Lala (title)

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Lala Persian: لل‍ه‎, Turkish: Lala was a Turkish and Persian title (of Persian origin) meaning tutor and statesman during Ottoman and Safavid Empire.[1]

History[edit]

In Ottoman tradition, lalas were the experienced statesmen who were assigned as the tutors of the young princes (Turkish: Şehzade). While still in teen ages, the princes were sent to provinces as provencial governors (Turkish: sanjak bey). They were accompanied by their lalas who trained them in statesmanship. The purpose of this practice was to prepare the princes for the future duty of regency. Later when the prince was enthroned as the sultan his lala was usually promoted to be a vizier. Up to the 13th sultan Mehmet III (the end of the 16th century) all sultans enjoyed a period of provencial governship prior to their reign. However 14th sultan Ahmet I (1603-1617) who was enthroned in early teens without a period of provencial governship, banned this practice. This meant the decrease in the status of the lala.[2]

Atabeg vs lala[edit]

The practice of lala was even older than the Ottoman Empire. During the Seljuk Empire, the experienced statesmen accompanying the princes were called Atabeg or Atabey ( a Turkish composite title meaning ancestor-lord). However Seljuk Empire was highly feudalistic and atabeys frequently used their power for separatist policies whenever they felt a weakness in the central authority. (like Ildeniz in Azerbaijan and Zangids in North Iraq) [3] The Ottoman Empire, on the other hand was more centralist and almost no lala tried to follow a separatist policy.

Some grand viziers of lala background[edit]

Name Term (as grand vizier) Tutee
Beyazıt Pasha 1413-1421 Mehmet I
Çandarlı (2nd) İbrahim Pasha 1498-1499 Beyazıt II
Lala Kara Mustafa Pasha 1580 Selim II
Tekeli Lala Mehmet Pasha 1595 Mehmet III
Sokolluzade Lala Mehmet Pasha 1604-1606 Ahmet I

In India[edit]

In India it is mainly used by the mughals for addressing educated and experienced kshatriya sect who are mainly involved in administrative services instead of military services. Title were mainly given to Hindu Kayastha community in Mughal period. [4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Biography of Abbas I 2012 ISBN 9789643517267.
  2. ^ Ottoman culture page (Turkish)
  3. ^ Online ancyclopaedia (Turkish)
  4. ^ History page (Turkish)