ecologic investigations.[69]

External video
«Lakhta Center. Architectural Concept.». Animation film about architecture of Lakhta Center»

17 August 2012 the permit for construction of the first stage of Lakhta Center which included skyscraper and stylobate was obtained.[70] 31 August 2012 the public hearing on the topic of the layout and surveying of the site of the Lakhta Center was held in the administration of the Primorsky district of Saint Petersburg. Objects planned for placing in the area of construction, scheme of communications and transportation infrastructure were presented to the public. Besides, representatives of the Business and Public-service Center "Okhta" CJSC answered the questions of people.[71]

12 September 2012 "Okhta" CJSC signed a contract with Dubai company Arabtec Holding for carrying out some of the underground cycle works. The company is supposed to construct a diaphragm wall and pile footing for the tower. Contractual time is 28 months, its value is 95 million euro.[72]

In October, 2012 the zero cycle works has been started. Zero cycle consists of the pit excavation, installation of disk system, piling under the tower, multifunctional building and stylobate and construction of the foundation itself.[73]

22 April 2014 the main potential general contractor for the construction of Lakhta Center was selected. It was Turkish Renaissance Construction company.[74] 22 May 2014 the contract for the construction of the foundation of one of the buildings in Lakhta Center was finally signed. Construction is to be completed in 7 months.[75]

8 September 2014 the final cost of the design and construction of the zero cycle of Lakhta Center was announced. The cost made up 200 billion dollar.[76]

Chronology of Construction[edit]

Lakhta Center Construction Time Schedule
  • March, 2013 - zero cycle works are in process. Piles are being installed.[77] According to the schedule of construction diaphragm wall is to be completed by the end of April while piling works will continue up to 15 August 2013.[78]
  • July, 2013 - mounting of the 264 piles under the box-type foundation has been finished. Excavation of foundation pit is in the process.

[79]

  • September, 2013 - total area of the site is announced to be increased from 330 to 400 thousand square meters due to the extension of the size of the parking by 700 parking places.[80]
  • October, 2013 - construction of box-type foundation has been started. According to the plan this part of the work is to be finished in 2014.[81]
  • December, 2013 - mounting of the concrete disks to the diaphragm wall has started. Disks are to provide the diaphragm wall with more resistance to outside ground pressure.[82]
  • April, 2014 - construction of foundation pit for the skyscraper is over.[83]
  • June, 2014 - piling is totally completed. 264 piles were mounted for the tower of Lakhta Center, 848 piles were mounted for the mixed-use building and entrance arch and 968 piles were mounted for the stylobate (undergroung parking). All in all 2080 piles were digged in.[84]
  • September, 2014 - excavation of the foundation pit for the mixed-use building has been finished. Foundation concreting has started.

Key Contractors[edit]

  • Arabtec(UAE)- underground cycle
  • Bauer Group (Germany)- piling
  • Gorproekt CJSC (Russia)- design documentation
  • Geostroy CJSC (Russia)- diaphragm wall installation
  • NIIOSP (Russia)- investigation of the bearing soil of the high-rise building foundations
  • Petrochim-technologiya LLC (Russia)- ecologic investigations
  • Arup Group Limited (Great Britain)- verification calculation for the underground part, foundation pile base and the superstructure
  • Trest GRII JSC (Russia) - geodesic investigations

[85]

  • Renaissance Construction (Turkey)- construction of the foundation of one of the buildings.[86]
  • AECOM (USA)- project management.[87]
  • Samsung C&T (Korea) - development of the working documentation on the whole complex; optimization of processes and works completion dates.[88]
  • Bovis Land Lease - technical supervision [89]
  • Inforsproekt CJSC (Russia) - working out the constructional parts of the project for the Tower.

Transportation development in Lakhta district due to the construstion of Lakhta Center[edit]

External video
(English) Lakhta Center. Transport development. Animation film about transportation system development in Lakhta district

Lakhta Center's construction raises a problem of transportation development because of the expected growth of the traffic flow in the region. Two traffic circles are to be built near Lakhta Center. These will be one of the stages of the construction of the future М32А highway. The design of two traffic circles is pending approval of GlavGosExpertisa of Russia and the construction is expected to be started as early as this year.[90]

It is planned to build three pedestrian paths as well. One of them will be a pedestrian underpath connecting Lakhta Center with the new subway station. Two others are to connect mixed-use complex with a public transport stop and a pier.[91]

Public Attitude[edit]

Alexei Miller claimed that he is "positive that St. Petersburg’s citizens will be proud of these new architectural masterpieces."[92] However, the Director of the Hermitage Museum, Mikhail Piotrovsky, along with numerous civil groups, has spoken out against the plan. Russia's culture ministry has also been reported to object to the tower's plan.[93] The Saint Petersburg Union of Architects also voiced opposition to it in July 2006, as did many other citizens.[94] In October 2009, about 3,000 people protested against the tower in St. Petersburg, arguing that it would spoil the city's historic skyline.[93]

As the historical centre of St. Petersburg is a World Heritage Site in 1991; in December 2006 UNESCO World Heritage centre Director Francesco Bandarin reminded Russia about its obligations to preserve it and expressed concern over the project.[95] In 2007, the World Monuments Fund placed the historic skyline of St. Petersburg on its 2008 Watch List of 100 Most Endangered Sites due to the potential construction of the building, and in 2009 reported that the tower "would damage the image of Russia."[96]

The project being moved to Lakhta didn't stop the discussions. On April 11, 2012, ex-governor of St. Petersburg and now Federation Council chairwoman Valentina Matvienko said to journalists that the "Lakhta center could become a new symbol of the city and attract the businessmen from all over the world to St. Petersburg."[97]

On May 16, 2012, St. Petersburg governor Georgiy Poltavchenko emphasised in his annual report for House of Assembly the necessity of building a new "city" in St. Petersburg. According to Mr Poltavchenko, there are three appropriate districts for that: Lakhta center, Pulkovo and aggradated territories near Waterfront.[98]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Lakhta Center Website, Концепция проекта". Retrieved 2012-08-15. 
  2. ^ "Federal Air Transport Agency Authorization". 2011-07-19. Retrieved 2012-08-15. 
  3. ^ "Lakhta Center". The Skyscraper Center. Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. Retrieved January 22, 2014. 
  4. ^ "Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, '100 Future tallest buildings in the world'". Retrieved 2012-08-15. 
  5. ^ "Okhta Center Tender Closed | The St. Petersburg Times | The leading English-language newspaper in St. Petersburg". Sptimes.ru. 2008-04-29. Retrieved 2012-08-04. 
  6. ^ Строительство "Лахта-центра" откроет новые возможности для петербургских профессионалов
  7. ^ (Russian) Интерьеры для "Лахта-центра" разработают итальянцы Exclusiva Design Srl
  8. ^ (Russian)К бизнесу подселяют отели
  9. ^ "Лахта-центр". Объекты комплекса
  10. ^ Лахта-Ольгино. Петербургские студенты создадут интерьеры для "Лахта-центра"
  11. ^ (Russian)В «Лахта-центре» создадут научный музей, не уступающий нидерландскому NEMO
  12. ^ Лахта-центр. Развивающий центр для детей
  13. ^ Наследники "Дома занимательной науки" подарили Смольному концепцию Центра-эксплуаториума
  14. ^ Лахта Ольгино. Новости о Лахта-центре. Интервью профессора Стафеева С.К.
  15. ^ В Петербурге появится центр науки и техники для детей
  16. ^ (Russian)Совет ректоров предложил «Лахта-центру» дополнить детский центр инновационной площадкой для вузов
  17. ^ (Russian)Планетарий в виде шара появится в петербургском «Лахта центре»
  18. ^ Lakhta Center.Planetarium
  19. ^ Lakhta Center. Objects complex.
  20. ^ В «Лахта-центре» будет гостиница, планетарий, концертный зал и медцентр
  21. ^ Lakhta Center.Cinema
  22. ^ Lakhta Center.Observation deck
  23. ^ Смотровую площадку Лахта-центра оборудуют цифровыми интерактивными телескопами
  24. ^ Lakhta Center. Panoramic restaurant
  25. ^ (Russian)«Лахта-центр» выиграет по функционалу
  26. ^ “Underground Cycle” Works
  27. ^ Новости о Лахта центре на сайте МО «Лахта-Ольгино»
  28. ^ (Russian)Skyscrapers are changing public conscience|Небоскрёбы меняют сознание социума
  29. ^ Александр Бобков: «Лахта-центр» вынырнет из земли через 22 месяца
  30. ^ Небоскреб на «коробке»
  31. ^ Фундамент «Лахта центра» — сверхпрочное основание небоскреба
  32. ^ (Russian)Такой же башни в мире нет
  33. ^ [1]
  34. ^ Лахта центр. На какие ветровые нагрузки рассчитан?
  35. ^ Небоскрёбы меняют сознание социума
  36. ^ (Russian)Construction director of Lakhta Center Elena Morozova: "We will become record-holders due to the volume of concrete poured"
  37. ^ Елена Морозова, директор по строительству проекта «Лахта центр», о строительстве самого высокого в Европе делового центра: «Небоскреб не элитная и замкнутая „вещь в себе“, а открытый для всех комплекс»
  38. ^ [ http://www.dp.ru/a/2014/12/08/Beton_dlja_Lahta_Centra/ В середине декабря начнется заливка фундамента первого здания "Лахта Центра"]
  39. ^ (Russian)МО Лахта-Ольгино Об инновациях в "Лахта центре"
  40. ^ (Russian)МО Лахта-Ольгино Операция "Чистый небоскреб". Как это будут делать в Лахта центре
  41. ^ (Russian)"Зеленое строительство" в Петербурге: энергия шагов осветит "Лахта-центр"
  42. ^ (Russian)МО Лахта-Ольгино. Лахта-центр: под контролем
  43. ^ (Russian)Интервью с Юлией Гуляк
  44. ^ Специальные ледовые генераторы позволят "Лахта центру" экономить до 13 тыс. руб. в сутки на электроэнергии
  45. ^ Lakhta Center. Power efficiency
  46. ^ Доработкой проекта «Лахта-центра» займется английская компания RMJM
  47. ^ Концепцию проекта «Охта центра» адаптируют под Лахту
  48. ^ (Russian)Интервью Юлии Гуляк
  49. ^ "Ъ-Газета - Парус им в руки". Kommersant.ru. Retrieved 2012-08-04. 
  50. ^ Gazprom jury walk-out by Ellen Bennett, Building Design, the Architects' Website, December 8, 2006
  51. ^ Birch, Amanda (2008-08-08). "RMJM’s Russian odyssey | Technical | Building Design". Bdonline.co.uk. Retrieved 2012-08-04. 
  52. ^ "Okhta Centre, Russia". RMJM. Retrieved 2012-08-04. 
  53. ^ ""Газпром-Сити" переименовали". Realty.lenta.ru. Retrieved 2012-08-04. 
  54. ^ "Crisis Puts Gazprom Skyscraper In Doubt | News | The Moscow Times". Moscowtimes.ru. 2008-11-05. Retrieved 2012-08-04. 
  55. ^ 4/08/2012+29°C (2010-07-22). "Gazprom tower to be moved from central St. Petersburg | RUSSIA". The Moscow News. Retrieved 2012-08-04. 
  56. ^ "The Site at Primorskoye Highway". Ohta-center.ru. Retrieved 2012-08-04. 
  57. ^ Shiryaevskaya, Anna (August 5, 2011). "Gazprom Neft Awarded Approval to Build St. Petersburg Skyscraper". Bloomberg. 
  58. ^ «Газпром» приобрел новый участок под «Охта центр» в Петербурге
  59. ^ ОДЦ «Охта»: Параметры нового проекта пока не определены
  60. ^ КГИОП разрешил «Газпрому» строить «Охта-центр» в Лахте
  61. ^ (Russian)В основу «Лахта-центра» ляжет проект с Охты
  62. ^ (Russian)Новая территория для общественно-делового центра имеет более прочные грунты, что может облегчить возведение высотной доминанты и удешевить строительство
  63. ^ (Russian)В администрации Приморского района состоялись общественные слушания по проекту «Лахта-центра»
  64. ^ (Russian)Петербурге обсудили высоту «Лахта-центра»
  65. ^ (Russian)Ростом вышел. Власти Петербурга согласовали 500-метровую высоту офиса "Газпрома"
  66. ^ (Russian)Проектировать «Лахта-центр» будет «Горпроект»
  67. ^ Газпром сделает из «Ленэкспо» территорию стартапов и яхт
  68. ^ Выход из станции метро «Лахта» будет расположен у старого поста ГИБДД 16.03.2012 13:26
  69. ^ «Лахта-центр» растёт на политике
  70. ^ (Russian)«Лахта-центру» выдано разрешение на строительство
  71. ^ На слушаниях «Лахта-центра» состоялся конструктивный диалог
  72. ^ Первым строителем небоскреба «Газпрома» будет дубайская Arabtec
  73. ^ "Lakhta Center. Project status". Retrieved 2014-08-09. 
  74. ^ Potential general constructor selected
  75. ^ Renaissance Construction entered into a contract for the construction of the foundation of one of Lakhta Center buildings
  76. ^ [15 лет в Санкт-Петербурге: «Газпром-девелопмент» http://www.vedomosti.ru/newspaper/article/749821/gazprom-development]
  77. ^ Строительство «Лахта центра» на Skyscraper City
  78. ^ (Russian)Исполнительный директор ОДЦ «Охта» А.Бобков: «В „Лахта-центре“ деловая функция будет дополняться культурно-развивающей»
  79. ^ (Russian)Новости о Лахта центре
  80. ^ СТРОИТЕЛЬСТВО НУЛЕВОГО ЦИКЛА «ЛАХТА ЦЕНТРА» ОЦЕНИЛИ В $100 МЛН
  81. ^ Работы нулевого цикла на стройплощадке «Лахта центра».
  82. ^ Небоскреб у Финского залива.
  83. ^ Готов котлован для строительства небоскреба «Лахта-центра»
  84. ^ All 2080 Piles in Lakhta Center Foundation
  85. ^ "Key contractors". proektvlakhte.ru. Retrieved 2014-01-08. 
  86. ^ "Key contractors". proektvlakhte.ru. Retrieved 2014-08-09. 
  87. ^ "Key contractors". proektvlakhte.ru. Retrieved 2014-10-23. 
  88. ^ "Key contractors". proektvlakhte.ru. Retrieved 2014-11-18. 
  89. ^ "“Underground Cycle” Works". proektvlakhte.ru. Retrieved 2014-12-25. 
  90. ^ [2]
  91. ^ (Russian)Общественные слушания
  92. ^ Experts Slam Giant Gazprom Tower Plan by Evgenia Ivanova, The St. Petersburg Times #1188 (54), July 21, 2006.
  93. ^ a b "Protest over St. Petersburg tower". BBC News. 2009-10-10. Retrieved 2009-10-12. 
  94. ^ Hermitage director joins outcry over city-centre skyscraper plan by Tom Parfitt, The Guardian, November 10, 2006.
  95. ^ UNESCO is worried by Elena Ragozina, Vedomosti #229 (1756), December 5, 2006 (in Russian).
  96. ^ "Russian tower plans cause alarm". BBC News. 2009-09-23. Retrieved 2009-10-12. 
  97. ^ ""In the light circle", the interview with Ms.Matvienko at "Echo Moskvy"". Echo.msk.ru. Retrieved 2012-10-28. 
  98. ^ "Poltavchenko: Petersburg needs a new business center and town-planning dictation". Fontanka.ru. 2012-05-15. Retrieved 2012-10-28. 

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