Lamanon

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Lamanon
Castle
Castle
Coat of arms of Lamanon
Coat of arms
Lamanon is located in France
Lamanon
Lamanon
Coordinates: 43°42′10″N 5°05′13″E / 43.7028°N 5.0869°E / 43.7028; 5.0869Coordinates: 43°42′10″N 5°05′13″E / 43.7028°N 5.0869°E / 43.7028; 5.0869
Country France
Region Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
Department Bouches-du-Rhône
Arrondissement Arles
Canton Eyguières
Intercommunality Salon-Étang de Berre-Durance
Government
 • Mayor (2014–2020) Roland Darrouzes
Area
 • Land1 19.19 km2 (7.41 sq mi)
Population (2011)
 • Population2 1,823
 • Population2 density 95/km2 (250/sq mi)
INSEE/Postal code 13049 / 13113
Elevation 94–326 m (308–1,070 ft)
(avg. 112 m or 367 ft)

1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Lamanon is a commune located in the Bouches-du-Rhône department, part of the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southern France. Its inhabitants are called Lamanonais in French.

North of the village the archaeological site of Grottes de Calès represents a cave dwelling from prehistoric to medieval times.

Toponym[edit]

The oldest known form is Alamannon, found around 1031. It changes then towards de Lamanone (1253). This toponym could come from a German name, Alaman, together with the suffix -onem, while the initial a disappeared due to apheresis.[1]

Lamanon is pronounced Lamanoun in provençal in the Mistralian norm.

Geography and climate[edit]

Directions[edit]

Railroads
  • Trunk roads : the Route nationale 538 (RN 538) crosses the village from the north to the south while the RN 17d runs alongside the east-west direction. The RN 72 and 72f connect it to the neighbouring village in the West, Eyguières.
  • Motorway : the nearest motorway is the A7 autoroute, reachable by two interchanges : Salon-Nord or Sénas. There is a rest area near Lamanon.
Public transport
  • Libébus : the village is served by two bus lines from the agglomeration community's (Agglopole Provence) public transport network.:[2] lines 11 and 12.
  • TER PACA : line 9 of the regional train service (Marseille-Avignon, by Salon and Cavaillon) passes through the village.

Neighbouring Towns[edit]

Sénas Sénas Alleins
Eyguières Neighbouring communities Alleins
Eyguières Salon-de-Provence Aurons

Geology[edit]

On the westside of the village stands the défens of Eyguières, the eastern part of the chaîne des Alpilles. Défens is a French medieval term for a lord's property used as a warren or a hunting place. Similarly, in the north-east, one finds the défens of Alleins. The Roquerousse hills are located in the south-east of the village.

During the Miocene epoch, 12 million years ago, the river Durance did not flow into the Rhône but into the Mediterranean Sea. It passed nearby Lamanon before forming a large delta covering what is now the Berre lagoon and the Crau plains.[3] Therefore, Lamanon is situated in the ancient Durance valley.

Climate[edit]

The climate in the Alpilles is considered as mediterranean. Winters are mild and dry while summers are warm and dry. The hottest months are July and August when the mean temperature rises to (+29 °C) ; in December and January, the chillest months, it drops to (+3 °C).[4] The rainiest month is January with 7 days of rain on average, against 2 days in July.[4] The Alpilles area receives more precipitation than the Mediterranean seaside : 500 mm/year in Camargue against 600–700 mm/year in the Alpilles.

There have been dramatic freezes in the XIX century with the Rhône turning to ice, but since then it has become very rare.

The mistral[edit]

The mistral is a very powerful north/north-east wind , blowing strongly 100 days per year on average and slightly 83 days per year, which leaves only 182 days without wind per year.[5]

It is said to be two sorts of mistral : the "white mistral" clearing the sky from any cloud and the "black mistral" accompanied by rain.

Meteorological data[edit]

Lamanon does not have a weather station, the nearest being in Salon-de-Provence.[6]

The following table shows temperatures and rains for the period 1971-2000  :

Climate data for Salon de Provence
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 51.6
(10.9)
54.1
(12.3)
59.5
(15.3)
63.5
(17.5)
72
(22)
78.4
(25.8)
84.9
(29.4)
84
(29)
77
(25)
67.8
(19.9)
57.6
(14.2)
52.9
(11.6)
66.9
(19.4)
Daily mean °F (°C) 43
(6.1)
45
(7.2)
49.5
(9.7)
54
(12)
61
(16.1)
67.6
(19.8)
73.2
(22.9)
72.9
(22.7)
66.6
(19.2)
58.5
(14.7)
49.3
(9.6)
45
(7)
57
(13.9)
Average low °F (°C) 34.2
(1.2)
36
(2)
39
(4)
43.5
(6.4)
50.2
(10.1)
56.7
(13.7)
61.5
(16.4)
61.3
(16.3)
55.9
(13.3)
49.1
(9.5)
40.8
(4.9)
36.3
(2.4)
47.04
(8.35)
Precipitation inches (mm) 2.32
(59)
1.85
(47)
1.73
(44)
2.48
(63)
1.65
(42)
1.22
(31)
0.63
(16)
1.46
(37)
2.52
(64)
3.86
(98)
2.28
(58)
2.13
(54)
24.543
(623.4)
Source: Météo France


History[edit]

On the northern part of the current village, the archaeological place called Grottes de Calès features prehistoric dwelling sites. They were inhabited until the XVI century. Originally, it is was an opidum with roads connecting different villages. In the second half of the Iron Age (VII-VI BC), the population starts to settle down and to build the castrum, with streets and buildings. The increasing commerce in Méditerranée reaches the Alpilles where they trade cereals for luxury goods. In the following centuries, the population in the Alpilles decreases drastically because of the growing attract for the Arles trading post. But as for the Iron Age's end (II-I BC), many sites are repopulated.

With the roman invasion in Provence, the oppida in the Alpilles, including Lamanon's one, are dismantled, the only remaining being places of worship, such as the Saint-Jean chapel.[7]

After a time of turmoil, the death of Queen Joanna I in Naples, launched a war of succession for the County of Provence. An alliance of several provençal towns (Aix, Nice and Tarascon) supported Charles of Durazzo, Queen Joanna I's adversary, murderer and successor, against Louis I of Anjou, brother of John II of France who was adopted by Queen Joanna in exchange of his help during the war against Charles of Durazzo. During summer 1383, Charles VI, King of France, Louis of Anjou's grandnephew, took action and mandated the Seneschal of Beaucaire, Enguerrand d'Eudin, to support Louis I in raising an army, thus conquering strongholds and villages, such as Lamanon. In 1384, Louis I of Anjou died after being crowned King of Naples (defeating Charles of Durazzo). Arles and Marseille, followed by a lot of towns, pledged allegiance to his son, Louis II of Anjou, who was only 7 years old. When his mother, Marie de Blois, Louis I's widow, arrived in Provence and asked Seneschal d'Eudin to give Lamanon up for Louis II, he refused on the name of Charles VI the King.[8]

During the French Revolution, a comité de surveillance is established in Lamanon, charged to list every foreigner in France, as strangers were suspected to be plotters. It does not manage to recruit the twelve members as needed by the Convention and among those who were recruited were peasants and illiterates. Even though, the comité declared that they were no suspect in the village, which was only populated by farmers at this time.[9]

Administration[edit]

According to the French laws, due to its size, the village has a town council of 19 members (article L2121-2 du Code général des collectivités territoriales[10]). At the last elections in 2014, Roland Darrouzès was re-elected for the sixth time with 54,87% of valid votes against Nicolas Sias, the participation rate being 72,53%.[11] A recent modification of the vote procedure forbade to strike out names on the ballot paper, which was possible until then for villages under 3500 inhabitants. This lead to situation, such as in 2008, where Roland Darrouzès scored the antepenultimate place but was still elected by his list as mayor.[12]

Succession of mayors[edit]

From 1789 to 1799, the mayor was elected by direct suffrage for 2 years and re-eligible. The voters were the active citizens paying a tax equivalent to at least 3 working days in the village. To be candidate, one needed to pay taxes at least equal to ten working days.

From 1799 to 1848, the 22 frimaire an VIII constitution changes this procedure : mayors are now nominated by the préfet for small towns under 5000 inhabitants. During the Restauration regime, local concillors are also nominated. After 1831, the mayor is then nominated by the king for towns over 3000 inhabitants, by the préfet elsewise, but the local concillors are elected for six years.

From July, 3rd 1848 to 1851, mayors are elected by the town concil for towns under 6000 inhabitants.

From 1851 to 1871, the are again nominated by the préfet in towns under 3000 inhabitants, for 5 years as for 1855.

Since 1871, mayors are elected by the town concil after its election by universal suffrage.

Mayor Term start Term end   Party
Jean-Marie Chevallier 1971 1977 Apolitic
Roland Darrouzès 1977 - Socialist

Twin towns[edit]

Lamanon is twinned with:[13]

  • Spain Gualba (Spain), village of 1,065 inhabitants as of 2008, in the Barcelone province, in Catalonia.

Population and society[edit]

Demography[edit]

The historical population is given in the following chart:

Education[edit]

The village has a nursery school and a primary school, both public.[14] Afterwards, pupils go to collège (high-school) at the Collège Lucie-Aubrac in Eyguières.[15] Then, they go to the lycée (high-school) de L'Emperi in Salon-de-Provence.[16]

Sports[edit]

There are many sport associations in the village : tennis, cycling, pétanque, football, gym ... Also, one can find a stud farm and a GR footpath, GR n°6.

Health[edit]

There are several doctors and a pharmacy. Not far, in Eyguières, there is a cardiovascular center. The nearest hospital is in Salon-de-Provence.

Economy[edit]

Population incomes[edit]

In 2008, the mean fiscal income in the village was 21.376€, placing Lamanon at the 3554th rank among the 31.604 French towns with at least 50 fiscal inhabitants.[17]

Agriculture[edit]

Oliveraie des Alpilles
Vincent van Gogh
septembre 1889

The vin de pays des Alpilles is a country wine from the North of Bouches-du-Rhône which is not part of the Appellation d'origine contrôlée label. It was known until 2001 under the name "Vin de pays de la Petite Crau". The production is about 6000 hectolitres per year. Its vineyard lies on a stony soil, delimited by the Durance in the North and the Alpilles in the South.[18]

The village produces an olive oil protected by an AOC label since August 1997. The different olive species used are the salonenque, the beruguette, the grossane and the verdale from the Bouches-du-Rhône.[19]

Tourism[edit]

Around the Alpilles, tourism is declined around three axes : first, the historical and cultural tourism including visits (Les Baux-de-Provence, Glanum, etc.) and festivals, such as the Festival des Alpilles. Secondly, the relaxation tourism, taking advantage of the growing business around guestrooms and hotel trade, with the local animations such as market and artisans. Thirdly, the green tourism around walking trails in the hills.

Culture[edit]

Monuments[edit]

The castle.
The giant plane tree.
  • A castle
  • The giant plane tree of Lamanon could have been planted by Catherine de Médicis during the XVI Century when she came in Salon-de-Provence to meet Nostradamus. The tree was formerly owned by a private individual but he recently donated his land to the village.
  • The Calès dwellings. This underground living place is very popular among tourists. Located in a large basin with dozens of dwellings, it is connected to the Saint-Denis chapel, just above a water-spring.

Each year, Lamanon hosts one of the biggest concerts of the festival des Alpilles, the "Lam' du blues", starring big names such as Tony Joe White, Billy Boy Arnold, John Primer, Billy Branch, Lurrie Bell, Lousiana Red or Wes Mackey.

Important persons[edit]

  • Jean Honoré Robert de Paul de Lamanon, as know as Robert de Lamanon, (1752-1787), a member of the La Pérouse expedition around the world (August, 1st - December, 11th 1785) and eventually died in it.
  • Bertran de Lamanon (1210-1270), provençal troubadour and lord of Lamanon.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Albert Dauzat and Charles Rostaing, Dictionnaire étymologique des noms de lieux en France, Éd. Larousse, 1968, p. 1822.
  2. ^ Libébus website.
  3. ^ Jean-Paul Clébert and Jean-Pierre Rouyer, La Durance, Privat, Toulouse, 1991, in the collection Rivières et vallées de France, ISBN 2-7089-9503-0, p. 11
  4. ^ a b Maussane-les-Alpilles Climate, neighbouring village, holidaycheck.fr.
  5. ^ « Le climat », in Les Alpilles, encyclopédie d'une montagne provençale, H. Bruneton, éd. Les Alpes de Lumière, Forcalquier, 2009, p. 23-24.
  6. ^ "Station météo la plus proche : Salon-de-Provence". MSN Météo. 
  7. ^ Y. Marcadal, « À la périphérie de la chaîne », in Les Alpilles, op. cit., p. 147.
  8. ^ Geneviève Xhayet, « Partisans et adversaires de Louis d'Anjou pendant la guerre de l'Union d'Aix », Provence historique, Fédération historique de Provence, volume 40, n°162, « Autour de la guerre de l'Union d'Aix », 1990, p.407 et 413 (note 61).
  9. ^ Jacques Guilhaumou et Martine Lapied, « Paysans et politique sous la Révolution française à partir des dossiers des comités de surveillance des Bouches-du-Rhône », Rives nord-méditerranéennes, 5 | 2000, mis en ligne le 25 mars 2004
  10. ^ "number of members for town councils". Legifrance. 
  11. ^ http://elections.interieur.gouv.fr/MN2014/013/013049.html
  12. ^ http://www.interieur.gouv.fr/Elections/Les-resultats/Municipales/elecresult__municipales_2008/%28path%29/municipales_2008/013/013049.html
  13. ^ "Twin city of Lamanon". Annuaire Mairie. 
  14. ^ "Établissement primaires publics des Bouches-du-Rhône". Inspection académique des Bouches-du-Rhône. 
  15. ^ "Sectorisation des collèges publics des Bouches-du-Rhône". Conseil Général des Bouches-du-Rhône. 
  16. ^ "Sectorisation des lycées publics des Bouches-du-Rhône". Inspection académique des Bouches-du-Rhône. 
  17. ^ "CC-Résumé statistique/com,dep,zone empl". site de l'Insee. 6 novembre 2010. 
  18. ^ Louis Menjucq, président de l'ANIVIT (sous la direction de), Vins de pays de France, Éd. Romain Pages, Saint-Cloud, 1991, ISBN 2908878151, p. 86.
  19. ^ Huile d'olive de la vallée des Baux-de-Provence AOC