|Place of origin||Malaysia|
|Region or state||Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore|
|Creator||Traditionally cuisine of local malay with special ingredient which is belacan|
|Main ingredients||Laksa noodles or rice vermicelli, coconut milk, curry soup base|
|Variations||Laksa, Asam laksa, Curry laksa, Nyonya laksa, Laksa lemak|
|Alternative Chinese name|
Laksa is a popular spicy noodle soup in the Peranakan cuisine, which is a combination of Chinese and Malay cuisine. It can be found in Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia. CNN Travel ranked Penang Assam Laksa 7th out of the 50 most delicious foods in the world.
The origin of the name laksa is unclear. One theory traces it back to Urdu/Persian lakhshah, referring to a type of vermicelli, which in turn may be derived from the Sanskrit lakshas (ایک لاکھ) meaning "one hundred thousand" (lakh). It has also been suggested that "laksa" may derive from the Chinese word 辣沙 (Cantonese: [làːt.sáː]), meaning "spicy sand" due to the ground dried prawns which gives a sandy or gritty texture to the sauce. The last theory is that the name comes from the similar sounding word "dirty" in Hokkien due to its appearance.
There are three basic types of laksa: curry laksa, asam laksa and Sarawak laksa. Curry laksa is a coconut curry soup with noodles, while asam laksa is a sour fish soup with noodles. Thick rice noodles also known as laksa noodles are most commonly used, although thin rice vermicelli (bee hoon or mee hoon) are also common and some variants use other types.
Curry laksa (in many places referred to simply as “laksa”) is a coconut-based curry soup. The main ingredients for most versions of curry laksa include bean curd puffs, fish sticks, shrimp and cockles. Some vendors may sell chicken laksa. Laksa is commonly served with a spoonful of sambal chilli paste and garnished with Vietnamese coriander, or laksa leaf, which is known in Malay as daun kesum.
This is usually known as curry mee in Penang rather than curry laksa, due to the different kind of noodles used (yellow mee or bee hoon, as opposed to the thick white laksa noodles). Curry mee in Penang uses congealed pork blood, a delicacy to the Malaysian Chinese community.
The term "curry laksa" is more commonly used in Kuala Lumpur or Singapore. Laksa is popular in Singapore and Malaysia, as are laksa yong tau foo, lobster laksa, and even plain laksa, with just noodles and gravy.
Variants of curry Laksa include:
- Laksa lemak, also known as nyonya laksa (Malay: Laksa nyonya), is a type of laksa with a rich coconut gravy. Lemak is a culinary description in the Malay language which specifically refers to the presence of coconut milk which adds a distinctive richness to a dish. As the name implies, it is made with a rich, slightly sweet and strongly spiced coconut gravy. Laksa lemak is usually made with a fish-based gravy (with vegetarian food stalls omitting fish) and is heavily influenced by Thai laksa (Malay: Laksa Thai), perhaps to the point that one could say they are one and the same.
- Laksam, a speciality of the Northeastern Malaysian states of Kelantan, Terengganu and Kedah, is made with very thick flat white rice flour noodles in a rich, full-bodied white gravy of boiled fish and coconut milk. Though usually made of fish flesh, it is sometimes made with eels. Traditionally Laksa is eaten with hands rather than with eating utensils due to the gravy's thick consistency.
- Katong laksa (Malay: Laksa Katong) is a variant of laksa lemak from the Katong area of Singapore. In Katong laksa, the noodles are normally cut up into smaller pieces so that the entire dish can be eaten with a spoon alone, without chopsticks or a fork.
Asam laksa is a sour, fish-based soup. It is listed at number 7 on World's 50 most delicious foods complied by CNN Go in 2011. Asam is the Malay word for anything that makes a dish sour (e.g. tamarind or kokum). Laksa typically uses asam keping, known as kokum in the English speaking world), which is a type of dried slices of sour mangosteens. The modern Malay spelling is asam, though the spelling assam is still frequently used.
The main ingredients for asam laksa include shredded fish, normally kembung (small mackerel of the Rastrelliger genus), and finely sliced vegetables including cucumber, onions, red chillies, pineapple, lettuce, common mint, "daun kesum" (Vietnamese mint or laksa mint) and pink bunga kantan (torch ginger). Asam laksa is normally served with either thick rice noodles or thin rice noodles (vermicelli). And topped off with "petis udang" or "hae ko" (蝦羔), a thick sweet prawn/shrimp paste.
Variants of asam laksa include:
- Penang laksa (Malay: Laksa Pulau Pinang), also known as asam laksa from the Malay for tamarind, comes from the Malaysian island of Penang. It is made with mackerel (ikan kembung) soup and its main distinguishing feature is the asam or tamarind which gives the soup a sour taste. The fish is poached and then flaked. Other ingredients that give Penang laksa its distinctive flavour include lemongrass, galangal (lengkuas) and chilli. Typical garnishes include mint, pineapple slices, thinly sliced onion, hε-ko, a thick sweet prawn paste and use of torch ginger flower. This, and not 'curry mee' is the usual 'laksa' one gets in Penang.
- Perlis laksa (Malay: Laksa Perlis) is similar to Penang Laksa but differs in garnishing used such as catfish and eel fish. The famous Perlis laksa can be found in Kuala Perlis.
- Kedah laksa (Malay: Laksa Kedah) is very similar to Penang laksa and only differs in the garnishing used. Sliced boiled eggs are usually added to the dish. Kedah laksa used rice to make a laksa noodle. The famous laksa in Kedah is Laksa Telok Kechai.
- Ipoh laksa (Malay: Laksa Ipoh), from the Malaysian city of Ipoh, is similar to Penang laksa but has a more sour (rather than sweet) taste, and contains prawn paste.
- Kuala Kangsar Laksa (Malay: Laksa Kuala Kangsar), made of wheat flour (usually hand made). The soup is rather lighter than the common laksa taste and so much different from Ipoh Laksa in shape, taste and smell. The local municipal council even built a complex called "Kompleks Cendol dan Laksa" near the river bank of the Perak River. It is the main attraction for tourists in Kuala Kangsar.
Several variants mix coconut milk and fish and can be identified as either curry or asam laksa.
- Kelantan Laksa (Malay:Laksa Kelantan), from Kelantan state in Northeastern Malaysia. It has base of mackerel (ikan kembung), thick coconut milk, stalks lemongrass, shallots, cloves garlic, slices dried tamarind, palm sugar and salt.
- Johor laksa (Malay: Laksa Johor), from Johor state in southern Malaysia, resembles Penang laksa only in the kind of fish used but differs in everything else. Johor laksa has coconut milk, use kerisik, dried prawns, lemon grass, galangal and spices akin to curry. The garnishing comprises slices of onion, beansprouts (taugeh), mint leaves, Vietnamese coriander or 'daun kesum', cucumber and pickled white radish. Sambal belacan (a kind of chili paste) is placed on the side. Finally, just before eating, freshly squeezed lime juice is sprinkled on the dish. Unique to Johor laksa is its Italian connection – spaghetti is used instead of the normal rice noodles or vermicelli. Johor laksa is traditionally eaten using the hand and the noodles are usually knitted (cetak) into a disk for each serving. Johor Laksa has been declared a Malaysian heritage food by the Malaysian Department of National Heritage.
- Sarawak laksa (Malay: Laksa Sarawak) comes from the Malaysian state Sarawak, on the island of Borneo. It is actually very different from the curry laksa as the soup contains no curry at all. It has a base of Sambal belacan, sour tamarind, garlic, galangal, lemon grass and coconut milk, topped with omelette strips, chicken strips, prawns, fresh coriander and optionally lime. Ingredients such as bean sprouts, (sliced) fried tofu or other seafood are not traditional but are sometimes added.
- Terengganu laksa (Malay: Laksa Terengganu) is the easiest laksa recipe that is famous among peoples from the town of Kuala Terengganu of the Terengganu state, located at the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia. The main ingredient of Terengganu Laksa's sauce is 'ikan kembong' or round scad mackerel that are boiled and minced. The minced fish are fried with onions, garlic, ginger, datil pepper, belacan, 'kantan' flower, Vietnamese coriander or 'daun kesum', lemon grass and dried tamarind slice. Coconut milk will then be added as the final ingredient and stirred until it is all mixed up and becomes thick. Terengganu Laksa is served just like the Italian spaghetti by adding 'ulam' (raw vegetables) and blended chili on the side. Another variable of Terengganu Laksa is 'Laksam'. The sauce's recipe are exactly the same but the noodles are a bit bigger and flat.
- Bogor Laksa (Indonesian: Laksa Bogor) probably is the most famous Laksa variant in Indonesia from Bogor town, West Java. The thick yellowish coconut milk based soup is a mixture of shallot, garlic, kemiri (candlenut), kunyit (turmeric), ketumbar (coriander), sereh (lemongrass), and salt. The hot soup runs, drained, and filled several times into the bowl contains bihun (rice vermicelli), ketupat (glutinous rice cake), smashed oncom (similar to tempe but different fungi), tauge (bean sprout), kemangi (basil leaves), cooked shredded chicken and prawn, boiled egg, until all the ingredients is soft and cooked. Usually Laksa Bogor is served with sambal cuka (grinded chilli in vinegar).
- Cibinong Laksa (Indonesian: Laksa Cibinong) is from Cibinong, a city between Bogor and Jakarta. It is close to laksa Bogor. The soup is a yellowish coconut milk with a mixture of some spices, and it is served with bean sprout, rice vermicelli (bihun), hard-boiled eggs, cooked shredded chicken, fried shallots and lots of Indonesian lemon-basil leaves. Sometime they are also served with rice cake (lontong), depending on customer's wishes. No oncom or prawns are added.
- Betawi Laksa (Indonesian: Laksa Betawi) is a Laksa variant from Jakarta, Indonesia. The thick yellowish coconut milk based soup is a mixture of shallot, garlic, kunyit (turmeric), lengkuas (galangal), sereh (lemongrass), salam leaf and kaffir lime leaf, ginger, pepper, and contains rebon (dried small shrimp) to gave the unique taste. The dish contains ketupat (compressed rice cake wrapped in young coconut leaf), tauge (bean sprout), kemangi (Indonesian basil leaf), and boiled egg.
- Palembang Laksan (Indonesian: Laksan Palembang): often referred as pempek served in laksa soup, it is a specialty of Palembang, South Sumatra. It is a pempek based fishcake soup, sliced pempek served in coconut milk based soup, shrimp broth and spices, sprinkled with fried shallots.
- Palembang Lakso (Indonesian: Lakso Palembang): The Palembang style laksa. Unlike laksan that uses slices of pempek, laksan uses noodle-like steamed sago paste served in coconut milk soup with mixture spices: of palm sugar, black pepper, turmeric, coriander and candlenut, sprinkled with fried shallots.
- Banjar Laksa (Indonesian: Laksa Banjar): The Banjarmasin style laksa that has snakehead as one of its ingredients.
- Kelantan Laksam
- Sabah Laksa
- Laksa Brunei
The general differences between curry laksa,asam laksa and Sarawak laksa are as follows:
|Curry laksa||Asam laksa||Sarawak laksa|
|Coconut milk is used||No coconut milk used||Coconut milk is used|
|Curry-like soup (includes curry as one of its ingredients)||Fish paste soup, tastes sour due to tamarind (asam)||Red curry-like soup (does not use curry)|
|Except for bean sprouts, no other vegetable is used||Pineapple, shredded cucumber, raw onions may be used||Except for bean sprouts and fresh coriander as garnish, no other vegetable is used.|
|Bean curd puff is used||No bean curd puff used||No bean curd puff used|
|Served with thick or thin rice vermicelli (usually thick). Occasionally served with yellow mee.||Served with thick or thin rice vermicelli (usually thick)||Served with thin rice vermicelli only|
|Hard-boiled egg may be added||No hard-boiled egg added||Sliced omelette is used|
|Slices of fish cake and either prawns or chicken is used||Fish, usually kembung, is used||Whole prawns and serrated chickens are used|
Laksa is simply referred to or ordered at a restaurant as laksa (curry laksa) or asam laksa. By default, laksa means the standard curry laksa while asam laksa refers to the standard Penang version. If a restaurant serves a non-standard version, the restaurant will qualify the laksa by the version being sold. For example, a restaurant serving Katong laksa will list Katong laksa on the menu.
- Mohinga, a Burmese fish noodle soup
- Ohn no khao swè, Burmese version of coconut chicken noodle soup
- Khao soi, a northern Thai noodle dish
- Khow suey, a noodle dish originally from the Shan state in Burma
- Khao poon, a dish in Laos also known as Lao laksa
- "CITURS AND CANDY ASSAM LAKSA". January 24, 2011.
- "Laksa Lemak Recipe - Malaysia (Gordon's Great Escape)". May 23, 2011.
- Lara Dunston (October 24, 2012). "Laksa: Discovering Malaysia’s signature dish". Asian Correspondent.
- "World's 50 best foods". July 21, 2011.
- Winstedt, Sir Richard (Olaf), An Unabridged Malay–English Dictionary (5th ed., enlarged) (Kuala Lumpur: Marican & Sons, 1963)
- But in this http://www.kamus.net/indonesia/laksa Indonesian language dictionary, "Laksa" means 10000 , Ten thousand (of Sanskrit origin).
- Hutton, Wendy, Singapore Food (Marshall Cavendish, 2007) [Wendy-Hutton]
- Spiles, Jason, Asian Food (John & Peters, 2005)
- Terengganu government tourism – Laksam.
- CNN Go World's 50 most delicious foods 21 July 2011. Retrieved 2011-10-11
- "Laksa Kelantan".
- "Intangible Heritage Objects".
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Laksa.|
- AsiaCuisine.com: Discovering Laksa: Penang Laksa, Nonya Laksa and Singapore Laksa
- Article on Penang Laksa from Tourism Penang
- Article on Sarawak Laksa
- Article on Sarawak Laksa in Kuala Lumpur
- Laksa recipe from BBC
- Laksa recipe from the Australian Broadcasting Corporation
- Prawn laksa recipe from BBC Good Food
- Gluten Free Chicken Laksa Recipe