Lambert–St. Louis International Airport
|Lambert–St. Louis International Airport|
|IATA: STL – ICAO: KSTL – FAA LID: STL|
|Owner||City of St. Louis|
|Operator||St. Louis Airport Authority|
|Serves||Greater St. Louis, Missouri|
|Location||Unincorporated St. Louis County 10 miles (16 km) NW of St. Louis|
|Focus city for|
|Elevation AMSL||605 ft / 184.4 m|
|Source: Federal Aviation Administration and STL Airport|
Lambert–St. Louis International Airport (IATA: STL, ICAO: KSTL, FAA LID: STL) is an international airport serving Greater St. Louis. It is about 10 miles (16 km) northwest of downtown St. Louis in unincorporated St. Louis County between Berkeley and Bridgeton. It is the largest and busiest airport in the state with 255 daily departures to about 90 domestic and international locations. In 2011, nearly 13 million passengers traveled through the airport. The airport serves as a focus city for Southwest Airlines and was a former hub for Trans World Airlines and former focus-city for American Airlines and AmericanConnection
Named for Albert Bond Lambert, an Olympic medalist and manufacturer of Listerine, the airport rose to international prominence in the 20th century, thanks to its association with Charles Lindbergh, its groundbreaking air traffic control, its status as the hub of Trans World Airlines, and its iconic terminal. Designed by Minoru Yamasaki, the building inspired terminals at John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York City and Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport in France.
The airport grew from a balloon launching base, Kinloch Field, part of the 1890s Kinloch Park suburban development. The Wright brothers and their Exhibition Team visited the field while touring with their aircraft. During a visit to St. Louis, Theodore Roosevelt flew with pilot Arch Hoxsey on October 11, 1910, becoming the first U.S. president to fly. Later, Kinloch hosted the first experimental parachute jump.
In June 1920, the Aero Club of St. Louis leased 170 acres of cornfield, the defunct Kinloch Racing Track and the Kinloch Airfield in October 1923, during The International Air Races. The field was officially dedicated as Lambert–St. Louis Flying Field in honor of Albert Bond Lambert, an Olympic silver medalist golfer in the 1904 Summer Games, president of Lambert Pharmaceutical Corporation (which made Listerine), and the first person to receive a pilot's license in St. Louis. In February 1925, "Major" (his 'rank' was given by the Aero Club and not the military) Lambert bought the field and added hangars and a passenger terminal. Charles Lindbergh's first piloting job was flying airmail for Robertson Airlines from Lambert Field; he left the airport for New York about a week before his record-breaking flight to Paris in 1927. Later that year, Lambert sold the airport to the City of St. Louis, making it the first municipally-owned airport in the United States.
After World War II
After the war, NAS St. Louis reverted to a reserve installation, supporting carrier-based fighters and land-based patrol aircraft. When it closed in 1958, most of its facilities were acquired by the Missouri Air National Guard and became Lambert Field Air National Guard Base. Some other facilities were retained by non-flying activities of the Naval Reserve and Marine Corps Reserve, while the rest was redeveloped to expand commercial airline operations at the airport.
To handle the increasing passenger traffic, Minoru Yamasaki was commissioned to design a new terminal at Lambert. Completed in 1956, the four-domed design inspired terminals at John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York City and Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport.
The April 1957 Official Airline Guide shows TWA with 44 weekday departures; American, 24; Delta, 16; Ozark, 14; Eastern, 13; Braniff, six, and Central, two.
In the 1970s St. Louis city officials proposed to replace the airport with a new one in suburban Illinois. After Missouri residents objected in 1977, Lambert received a $290-million expansion that lengthened the runways, increased the number of gates to 81, and boosted its capacity by 50 percent. (A proposed Illinois airport was later built anyway, though not near the originally proposed site; MidAmerica St. Louis Airport opened in 1997 in Mascoutah, Illinois. As of 2012 no major carriers fly there.) Concourse A and Concourse C were rebuilt into bi-level structures equipped with jet bridges as part of a $25 million project in the mid-1970s designed by Sverdrup. The other concourses were demolished. Construction began in the spring of 1976 and was completed in September 1977. A $20 million, 120,000 ft2 extension of Concourse C for TWA and a $46 million, 210,000 ft2 Concourse D for Ozark Airlines designed by Sverdrup were completed in December 1982.
In 1982, Trans World Airlines (TWA) moved its hub from Kansas City International Airport. The move made TWA the dominant carrier at Lambert, and turned the St. Louis airport into one of the busiest in the country. The airport grew in importance for TWA after the airline declared bankruptcy in 1993; by the late 1990s, it was the airline's dominant hub. But the airport's influence waned after American Airlines (AA) bought TWA and merged the airlines' flight operations in 2001. Lambert became a reliever for AA's existing hubs at Chicago O'Hare and Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, and transatlantic service was discontinued. AA transferred many mainline TWA routes to American Connection, a group of affiliated regional carriers. After the 2003 cutbacks, AA introduced American Eagle service at its St. Louis hub in May 2005. Unlike American Connection, American Eagle is wholly owned by AMR Corporation, the parent company of American Airlines and American Eagle.
In 2006, the United States Air Force announced plans to turn the 131st Fighter Wing of the Missouri Air National Guard into the 131st Bomb Wing. The wing's 20 F-15C and F-15D aircraft were moved to the Montana Air National Guard's 120th Fighter Wing at Great Falls International Airport/Air National Guard Base, Montana and the Hawaii Air National Guard's 154th Wing at Hickam AFB, Hawaii. The pilots and maintainers moved to Whiteman AFB, Missouri to fly and maintain the B-2 Spirit stealth bomber as the first Air National Guard wing to fly the aircraft. Lambert Field Air National Guard Base formally shut down in June 2009, when the final two F-15C Eagles did a low approach over the field, then flew away. The event was attended by more than 2,200 people who said goodbye to a part of airport history for over 85 years.
In September 2009, American Airlines announced that, as a part of the airline's restructuring, it will reduce its operations to 36 daily flights to nine destinations in the summer of 2010. These cuts will end the remaining hub operation.
On October 21, 2009, Southwest Airlines announced that the airline will increase service with a "major expansion" in St. Louis by May 2010. The airline will increase service to 83 daily departures from St. Louis, replacing American as the carrier with the most daily flights after American's service cuts scheduled for Summer 2010.
As of May 2012, the airport is on a significant upswing, with traffic up by about 14%. Southwest Airlines has also announced that over the next few years, they will add several new routes out of Lambert International. Lambert has said they are in talks with Delta Air Lines and American Airlines to try and land a route to London. St. Louis is the largest market in the United States that does not have a flight to Europe.
2011 St. Louis tornado
About 8:10 p.m. on April 22, 2011, an EF4 tornado struck the airport's Terminal 1, destroying jetways and breaking more than half of the windows. One plane from Southwest Airlines was damaged when the wind pushed a baggage conveyor belt into it. Four American Airlines planes were damaged, including one that was buffeted by 80 mph crosswinds while taxiing after landing. One aircraft, with passengers still aboard, was moved away from its jetway by the storm. The FAA closed the airport on April 22 at 08:54 pm CDT, then reopened it the following day at temporarily lower capacity. The C concourse underwent renovations and repairs, and they were completed and reopened on April 2, 2012.
The damage to Concourse C forced several airlines to use vacant gates in the B and D concourses, including AirTran, American, Cape Air, and Frontier. Frontier Airlines moved to B, while American and Cape Air went to D. Airtran was moved to Terminal 2 with Southwest Airlines
Later in the year, the TSA declared Lambert Airport its "Airport of the Year" for "exceptional courtesy, high-quality security" and the excellent response by airport officials during and after the tornado.
Lambert–St. Louis International Airport covers 2,800 acres (1,133 ha) and has four runways:
- Runway 12R/30L: 11,019 x 200 ft (3,359 x 61 m), Surface: Concrete
- Runway 12L/30R: 9,003 x 150 ft (2,744 x 46 m), Surface: Concrete
- Runway 11/29: 9,000 x 150 ft (2,743 x 46 m), Surface: Concrete
- Runway 6/24: 7,602 x 150 ft (2,317 x 46 m), Surface: Concrete
The airport has two terminals with a total of 5 concourses. International flights and passengers use Terminal 1, whose lower level holds the Immigration and Customs gates. Passengers can move between the terminals on complimentary buses that run continuously, or via MetroLink. It wass possible to walk between the terminals via Concourse D untli connection was blocked in 2008 with the closure of Concourse D.
Terminal 1 (formerly Main Terminal)
- Concourse A: Gates A2–A6, A8–A10, A12, A14–A19, A21
- Concourse B: Gates B2–B4, B6–B8, B10, B12, B14, B16 (CONCOURSE CLOSED)
- Concourse C: Gates C1–C3, C5–C10, C12, C15–C19, C21, C23, C24-C25, C27–C32, C36, C38
- Note: This concourse was reopened on April 2, 2012 (almost one year after a tornado destroyed the concourse. The east end of the concourse, C25-C38, is CLOSED.
- Concourse D: Gates D2, D4, D6, D8, D10, D14, D16, D18, D20, D22, D24, D26, D28, D30, D32, D34, D36, D38, D40 (CONCOURSE CLOSED)
- Note: 20 gates of this concourse were closed as a cost-saving measure in 2008. It was reopened in 2011 for flights displaced from Concourse C after the tornado in April 2011.
Terminal 2 (formerly East Terminal)
- Concourse E: Gates E2, E4, E6, E8, E10, E12, E14, E16, E18, E20, E22, E24, E25, E29, E31, E33.
Mass transit/light rail/subway
The airport is connected to MetroLink's Red Line via a station at both Terminal 1 and Terminal 2. One-ride and all-day tickets can be purchased from vending machines on the platforms. MetroLink lines provide direct or indirect service to downtown St. Louis, the Clayton area, and Illinois suburbs in St. Clair County.
Two MetroBus lines serve the Lambert Bus Port, which is located next to the intermediate parking lot, and accessible via the tunnel from Terminal 1:
- 49 Lindbergh
- 66 Clayton-Airport
The American Airlines Admirals Club at the B/C/D connector is large for its type, with seats for 244. It has a bar/snack area, basic ticketing functions, espresso bar, three private conference rooms, and complimentary use of six PCs, dataports, copier, printer and paper shredder. This club was damaged by the 2011 tornado and was temporarily relocated to a holding space in Concourse D until it reopened in 2013.
Lambert's USO facility, on the lower level of the Main Terminal next to baggage claim carousel #M6, is one of the largest in the country. Open 24 hours a day, it serves more than 120,000 military men and women each year.
The airport has cited interest in a Delta Sky Club in the A Concourse.
Construction was started for a United Red Carpet Club, but ended due to a strike by the contractor's workers.
Black Americans in Flight mural
Black Americans in Flight is a mural that depicts African American aviators and their contributions to aviation since 1917. It is located in Terminal 1 / Main Terminal on the lower level near the entrance to gates C and D and baggage claim. The mural consists of five panels and measures 8 feet tall and 51 feet long. The first panel includes Albert Edward Forsythe and C. Alfred Anderson, the first black pilots to complete a cross-country flight, the Tuskegee Institute and the Tuskegee Airmen, Eugene Bullard, Bessie Coleman, and Willa Brown (first African American woman commercial pilot in United States). The second panel shows Benjamin O. Davis Jr., Clarence "Lucky" Lester and Joseph Ellesberry. The third panel shows Gen. Daniel "Chappie" James, Capt. Ronald Radliff, and Capt. Marcella Hayes. The fourth and fifth panels show Ronald McNair, who died in the Space Shuttle Challenger disaster in 1986, Guion Bluford, who in 1983 became the first African American in space, and Mae Jemison, the first African America woman in space. Spencer Taylor and Solomon Thurman created the mural in 1990. The mural had a re-dedication ceremony in 2012.
Aircraft on display
Two aircraft from the Missouri History Museum hang from Lambert's ceilings. The first is a 1934 Monocoupe D-145 near the Terminal 1 security checkpoint. Charles Lindbergh bought it in 1934 from the Lambert Aircraft Corporation and flew it as his personal plane. The second aircraft, a red Monocoupe 110 Special, manufactured in St. Louis in 1931, hangs in Terminal 2. Until 1998, a Ryan B-1 Brougham, a replica of the Spirit of St. Louis, hung next to the D-145.
Lambert's runways have long been used for test flights and deliveries of military aircraft by McDonnell Douglas, which built its world headquarters and principal assembly plant next to the airport; and now by Boeing, which bought McDonnell and now uses its St. Louis facilities as headquarters for its Boeing Defense, Space & Security division. The plant currently builds the F-15 Strike Eagle, F/A-18 Super Hornet and EA-18 Growler; and is home to Boeing Phantom Works.
|China Cargo Airlines||Shanghai-Pudong|
|FedEx Express||Indianapolis, Memphis|
|Integrated Airline Services||Multi City|
China cargo hub and Aerotropolis
In 2008, China Cargo Airlines (a subsidiary of China Eastern Airlines) was reported to be considering a cargo hub at Lambert as part of its international cargo and passenger service expansion. Lambert was considered an attractive option as runway 11/29 would accommodate the large cargo aircraft and the decline in passenger service during the first decade of the 2000s meant less congestion than busier airports such as Chicago O'Hare International Airport.
Negotiations led to the 2009 creation of the public-private Midwest-China Hub Commission to developing an implementation plan. Planners for the cargo hub envisioned St. Louis as an Aerotropolis, an urban form whose layout, infrastructure, and economy is centered on an airport, offering its businesses speedy connectivity to suppliers, customers, and enterprise partners worldwide. Negotiations between the Chinese ambassador Zhou Wenzhong, China's Minister of Foreign Affairs Li Zhaoxing, Missouri Senators Kit Bond and Claire McCaskill and business leaders from the St. Louis region continued over the next two years. The United States Department of Commerce allowed expansion of the foreign trade zone near Lambert airport on February 13, 2009.
In 2011, the "Aerotropolis Tax Credit" was introduced into the Missouri Senate. The bill provides $360 million of tax incentives to freight forwarders and for the development of warehouses, cold storage facilities and transportation connections in so-called "Gateway Zones," foreign trade zones located within 50 miles of St. Louis. The bill was debated in a special session during September 2011 but ultimately failed to gain enough support. The future of the tax credit remains uncertain.
|Year||Total Passengers (enplaned and deplaned)|
Airlines and destinations
Scheduled commercial airlines
- ^1 International arrivals are located at 2E.
|Sun Country Airlines||Cancun, Montego Bay, Puerto Vallarta, Punta Cana|
|1||Atlanta, GA||468,000||AirTran, Delta|
|2||Chicago, IL (ORD)||457,000||American, United|
|3||Denver, CO||353,000||Frontier, Southwest, United|
|4||Dallas/Fort Worth, TX||327,000||American|
|5||Chicago, IL (MDW)||270,000||Southwest|
|6||Minneapolis, MN||248,000||Delta, Southwest|
|7||Phoenix, AZ||236,000||Southwest, US Airways|
|8||Dallas, TX (Love Field)||230,000||Southwest|
|9||New York, NY (LGA)||202,000||American, Delta, Southwest|
|10||Detroit, MI||200,000||Delta, Southwest|
During the late 1990s, Lambert Field was ranked as the eighth-busiest U.S. airport by flights (not by total passengers) largely due to TWA's hub operations, Southwest Airlines' growing traffic, and commuter traffic to smaller cities in the region. Congestion caused delays during peak hours and was exacerbated when bad weather reduced the number of usable runways from three to one. To cope, Lambert officials briefly redesignated the taxiway immediately north of runway 12L–30R as runway 13–31 and used it for commuter and general aviation traffic. However, traffic projections made in the 1980s and 1990s predicted yet more growth, enough to strain the airport and the national air traffic system.
These factors led to the planning and construction of a 9,000-foot runway, dubbed Runway 11/29, parallel to the two larger existing runways. At $1.1 billion, it was the costliest public works program in St. Louis history. It required moving seven major roads and destroying about 2,000 homes, six churches and four schools in Bridgeton, Missouri. Construction began in 1998, and continued even as traffic at the airport declined after the 9/11 attacks, the TWA purchase, and American's 2003 reduction in flights. On April 13, 2006, American Airlines Flight 2470 became the first commercial airliner to land on the new runway.
Now complete, the runway is used by an estimated 5% of flights, far less than anticipated. Fuel- and time-conscious airlines shun it because it is farther from terminals than the older runways.
In February 2007, airport officials announced the largest renovation in the airport's history: a $70 million effort to overhaul the Main Terminal. Dubbed "The Airport Experience Project," it is to be completed in early 2013.
- The domed ceiling has been completely restored with a new acoustic coating and a programmable LED lighting system.
- A faster, quieter baggage carousel system has been installed.
- The Main and East terminals were renamed Terminal 1 and Terminal 2 and signs throughout the airport were redone to reflect the change and improve wayfinding.
- Eight restaurants and food vendors were added to the terminal. In December 2011, the renovation of the A concourse was completed with new bathrooms, flooring, lighting, and gate signs.
- Security checkpoints are being reconstructed to be more integrated and include new screening technology.
- A terrazzo floor will be installed throughout the terminal.
- Art glass screens, designed by St. Louis-area artists will be installed throughout the terminal.
- A dedicated performance area, dubbed "St. Louis Stage," will be added.
- Restrooms throughout the terminal will be renovated; new restrooms will be added to the baggage area.
- Entrances to the lower level of Terminal 1 will be redesigned.
- On August 5, 1936, Chicago and Southern Flight 4, a Lockheed 10 Electra headed for Chicago, crashed after takeoff killing all 8 passengers and crew. The pilot became disoriented in fog.
- On February 28, 1966, astronauts Elliot See and Charles Bassett — the original crew of the Gemini 9 mission — were killed in the crash of their T-38 trainer while attempting to land at Lambert Field in bad weather. The plane crashed into the same McDonnell Aircraft building (adjacent to the airport) where their spacecraft was being assembled.
- Ozark Air Lines Flight 809. Ozark Air Lines Flight 809 was a regularly scheduled flight from Nashville, Tennessee, to St. Louis, Missouri, with four intermediate stops. On July 23, 1973, while on the approach to land at St. Louis International Airport, it crashed near the University of Missouri - St. Louis, killing 38 of the 44 persons aboard. Windshear was cited as the cause. A tornado had been reported at Ladue, Missouri about the time of the accident but the National Weather Service did not confirm that there was a tornado.
- On 9 January 1984, Douglas C-47B C-GSCA of Skycraft Air Transport crashed on take-off, killing one of its two crew members. The aircraft was on an international cargo flight to Toronto Pearson International Airport, Canada. Both engines lost power shortly after take-off. The aircraft had been fueled with JET-A instead of 100LL.
- On November 22, 1994, TWA flight 427 collided with a Cessna 441, N441KM, at the intersection of runway 30R and taxiway Romeo. The MD-82 was taking off for Denver and had accelerated through 80 knots when the collision occurred. The MD-82 sustained substantial damage during the collision. The Cessna 441, operated by Superior Aviation, was destroyed. The pilot and the passenger were killed. PROBABLE CAUSE: "The Cessna 441 pilot’s mistaken belief that his assigned departure runway was runway 30R, which resulted in his undetected entrance onto runway 30R, which was being used by the MD-82 for its departure. Contributing to the accident was the lack of Automatic Terminal Information Service and other air traffic control (ATC) information regarding the occasional use of runway 31 for departure. The installation and utilization of Airport Surface Detection Equipment (ASDE-3) and particularly ASDE-3 enhanced with the Airport Movement Area Safety System (AMASS), could have prevented this accident."
Lambert in fiction
- In the "Airport" episode of the television show Newsradio, bad weather keeps Bill and Dave at Lambert for the entire show.
- In "The Airport" episode of the television show Seinfeld, Jerry and Elaine leave from Lambert.
- In the "Meg and Quagmire" episode of the television show Family Guy, Glenn Quagmire tells a story about departing from Lambert.
- In the 1986 film Manhunter, FBI agents fly into Lambert during their pursuit of the killer.
- In the 1987 film Planes, Trains & Automobiles, Neal Page (Steve Martin) attempts to rent a car at Lambert, with disastrous (and profanity-laden) consequences.
- Part of the 1991 film The Silence of the Lambs was shot at Lambert.
- In the 2003 film Anger Management, Dave Buznik (Adam Sandler) takes a flight to Lambert.
- Part of the 2006 film The Lucky Ones, set in Austin, Texas, was shot at Lambert.
- One scene from the 2009 film The Informant!, directed by Steven Soderbergh, was filmed at Lambert.
- The 2009 film Up in the Air was filmed in the St. Louis area, including in Lambert's Concourse D, between March 3 and the end of April 2009. In the film, George Clooney alludes to Lambert Field's rich history with the Wright Brothers and Charles Lindbergh.
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- John Aaron Wright. Kinloch: Missouri's first black city. Retrieved February 3, 2011.
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- James S. McDonnell USO[dead link]
- Brownlee Jr., Henry T. (February 2010). "Linking the Past to the Future". Boeing Frontiers. Retrieved July 4, 2010.
- "Many St. Louis Sites Significant in Black History: "Black Americans in Flight" Mural". St. Louis Convention & Visitors Commission. Retrieved July 4, 2010.
- "Charles Lindbergh's Monocoupe – St. Louis, MO – Static Aircraft Displays". Groundspeak, Inc. December 15, 2008. Retrieved July 25, 2010.
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- Gateway to the East: St. Louis Seeks to be China's Freight And Commercial Hub. St. Louis Commerce Magazine. June 2008. Retrieved June 10, 2009.
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- "Local Media Fail St. Louis with Aerotropolis Reporting". nextSTL. July 19, 2011. Retrieved November 22, 2011.
- Binns, Evan (February 16, 2009). "Lambert Foreign Trade Zone Expanded". St. Louis Business Journal. Retrieved June 10, 2009.
- Aerotropolis Tax Credit
- Logan, Tim (April 14, 2011). "Unpacking the "Aerotropolis" Tax Credits". St. Louis Post Dispatch. Retrieved November 22, 2011.
- Young, Virginia (August 25, 2011). "Leaders Looking for Speedy Mo. Special Session". St. Louis Post Dispatch. Retrieved November 22, 2011.
- Flagg, Sarah (November 10, 2011). "Fuhr Addresses Shortfalls of Special Session at Town Hall Meeting". Mehlville-Oakville Patch. Retrieved November 22, 2011.
- "First China Cargo Flight Arrives at Lambert". KSDK. September 23, 2011. Retrieved November 22, 2011.
- "RITA | BTS | Transtats". Transtats.bts.gov. Retrieved June 1, 2013.
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- "Losing The Moon". St. Louis Magazine. May 2006.
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- Williams, Joe (December 11, 2009). "Clooney Was Here: St. Louis Locations in 'Up in the Air'". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Archived from the original on December 30, 2009. Retrieved December 11, 2009.
- Dohack-McCrary, Caroline (March 13, 2011). "Missouri Boasts a Proud History of Being on the Silver Screen". Columbia Daily Tribune. Retrieved March 13, 2011.
- Williams, Joe (January 28, 2009). "Steven Soderbergh, Film Revolutionary". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. Retrieved January 29, 2009.[dead link]
- Rubin, Ann (December 12, 2008). "George Clooney to Film Next Movie in St. Louis". KSDK. Retrieved December 29, 2008.
- "Official Information for the St. Louis film "Up in the Air"". Missouri Film Commission Project Hotline. Jan uary 15, 2009. Retrieved January 18, 2009.
- Reker, Bill (December 12, 2009). ""Up in the Air" Movie Opens: Lambert Airport Has Prominent Role". KMOX. Retrieved December 12, 2009.
73. McCalpin, Brian (September 28, 2012). Website:http://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=19941122-0
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