|Fate||Acquired by Audi AG (September 1998)|
|Headquarters||Sant'Agata Bolognese, Italy|
Number of employees
Automobili Lamborghini S.p.A. (Italian: [lamborˈɡiːni] ( )) is an Italian brand and manufacturer of luxury sports cars and, formerly, SUVs, which is owned by the Volkswagen Group through its subsidiary brand division Audi. Lamborghini's production facility and headquarters are located in Sant'Agata Bolognese, Italy. In 2011, Lamborghini's 831 employees produced 1,711 vehicles.
Ferruccio Lamborghini, an Italian manufacturing magnate, founded Automobili Ferruccio Lamborghini S.p.A. in 1963 to compete with established marques, including Ferrari. The company gained wide acclaim in 1966 for the Miura sports coupé, which established rear mid-engine, rear wheel drive as the standard layout for high-performance cars of the era. Lamborghini grew rapidly during its first decade, but sales plunged in the wake of the 1973 worldwide financial downturn and the oil crisis. The firm's ownership changed three times after 1973, including a bankruptcy in 1978. American Chrysler Corporation took control of Lamborghini in 1987 and sold it to Malaysian investment group Mycom Setdco and Indonesian group V'Power Corporation in 1994. In 1998, Mycom Setdco and V'Power sold Lamborghini to the Volkswagen Group where it was placed under the control of the group's Audi division.
New products and model lines were introduced to the brand's portfolio and brought to the market and saw an increased productivity for the brand Lamborghini. In the late 2000s, during the worldwide financial crisis and the subsequent economic crisis, Lamborghini's sales saw a drop of nearly 50 percent.
- 1 History
- 2 Products
- 3 Motorsport
- 4 Marketing
- 5 Corporate affairs
- 6 Licensing
- 7 See also
- 8 Notes
- 9 Citations
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Manufacturing magnate Italian Ferruccio Lamborghini founded the company in 1963 with the objective of producing a refined grand touring car to compete with offerings from established marques such as Ferrari. The company's first models were released in the mid-1960s and were noted for their refinement, power and comfort. Lamborghini gained wide acclaim in 1966 for the Miura sports coupé, which established rear mid-engine, rear wheel drive as the standard layout for high-performance cars of the era.
Lamborghini grew rapidly during its first decade, but sales plunged in the wake of the 1973 worldwide financial downturn and the oil crisis. Ferruccio Lamborghini sold ownership of the company to Georges-Henri Rossetti and René Leimer and retired in 1974. The company went bankrupt in 1978, and was placed in the receivership of brothers Jean-Claude and Patrick Mimran in 1980. The Mimrans purchased the company out of receivership by 1984 and invested heavily in the company's expansion. Under the Mimrans' management, Lamborghini's model line was expanded from the Countach to include the Jalpa sports car and the LM002 high performance off-road vehicle.
The Mimrans sold Lamborghini to the Chrysler Corporation in 1987. After replacing the Countach with the Diablo and discontinuing the Jalpa and the LM002, Chrysler sold Lamborghini to Malaysian investment group Mycom Setdco and Indonesian group V'Power Corporation in 1994. In 1998, Mycom Setdco and V'Power sold Lamborghini to the Volkswagen Group where it was placed under the control of the group's Audi division. New products and model lines were introduced to the brand's portfolio and brought to the market and saw an increased productivity for the brand Lamborghini. In the late 2000s, during the worldwide financial crisis and the subsequent economic crisis, Lamborghini's sales saw a drop of nearly 50 percent.
As of the 2014 model year, Lamborghini's automobile product range consists of two model lines, both of which are mid-engine two-seat sports cars. The V12-powered Aventador line consists of the LP 700–4 coupé and roadster. The V10-powered Huracán line currently includes only the LP 610-4 coupé.
Motori Marini Lamborghini produces a large V12 marine engine block for use in World Offshore Series Class 1 powerboats. A Lamborghini branded marine engine displaces approximately 8,171 cc (499 cu in) and outputs approximately 940 hp (700 kW).
In the mid-1980s, Lamborghini produced a limited-production run of a 1,000 cc sports motorcycle. UK weekly newspaper Motor Cycle News reported in 1994 – when featuring an example available through an Essex motorcycle retailer - that 24 examples were produced with a Lamborghini alloy frame having adjustable steering head angle, Kawasaki GPz1000RX engine/transmission unit, Ceriani front forks and Marvic wheels. The bodywork was plastic and fully integrated with front fairing merged into fuel tank and seat cover ending in a rear tail-fairing. The motorcycles were designed by Lamborghini stylists and produced by French business Boxer Bikes.
Lamborghini licenses its brand to manufacturers that produce a variety of Lamborghini-branded consumer goods including scale models, clothing, accessories and electronics.
In contrast to his rival Enzo Ferrari, Ferruccio Lamborghini had decided early on that there would be no factory-supported racing of Lamborghinis, viewing motorsport as too expensive and too draining on company resources. This was unusual for the time, as many sports car manufacturers sought to demonstrate the speed, reliability, and technical superiority through motorsport participation. Enzo Ferrari in particular was known for considering his road car business mostly a source of funding for his participation in motor racing. Ferruccio's policy led to tensions between him and his engineers, many of whom were racing enthusiasts; some had previously worked at Ferrari. When Dallara, Stanzani, and Wallace began dedicating their spare time to the development of the P400 prototype, they designed it to be a road car with racing potential, one that could win on the track and also be driven on the road by enthusiasts. When Ferruccio discovered the project, he allowed them to go ahead, seeing it as a potential marketing device for the company, while insisting that it would not be raced. The P400 went on to become the Miura. The closest the company came to building a true race car under Lamborghini's supervision were a few highly modified prototypes, including those built by factory test driver Bob Wallace, such as the Miura SV-based "Jota" and the Jarama S-based "Bob Wallace Special".
In the mid-1970s, while Lamborghini was under the management of Georges-Henri Rossetti, Lamborghini entered into an agreement with BMW to develop, then manufacture 400 cars for BMW in order to meet Group 4 homologation requirements. BMW lacked experience developing a mid-engined vehicle and believed that Lamborghini's experience in that area would make Lamborghini an ideal choice of partner. Due to Lamborghini's shaky finances, Lamborghini fell behind schedule developing the car's structure and running gear. When Lamborghini failed to deliver working prototypes on time, BMW took the program in house, finishing development without Lamborghini. BMW contracted with Baur to produce the car, which BMW named the M1, delivering the first vehicle in October 1978.
In 1985, Lamborghini's British importer developed the Countach QVX, in conjunction with Spice Engineering, for the 1986 Group C championship season. One car was built, but lack of sponsorship caused it to miss the season. The QVX competed in only one race, the non-championship 1986 Southern Suns 500 km race at Kyalami in South Africa, driven by Tiff Needell. Despite the car finishing better than it started, sponsorship could once again not be found and the programme was cancelled.
Lamborghini was an engine supplier in Formula One between the 1989 and 1993 Formula One seasons. It supplied engines to Larrousse (1989–1990,1992–1993), Lotus (1990), Ligier (1991), Minardi (1992), and to the Modena team in 1991. While the latter is commonly referred to as a factory team, the company saw themselves as a supplier, not a backer. The 1992 Larrousse–Lamborghini was largely uncompetitive but noteworthy in its tendency to spew oil from its exhaust system. Cars following closely behind the Larrousse were commonly coloured yellowish-brown by the end of the race. Lamborghini's best result was achieved with Larrousse at the 1990 Japanese Grand Prix, when Aguri Suzuki finished third on home soil.
In late 1991, a Lamborghini Formula One motor was used in the Konrad KM-011 Group C sports car, but the car only lasted a few races before the project was canceled. The same engine, re-badged a Chrysler, Lamborghini's then-parent company, was tested by McLaren towards the end of the 1993 season, with the intent of using it during the 1994 season. Although driver Ayrton Senna was reportedly impressed with the engine's performance, McLaren pulled out of negotiations, choosing a Peugeot engine instead, and Chrysler ended the project.
Two racing versions of the Diablo were built for the Diablo Supertrophy, a single-model racing series held annually from 1996 to 1999. In the first year, the model used in the series was the Diablo SVR, while the Diablo 6.0 GTR was used for the remaining three years. Lamborghini developed the Murciélago R-GT as a production racing car to compete in the FIA GT Championship, the Super GT Championship and the American Le Mans Series in 2004. The car's highest placing in any race that year was the opening round of the FIA GT Championship at Valencia, where the car entered by Reiter Engineering finished third from a fifth-place start. In 2006, during the opening round of the Super GT championship at Suzuka, a car run by the Japan Lamborghini Owners Club garnered the first victory (in class) by an R-GT. A GT3 version of the Gallardo has been developed by Reiter Engineering. A Murciélago R-GT entered by All-Inkl.com racing, driven by Christophe Bouchut and Stefan Mücke, won the opening round of the FIA GT Championship held at Zhuhai International Circuit, achieving the first major international race victory for Lamborghini.
Complete Formula One results
(key) (results in bold indicate pole position)
|1989||Larrousse Calmels||Lola LC88B
|Lamborghini 3512 V12||G||BRA||SMR||MON||MEX||USA||CAN||FRA||GBR||GER||HUN||BEL||ITA||POR||ESP||JPN||AUS||1||15th|
|1990||ESPO Larrousse F1||Lola LC89B
|Lamborghini 3512 V12||G||USA||BRA||SMR||MON||CAN||MEX||FRA||GBR||GER||HUN||BEL||ITA||POR||ESP||JPN||AUS||11||6th|
|Camel Team Lotus||Lotus 102||Lamborghini V12||G|
|1991||Equipe Ligier Gitanes||Ligier JS35
|Modena Team SpA||Lambo 291||Lamborghini L3512 V12||G||Nicola Larini||7||DNPQ||DNPQ||DNPQ||DNPQ||DNPQ||DNPQ||DNPQ||Ret||16||DNQ||16||DNQ||DNQ||DNQ||Ret||0||NC|
|Eric van de Poele||DNPQ||DNPQ||9||DNPQ||DNPQ||DNPQ||DNPQ||DNPQ||DNQ||DNQ||DNQ||DNQ||DNQ||DNQ||DNQ||DNQ|
|1992||Central Park Venturi Larrousse||Venturi LC92||Lamborghini 3512 V12||G||RSA||MEX||BRA||ESP||SMR||MON||CAN||FRA||GBR||GER||HUN||BEL||ITA||POR||JPN||AUS||1||11th|
|Lamborghini 3512 3.5 V12||G||Christian Fittipaldi||Ret||Ret||Ret||11||Ret||8||13||DNQ||DNQ||DNQ||12||6||9||1||12th|
|1993||Larrousse F1||Larrousse LH93||Lamborghini 3512 V12||G||RSA||BRA||EUR||SMR||ESP||MON||CAN||FRA||GBR||GER||HUN||BEL||ITA||POR||JPN||AUS||3||10th|
The world of bullfighting is a key part of Lamborghini's identity. In 1962, Ferruccio Lamborghini visited the Seville ranch of Don Eduardo Miura, a renowned breeder of Spanish fighting bulls. Lamborghini, a Taurus himself, was so impressed by the majestic Miura animals that he decided to adopt a raging bull as the emblem for the automaker he would open shortly.
After producing two cars with alphanumeric designations, Lamborghini once again turned to the bull breeder for inspiration. Don Eduardo was filled with pride when he learned that Ferruccio had named a car for his family and their line of bulls; the fourth Miura to be produced was unveiled to him at his ranch in Seville.
The automaker would continue to draw upon the bullfighting connection in future years. The Islero was named for the Miura bull that killed the famed bullfighter Manolete in 1947. Espada is the Spanish word for sword, sometimes used to refer to the bullfighter himself. The Jarama's name carried a special double meaning; though it was intended to refer only to the historic bullfighting region in Spain, Ferruccio was concerned about confusion with the also historic Jarama motor racing track.
After christening the Urraco after a bull breed, in 1974, Lamborghini broke from tradition, naming the Countach not for a bull, but for contacc (pronounced [kunˈtɑtʃ] ( )), a Piedmontese expletive. Legend has it that stylist Nuccio Bertone uttered the word in surprise when he first laid eyes on the Countach prototype, "Project 112". The LM002 (LM for Lamborghini Militaire) sport utility vehicle and the Silhouette (named after the popular racing category of the time) were other exceptions to the tradition.
The Jalpa of 1982 was named for a bull breed; Diablo, for the Duke of Veragua's ferocious bull famous for fighting an epic battle against "El Chicorro" in Madrid in 1869; Murciélago, the legendary bull whose life was spared by "El Lagartijo" for his performance in 1879; Gallardo, named for one of the five ancestral castes of the Spanish fighting bull breed; and Reventón, the bull that defeated young Mexican torero Félix Guzmán in 1943. The Estoque concept of 2008 was named for the estoc, the sword traditionally used by matadors during bullfights.
Throughout its history, Lamborghini has envisioned and presented a variety of concept cars, beginning in 1963 with the very first Lamborghini prototype, the 350GTV. Other famous models include Bertone's 1967 Marzal, 1974 Bravo, and 1980 Athon, Chrysler's 1987 Portofino, the Italdesign-styled Cala from 1995, the Zagato-built Raptor from 1996.
A retro-styled Lamborghini Miura concept car, the first creation of chief designer Walter de'Silva, was presented in 2006. President and CEO Stephan Winkelmann denied that the concept would be put into production, saying that the Miura concept was "a celebration of our history, but Lamborghini is about the future. Retro design is not what we are here for. So we won’t do the [new] Miura.”
At the 2008 Paris Motor Show, Lamborghini revealed the Estoque, a four-door sedan concept. Although there had been much speculation regarding the Estoque's eventual production, Lamborghini management has not made a decision regarding production of what might be the first four-door car to roll out of the Sant'Agata factory.
At the 2010 Paris Motor Show, Lamborghini unveiled the Sesto Elemento. The concept car is made almost entirely of carbon fibre making it extremely light, weighing only 999 kg. The Sesto Elemento shares the same V10 engine found in the Lamborghini Gallardo. Lamborghini hopes to signal a shift in the company's direction from making super cars focused on top speed to producing more agile, track focused cars with the Sesto Elemento. The concept car can reach 0–62 in 2.5 seconds and can reach a top speed of over 180 mph.
At the 2012 Geneva Motor Show, Lamborghini unveiled the Aventador J – a roofless, windowless version of the Lamborghini Aventador. The Aventador J uses the same 700 hp engine and seven-speed transmission as the standard Aventador.
At the 2012 Beijing Motor Show, Lamborghini unveiled the Urus SUV. This is the first SUV By Lamborghini since the LM002.
At the 2014 Paris Motor Show, Lamborghini unveiled the Asterion LPI910-4 hybrid concept car. This is the first hybrid Lamborghini in the history of the company. Utilizing the Huracán's 5.2 litre V10 producing 607 horsepower, along with one electric motor mounted on the transaxle and an additional two on the front axle, developing an additional 300 horsepower. This puts the power at a combined figure of 907 horsepower. 0–100 km/h is claimed to be "just above 3 seconds," with a claimed top speed of 185 mph.
Automobili Lamborghini S.p.A. controls five principal subsidiaries: Ducati Motor Holding S.p.A., a manufacturer of motorcycles; Italdesign Giugiaro S.p.A., a 90.1%-owned design and prototyping firm that provides services to the entire Volkswagen Group; MML S.p.A. (Motori Marini Lamborghini), a manufacturer of marine engine blocks; and VOLKSWAGEN GROUP ITALIA S.p.A. (formerly AUTOGERMA S.p.A.), which sells Audi and other Volkswagen Group vehicles in Italy.
By sales, the most important markets in 2004 for Lamborghini's sports cars are the U.S. (41%), Germany (13%), Great Britain (9%) and Japan (8%). Prior to the launch of the Gallardo in 2003, Lamborghini produced approximately 400 vehicles per year; in 2011 Lamborghini produced 1,711 vehicles.
|This section requires expansion. (April 2009)|
|Ferruccio Lamborghini (1963–1972)|
|Georges-Henri Rossetti and René Leimer (1972–1977)|
|Patrick Mimran (1984–1987)|
|Chrysler Corporation (1987–1994)|
|V'Power and Mycom Sedtco (1995–1998)|
|AUDI AG (1999–)|
Automóviles Lamborghini Latinoamérica
Automóviles Lamborghini Latinoamérica S.A. de C.V. (Lamborghini Automobiles of Latin America Public Limited Company) is an authorized distributor and manufacturer of Lamborghini-branded vehicles and merchandise in Latin America and South America.
In 1995, Indonesian corporation MegaTech, Lamborghini's owner at the time, entered into distribution and license agreements with Mexican businessman Jorge Antonio Fernandez Garcia. The agreements give Automóviles Lamborghini Latinoamérica S.A. de C.V. the exclusive distributorship of Lamborghini vehicles and branded merchandise in Latin America and South America. Under the agreements, Automóviles Lamborghini is also allowed to manufacture Lamborghini vehicles and market them worldwide under the Lamborghini brand.
Automóviles Lamborghini has produced two rebodied versions of the Diablo called the Eros and the Coatl. Automóviles Lamborghini plans to start producing auto parts in the Argentine province of Santiago del Estero in 2011, followed by production of cars in 2012.
- According to AUDI AG's 2011 Annual Financial Report, on 1 July 2011, Automobili Lamborghini S.p.A., Lamborghini AntiMarca S.p.A. and STAR Design S.R.L. were merged into Automobili Lamborghini Holding S.p.A., which was renamed Automobili Lamborghini S.p.A. (S.p.A. stands for Società per Azioni, the Italian designation for a joint stock company. S.R.L. stands for Società a Responsabilità Limitata, the Italian designation for a private limited company).
- Volkswagen AG 2012, p. 151.
- Volkswagen AG 2012, pp. 19, 68.
- Lyons et al. 1988, p. 8.
- Edimotive S.r.l. 2011, 0:11.
- AUDI AG 2012, p. 152.
- AUDI AG 2012, p. 245.
- AUDI AG 2012, p. 265.
- VOLKSWAGEN AG 2011, p. 3.
- AUDI AG 2011a, p. 62.
- AUDI AG 2012, p. 162.
- Volkswagen AG 2012, pp. 19.
- AUDI AG 2012a, p. 24.
- "Yahoo! Autos - New Lamborghini Cars". Yahoo Autos. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- "Yahoo! Autos - 2013 Lamborghini Aventador". Yahoo Autos. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- "Introducing the Class 1 Championship — The Engines".
- Motor Cycle News 23 March 1994 p.5 Car-vaceous Lamborghini up for sale. Accessed and added 2014-10-07
- "Terms and Conditions". Lamborghini Store. EPI srl. Archived from the original on 4 August 2012. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
EPI srl is an official licensee of Automobili Lamborghini S.p.A.
- Jolliffe & Willard 2004, p. 29.
- Lewin 2004, pp. 119–120.
- Mitchel 2005, p. 219.
- "Lamborghini QVX Car Guide". Qv500.com. Archived from the original on 24 June 2009. Retrieved 30 August 2010.
- Alan Henry (12 June 2004). "Sato shapes as the rising son". The Guardian.
- "Lamborghini Diablo SVR". Qv500.com. Archived from the original on 2 March 2010. Retrieved 30 August 2010.
- "Lamborghini Diablo 6.0 GTR Car Guide". Qv500.com. Archived from the original on 2 March 2010. Retrieved 30 August 2010.
- "Lamborghini Murciélago R-GT Car Guide". Qv500.com. Archived from the original on 2 March 2010. Retrieved 30 August 2010.
- "Lamborghini Murciélago R-GT 2004 Season". Qv500.com. Archived from the original on 23 April 2009. Retrieved 30 August 2010.
- "Lamborghini Gallardo GT3 Car Guide". Qv500.com. Archived from the original on 10 June 2010. Retrieved 30 August 2010.
- "FIA GT Championship Results: 2007 Round 1 – Zhuhai". Fiagt.com. Retrieved 30 August 2010.
- Cockerham, Paul W. Lamborghini: the spirit of the bull Tiger Books, 1997
- Schleifer, Jay. Lamborghini: Italy's raging bull Crestwood House, 1993
- Lieberman, Jonny (12 September 2007). "The Baddest Bull: Lamborghini Miura Vs Countach Vs Murcielago LP640". Jalopnik. Gawker Media. Archived from the original on 4 August 2012. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
- Sackey 2008, p. 15.
- Jolliffe & Willard 2004, p. 31.
- Jolliffe & Willard 2004, p. 43.
- "Countach LP500". Lamborghiniregistry.com. Archived from the original on 8 May 2009. Retrieved 30 August 2010.
- Lawrence 1996, p. 183.
- Jolliffe & Willard 2004, p. 90.
- Mark Smeyers (2006). "Diablo" (PDF). lambocars.com. Retrieved 24 May 2010.
- "Lamborghini Diablo 6.0VT". Classicandperformancecar.com. 30 March 2009. Retrieved 16 August 2009.
- "Gallardo – The Name". Lamborghiniregistry.com. 22 November 2003. Archived from the original on 14 March 2008. Retrieved 21 January 2010.
- Stahl, Andreas (2008-10-01). "Edmunds Inside Line – Lamborghini Estoque Concept First Look". Edmunds. Archived from the original on 2009-03-21.
- "Lambo plans: Espada, Miura out, SUV in". AutoWeek. 19 October 2006.
- "Secret new Lambo revealed". Top Gear. Retrieved 30 August 2010.
- "Edmunds Inside Line – The Radical Lamborghini Sedan From the Paris Auto Show". Edmunds.com. 30 September 2008. Archived from the original on 21 March 2009. Retrieved 30 August 2010.
- "Edmunds Inside Line – IL Exclusive: No Green Light – Yet – for Lamborghini Estoque". Edmunds.com. 23 March 2009. Archived from the original on 27 March 2009. Retrieved 30 August 2010.
- "Paris 2010: Lamborghini Sesto Elemento". Top Gear. 30 September 2010. Retrieved 30 September 2010.
- "Lamborghini Aventador J Blends Exotic, Superbike". Automoblog.net. 6 March 2012. Retrieved 8 March 2012.
- "Lamborghini Egoista Concept". thecarwallpapers.com. 16 May 2013. Retrieved 17 May 2013.
- Barlow, Jason (1 October 2014). "It's the 907bhp Lambo Asterion Hybrid". topgear.com. Retrieved 1 October 2014.
- Jolliffe & Willard 2004, p. 40.
- "Automobili Lamborghini Holding S.p.A. Company History". Retrieved 13 August 2009.
- "Lamborghini Reports Record Figures". carpages.co.uk. 21 February 2004. Archived from the original on 3 August 2012. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
In 1996, Automobili Lamborghini sold a total of 211 cars worldwide.
- VOLKSWAGEN AG 2000, p. 50.
- VOLKSWAGEN AG 2001, p. 23.
- VOLKSWAGEN AG 2002, p. 24.
- AUDI AG 2003, p. 3.
- AUDI AG 2004, p. 5.
- AUDI AG 2006, p. 3.
- AUDI AG 2007, p. 4.
- AUDI AG 2008, p. 4.
- AUDI AG 2009, p. 4.
- AUDI AG 2010, p. 4.
- AUDI AG 2011, p. 151.
- AUDI AG 2012, p. 154.
- "Lamborghini increases worldwide sales for the third year in a row to 2,121 cars delivered to customers". Volkswagen AG. 13 January 2014. Retrieved 12 June 2014.
- "Record Year for Automobili Lamborghini: Deliveries increased to 2,530 units in 2014". Lamborghini. 12 January 2015. Retrieved 12 Jan 2015.
- Automóviles Lamborghini Latinoamérica S.A. de C.V 1995.
- La Gaceta 2010.
- DeMatio, Joe (May 2003). "Lamborghini's Big Four-O". Automobile (Ann Arbor, Michigan: Source Interlink Media). ISSN 0894-3583. Archived from the original on 10 August 2012. Retrieved 10 August 2012.
- Henshaw, Peter (5 August 2002). Illustrated Directory of Tractors (Paperback ed.). London, England: Salamander Books. ISBN 978-0-7603-1342-8. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- Holusha, John (24 April 1987). "Lamborghini Goes to Chrylser". The New York Times (New York City, New York: The New York Times Company). ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 11 August 2012.
- Ireson, Nelson (12 February 2010). "Lamborghini Builds 4,000th Murcielago". MotorAuthority. High Gear Media. Archived from the original on 12 August 2012. Retrieved 12 August 2012.
- Jolliffe, David; Willard, Tony (19 September 2004). Lamborghini: Forty Years (Hardcover ed.). St. Paul, Minnesota: Motorbooks International. doi:10.1007/b62130. ISBN 978-0-7603-1945-1. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- Lawrence, Mike (7 October 1996) . A to Z of Sports Cars, 1945–1990: The Encyclopaedic Guide to More Than 850 Marques and Thousands of Models (Paperback ed.). St. Paul, Minnesota: MBI Publishing Company. ISBN 978-1-870979-81-8. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
- Lewin, Tony (25 December 2004). The Complete Book of BMW: Every Model Since 1950 (Hardcover ed.). St. Paul, Minnesota: Motorbooks International. ISBN 978-0-7603-1951-2. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
- Lyons, Pete; The Auto Editors of Consumer Guide (9 June 1988). The Complete Book of Lamborghini (Hardcover ed.). Woodstock, New York: Beekman House. ISBN 0-854-29735-9.
- Mitchel, Doug (2006) [2005-10-20]. Collins, Tom, ed. Supercars Field Guide (Paperback ed.). Iola, Wisconsin: KP Books. ISBN 978-0-89689-227-9. Retrieved 3 August 2012.
- Neher, Jacques (9 February 1994). "Toy or Supercar for Asia?". The New York Times (New York City, New York: The New York Times Company). ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 11 August 2012.
- Sackey, Joe (15 November 2008). The Lamborghini Miura Bible (Hardcover ed.). Dorchester, England: Veloce Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84584-196-6. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
- Welsh, Jonathan (5 November 2010). "Lamborghini Marks The End Of Its Murcielago Supercar". The Wall Street Journal (New York City, New York: Dow Jones & Company, Inc). ISSN 0099-9660. Archived from the original on 12 August 2012. Retrieved 12 August 2012.
- Wood, Jonathan (23 February 1993). "Obituary: Ferruccio Lamborghini". The Independent (London, England: independent.co.uk). ISSN 0951-9467. Archived from the original on 4 August 2012. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
- Woodyard, Chris (17 December 2010). "Lamborghini launches its 4,000 series Murcielago". USA Today (New York City, New York: Gannett Co. Inc). ISSN 0734-7456. Archived from the original on 12 August 2012. Retrieved 12 August 2012.
- Filippo Perini ci racconta il design della Lamborghini Aventador [Filippo Perini discusses the design of the Lamborghini Aventador] (Streaming video) (YouTube) (in Italian). Rome, Italy: Edimotive S.r.l. 28 April 2011. Retrieved 14 August 2012.
- "Lamborghini". Museo Storico Gruppo SAME Deutz-Fahr. Gruppo SAME Deutz-Fahr. 2012. Archived from the original on 4 August 2012. Retrieved 4 August 2012.
- "Lamborghini Latinoamérica quiere radicarse en Santiago del Estero" [Lamborghini Latin America wants to settle in Santiago del Estero]. La Gaceta (in Spanish) (San Miguel de Tucumán, Argentina: La Gaceta). 11 December 2010. Archived from the original on 2 August 2012. Retrieved 18 December 2010.
- "Principales cláusulas de los contratos con USA e Italia" [Main Contract Terms between USA and Italy] (JPG). lamborghini-latinoamerica.com (in Spanish). Automóviles Lamborghini Latinoamérica S.A. de C.V. 5 August 1995. Archived from the original on 2 August 2012. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
- "Audi 2010 Annual Report" (PDF). AUDI AG. 9 March 2011. Archived from the original on 2 August 2012. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
- "Audi 2011 Annual Report" (PDF). AUDI AG. 1 March 2012. Retrieved 10 August 2012.
- "Audi 2011 Annual Financial Report" (PDF). AUDI AG. 17 February 2012. Retrieved 30 July 2012.
- "Audi Facts and Figures 2002" (PDF). AUDI AG. 2003. Archived from the original on 2 August 2012. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
- "Audi Facts and Figures 2004" (PDF). AUDI AG. 2004. Archived from the original on 2 August 2012. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
- "Audi Facts and Figures 2005" (PDF). AUDI AG. 2006. Archived from the original on 2 August 2012. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
- "Audi Facts and Figures 2006" (PDF). AUDI AG. 2007. Archived from the original on 2 August 2012. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
- "Audi Facts and Figures 2007" (PDF). AUDI AG. 2008. Archived from the original on 2 August 2012. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
- "Audi Facts and Figures 2008" (PDF). AUDI AG. 2009. Archived from the original on 2 August 2012. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
- "Audi in Fakten und Zahlen 2009" [Audi Facts and Figures 2009] (PDF) (in German). AUDI AG. 2010. Archived from the original on 2 August 2012. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
- "Audi in Fakten und Zahlen 2010" [Audi Facts and Figures 2010] (PDF) (in German). AUDI AG. 2011. Archived from the original on 10 August 2012. Retrieved 10 August 2012.
- "Audi in Fakten und Zahlen 2011" [Audi Facts and Figures 2011] (PDF) (in German). AUDI AG. 2012. Archived from the original on 10 August 2012. Retrieved 10 August 2012.
- "Interim Financial Report 2012" (PDF). AUDI AG. 23 July 2012. Archived from the original on 2 August 2012. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
- "Shareholdings in accordance with sections 285 and 313 of the Handelsgesetzbuch (HGB – German Commercial Code) for Volkswagen AG and Volkswagen Group as of December 31, 2010" (PDF). VOLKSWAGEN AG. 10 March 2011. Archived from the original on 15 August 2012. Retrieved 15 August 2012.
- "Statement of Interests Pursuant to Sections 285 and 313 of the German Commercial Code" (PDF). AUDI AG. 17 February 2011. Archived from the original on 30 July 2012. Retrieved 30 July 2012.
- "VOLKSWAGEN AG Annual Report 1999" (PDF). VOLKSWAGEN AG. 17 March 2000. ISSN 0933-7504. Archived from the original on 2 August 2012. Retrieved 30 July 2012.
- "VOLKSWAGEN AG Annual Report 2000" (PDF). VOLKSWAGEN AG. 16 March 2001. ISSN 0933-7504. Archived from the original on 2 August 2012. Retrieved 30 July 2012.
- "VOLKSWAGEN AG Annual Report 2001" (PDF). VOLKSWAGEN AG. 1 March 2002. ISSN 0933-7504. Archived from the original on 2 August 2012. Retrieved 30 July 2012.
- "Volkswagen Aktiengesellschaft Facts and Figures 2012" (PDF). volkswagenag.com. Volkswagen Aktiengesellschaft. 11 June 2012. 1058.809.453.20. Archived from the original on 10 August 2012. Retrieved 10 August 2012.
Automobili Lamborghini S.p.A. (867 employees, founded in 1963, wholly owned by AUDI AG since 1998)
|Wikibooks has more on the topic of: Lamborghini|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lamborghini.|
- Official website
- Lamborghini of Latin America official website
- Lamborghini Trattori Lamborghini brand farm tractors manufactured by SAME Deutz-Fahr
- Lamborghini at DMOZ