Laleh Bakhtiar

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Laleh Mehree Bakhtiar (July 29, 1938, in New York City, USA) is an Iranian-American Muslim author, translator and clinical psychologist.[1][2]

Biography[edit]

Born to an American mother and Iranian father in New York, Bakhtiar grew up in Los Angeles and Washington, D.C., as a Catholic. At the age of 24, moved to Iran with her Iranian husband, an architect, and their three children, where she began to study Islam under her teacher and mentor, Dr. Seyyed Hossein Nasr at Tehran University, studying Quranic Arabic, eventually converting in 1964. She divorced her husband in 1976[3] and returned to the U.S. in 1988.[4] She holds a BA in History from Chatham College in Pennsylvania, an MA in Philosophy, an MA in Counseling Psychology and a Ph.D. in Educational Foundations. She is also a Nationally Certified Counselor.[5] As of 2007 Bakhtiar lives in Chicago, where she is president of the Institute of Traditional Psychology and Scholar-in Residence at Kazi Publications.[4][6]

Works[edit]

She has translated and written a combination of 25 books about Islam, many dealing with Sufism.[7] She has also authored or co-authored a number of biographical works. Her translation of the Qur'an, first published in 2007 and called The Sublime Quran, is the first translation of the Qur'an by an American woman;[6][8][9][10] while the first translation of the Qur'an into English by a woman was done in 2001 by an Iranian woman, Tahereh Saffarzadeh.[10][11] Laleh Bakhtiar's translation attempts to take a female perspective, and to admit alternative meanings to many Arabic terms that are ambiguous or whose meaning scholars have had to guess because of the antiquity of the language. Qur'an. Her work seeks to create understanding between non-Muslims and Muslims.[6][9]

In her Quran translation, she translates kāfirūn as "those who are ungrateful" instead of the common translations "unbelievers" or "infidels." She also translates the Arabic word ḍaraba in Chapter 4, Verse 34, concerning treatment of a husband towards a rebellious wife, as "go away" instead of the common "beat" or "hit."[12] The English words "God" and "Mary" are used instead of the Arabic Allāh and Maryam. Bakhtiar believes these translations will not push non-Muslims away from Islam.[6]

Bakhtiar has stopped wearing the headscarf, worn by many Muslim women, after the September 11 attacks, as she came to believe that in America it does not promote its goal of modesty and attracts excessive attention.[6]

Criticism[edit]

Khaled Abou El Fadl, Islamic law professor from UCLA, says she "has a reputation as an editor, not [as] an Islamic scholar",[6] and that three years of Classical Arabic are not enough.[6] He also "is troubled by a method of translating that relies on dictionaries and other English translations."[6]

The head of one of Canada's leading Muslim organizations, Islamic Society of North America (Canada), ISNA, Mohammad Ashraf, said he would not permit Bahktiar's book, The Sublime Quran, to be sold in the bookstore of ISNA and that their bookstore would not allow this kind of "woman-friendly translation", and that he will consider banning it.[13]

Bakhtiar disagrees with such criticism saying, "The criticism is [there] because I'm a woman." She also says that some other well-known translators were not considered Islamic scholars.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ John Colson, Symposium focuses on Muslim women Aspen Times, August 15, 2007
  2. ^ Hanady Kader, Online Matchmaking Sites Court U.S. Muslims WeNews, May 29, 2008
  3. ^ A Bridge Between Two Cultures
  4. ^ a b Human Rights and Women's Rights in Islam
  5. ^ Biography of Laleh Bakhtiar
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i Noreen S. Ahmed-Ullah, Chicago Tribune April 10, 2007; "A new look at a holy text" (accessed July 8, 2011).
  7. ^ Disobedient Muslim Women
  8. ^ Andrea Useem, Laleh Bakhtiar: An American Woman Translates the Qur'an Publishers Weekly, April 16, 2007
  9. ^ a b Aslan, Reza (20 November 2008). "How To Read the Quran". Slate. Retrieved 8 July 2011. 
  10. ^ a b http://www.amazon.com/Sublime-Quran-Laleh-Bakhtiar/dp/1567447503
  11. ^ Saffarzadeh Commemoration Due Iran Daily, October 18, 2010
  12. ^ Neil MacFarquhar, New Translation Prompts Debate on Islamic Verse, New York Times, March 25, 2007
  13. ^ Leslie Scrivener, Furor over a five-letter word Toronto Star, October 21, 2007