Restoration of a Columbian Mammoth
|NRHP Reference #||97000208|
|Added to NRHP||1997|
Lamb Spring is a pre-Clovis prehistoric Paleo-Indian archaeological site located in Littleton, Colorado with the largest collection of Columbian mammoth bones in the state. Lamb Spring also provides evidence of Paleo-Indian hunting in a later period by the Cody culture complex group. Lamb Spring was listed in 1997 on the National Register of Historic Places.
Paleo-Indian were primarily hunters of large mammals called megafauna, such as the Bison antiquus, during a transitional period from Ice Age to Ice Age summer. As the climate warmed, glacial run-off created lakes and savannas. At the end of the summer period the land became drier, food was not as abundant for large animals, and they became extinct. People adapted by hunting smaller mammals and gathering wild plants to supplement their diet.
Mammoth bones at the Lamb Spring site may pre-date the earliest known human culture, the Clovis tradition, which started about 11,200 years ago. Mammoth bones at the site are dated at 11,735 +/- 95 years ago and 13,140 +/- 1,000 years ago. Many large bones appear to have been broken at the site, which may indicate butchery by early man. There were also some broken rocks with the bones, but it has not been determined that they were used as tools. It has not yet been conclusively determined to be a pre-Clovis site, but continued excavation may find pre-Clovis tools and evidence that more conclusively finds that the mammoth died as a result of hunting.
The camelop bones and artifacts date back to about 11,000 BC. The site has Colorado's largest collection of Columbian mammoth bones. Pronghorn and rodent remains were also found. After 11,000 BC the climate changed and all of the megafauna except the bison antiquus were extinct. About 7000 or 6500 BC, Paleo-Indians hunted bison and smaller mammals at the spring.
In the summer of 1960, while constructing a pond at a spring on his property, Charles Lamb found mammoth tusks and bones from about 13,000 years ago. Also found were bison, camel, and horse bones. His find quickly initiated a series of archaeological investigations and excavations.
A summary of archaeological efforts are:
|Year||Name||Organization||Period and artifacts||Comments|
|1960||Dr. G. Edward Lewis||United States Geological Survey||Identified mammoth tusks and bones from the Pleistocene period.|
|1960||Dr. G. Edward Lewis,
Dr. Glenn Scott
|United States Geological Survey||Visited the Lamb Spring site and found bison, camel, horse, mammoth, pronghorn, and rodent bones. They also found, at the same depth and in the same sediment, late Pleistocene era flint chips, meaning that the mammoth were likely hunted by Paleo-Indians.|
|1961||Dr. Waldo Wedel,
Dr. Glenn Scott
|Smithsonian Institution, United States Geological Survey||Found bones from 5 mammoth from the end of the Ice Age, a little older than 13,000 Before Present (about 11,000 BC.)|
|1961–1962||Dr. C.L. Gazin,
Dr. Waldo R. Wedel
|Smithsonian Institution||Eight geological layers were identified. Most of the remains found were from the earliest period, about 5–6 feet below the surface. The second deepest layer, dated about 6870 (+/- 350 years) BC, contained Cody complex projectile points and knife, bison remains, and other cutting and hide scraping tools.||The project was by a National Science Foundation grant. Nebraska State Museum, United States Geological Survey and University of Michigan personnel assisted in the excavation and analysis.|
|1980–1981||Dr. Dennis Stanford||Smithsonian Institution||Found bones for 30 mammoth and evidence that they had been hunted and dated bones at 10,140-12,140 BC. Bison bones and Cody implements were found at the next most recent layer of sediment and remains.|
|2002||Dr. James Dixon
Dr. Paul Murphy
|University of Colorado-Boulder Museum Studies Program, Denver Museum of Nature and Science||Excavated a Columbian mammoth skull, likely a juvenile, dated about 11,000 BC.||The excavation and study were conducted with the participation of Douglas County and the Archaeological Conservancy.|
Lamb Spring Archaeological Preserve
The 32 acres around the Lamb Spring site was purchased by The Archaeological Conservancy in 1995. Assisting them in the acquisition were the Denver Museum of Nature and Science, Douglas County, Colorado and the Smithsonian Institute. Free tours are available, May through October, on the 1st Saturday of the month. The tours are sponsored by the Conservancy and the Douglas County Community Planning and Sustainable Development department.
- National Register of Historic Places listings in Douglas County, Colorado
- List of prehistoric sites in Colorado
- "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2010-07-09.
- National Registor of Historic Places. National Park Service. Retrieved 9-29-2011.
- Griffin-Pierce, Trudy. (2010). The Columbia Guide to American Indians of the Southwest. New York:Columbia University Press, 130. ISBN 978-0-231-12790-5.
- Kipfer, Barbara Ann. (2000). Encyclopedic Dictionary of Archaeology. New York:Plenum Publisher, 296. ISBN 0-306-46158-7.
- Cassells, E. Steve. (1997)  The Archaeology of Colorado. Boulder: Johnson Press, 55/57. ISBN 1-55566-193-9.
- History of Lamb Spring. Douglas County Government. 2011. Retrieved 9-28-2011.
- Lamb Spring Archaeological Preserve: History. Douglas County Government. 2011. Retrieved 10-23-2011.
- Fisher, Jr., John W. N.D. Observations on the Late Pleistocene Bone Bed Assemblage from the Lamb Spring Site, Colorado. In Ice Age Hunters of the Rockies by Dennis Stanford and Jane S. Day, pp. 51–81. Denver Museum of Natural History; Niwot: University Press of Colorado, 1992.
- Gibbon, Guy E., and Kenneth M. Ames. 'Archaeology of Prehistoric Native America: An Encyclopedia. 1998. ISBN 0-8153-0725-X.
- Mandryk, Carole A.S. "A geoarchaeological interpretation of the Lamb Spring Site, Colorado." Geoarchaeology. Vol13, (8):819–846, 1998
- Rancier, Jim. (1981) Field Note from Smithsonian Institution Excavations at Lamb Spring Site. On file at University of Colorado Museum and Field Studies Program.
- Scott, Glenn R. N.D. Geology of the Lamb Spring Site. Denver, Colorado: United States Geological Survey.
- Stanford, Dennis J.; Wedel, Waldo R.; Scott, Glenn R. (1981). Archaeological Investigations of the Lamb Spring Site. Southwestern Lore 47(1) March 1981 pp. 14-27.
- Stanford, Dennis J.; Fisher, Jr., John W. (1992) Analysis of the Lamb Spring Archaeological Site. Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Studies Program. On file at University of Colorado Museum of Field Studies Program.