Laminin subunit gamma-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LAMC1gene.
Laminins, a family of extracellular matrix glycoproteins, are the major noncollagenous constituent of basement membranes. They have been implicated in a wide variety of biological processes including cell adhesion, differentiation, migration, signaling, neurite outgrowth and metastasis. Laminins are composed of 3 non identical chains: laminin alpha, beta and gamma (formerly A, B1, and B2, respectively) and they form a cruciform structure consisting of 3 short arms, each formed by a different chain, and a long arm composed of all 3 chains. Each laminin chain is a multidomain protein encoded by a distinct gene. Several isoforms of each chain have been described. Different alpha, beta and gamma chain isomers combine to give rise to different heterotrimeric laminin isoforms which are designated by Arabic numerals in the order of their discovery, i.e. alpha1beta1gamma1 heterotrimer is laminin 1. The biological functions of the different chains and trimer molecules are largely unknown, but some of the chains have been shown to differ with respect to their tissue distribution, presumably reflecting diverse functions in vivo. This gene encodes the gamma chain isoform laminin, gamma 1. The gamma 1 chain, formerly thought to be a beta chain, contains structural domains similar to beta chains, however, lacks the short alpha region separating domains I and II. The structural organization of this gene also suggested that it had diverged considerably from the beta chain genes. Embryos of transgenic mice in which both alleles of the gamma 1 chain gene were inactivated by homologous recombination, lacked basement membranes, indicating that laminin, gamma 1 chain is necessary for laminin heterotrimer assembly. It has been inferred by analogy with the strikingly similar 3' UTR sequence in mouse laminin gamma 1 cDNA, that multiple polyadenylation sites are utilized in human to generate the 2 different sized mRNAs (5.5 and 7.5 kb) seen on Northern analysis.
^Fukushima Y, Pikkarainen T, Kallunki T, Eddy RL, Byers MG, Haley LL, Henry WM, Tryggvason K, Shows TB (May 1989). "Isolation of a human laminin B2 (LAMB2) cDNA clone and assignment of the gene to chromosome region 1q25----q31". Cytogenet Cell Genet48 (3): 137–41. doi:10.1159/000132610. PMID3234037.
Kallunki T, Ikonen J, Chow LT, et al. (1991). "Structure of the human laminin B2 chain gene reveals extensive divergence from the laminin B1 chain gene.". J. Biol. Chem.266 (1): 221–8. PMID1985895.
Hunter DD, Shah V, Merlie JP, Sanes JR (1989). "A laminin-like adhesive protein concentrated in the synaptic cleft of the neuromuscular junction.". Nature338 (6212): 229–34. doi:10.1038/338229a0. PMID2922051.
Pikkarainen T, Kallunki T, Tryggvason K (1988). "Human laminin B2 chain. Comparison of the complete amino acid sequence with the B1 chain reveals variability in sequence homology between different structural domains.". J. Biol. Chem.263 (14): 6751–8. PMID3360804.
Mattei MG, Weil D, Pribula-Conway D, et al. (1988). "cDNA cloning, expression and mapping of human laminin B2 gene to chromosome 1q31.". Hum. Genet.79 (3): 235–41. doi:10.1007/BF00366243. PMID3402995.
Davis JM, Narachi MA, Alton NK, Arakawa T (1987). "Structure of human tumor necrosis factor alpha derived from recombinant DNA.". Biochemistry26 (5): 1322–6. doi:10.1021/bi00379a018. PMID3552045.
Wewer UM, Gerecke DR, Durkin ME, et al. (1995). "Human beta 2 chain of laminin (formerly S chain): cDNA cloning, chromosomal localization, and expression in carcinomas.". Genomics24 (2): 243–52. doi:10.1006/geno.1994.1612. PMID7698745.
Kohfeldt E, Sasaki T, Göhring W, Timpl R (1998). "Nidogen-2: a new basement membrane protein with diverse binding properties.". J. Mol. Biol.282 (1): 99–109. doi:10.1006/jmbi.1998.2004. PMID9733643.
Suzuki H, Denisenko ON, Suzuki Y, et al. (1998). "Inducible transcriptional activity of bcn-1 element from laminin gamma1-chain gene promoter in renal and nonrenal cells.". Am. J. Physiol.275 (4 Pt 2): F518–26. PMID9755123.
Kikkawa Y, Sanzen N, Fujiwara H, et al. (2000). "Integrin binding specificity of laminin-10/11: laminin-10/11 are recognized by alpha 3 beta 1, alpha 6 beta 1 and alpha 6 beta 4 integrins.". J. Cell. Sci. 113. ( Pt 5): 869–76. PMID10671376.
Champliaud MF, Virtanen I, Tiger CF, et al. (2000). "Posttranslational modifications and beta/gamma chain associations of human laminin alpha1 and laminin alpha5 chains: purification of laminin-3 from placenta.". Exp. Cell Res.259 (2): 326–35. doi:10.1006/excr.2000.4980. PMID10964500.
Pedraza C, Geberhiwot T, Ingerpuu S, et al. (2000). "Monocytic cells synthesize, adhere to, and migrate on laminin-8 (alpha 4 beta 1 gamma 1).". J. Immunol.165 (10): 5831–8. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.165.10.5831. PMID11067943.
Parsons SF, Lee G, Spring FA, et al. (2001). "Lutheran blood group glycoprotein and its newly characterized mouse homologue specifically bind alpha5 chain-containing human laminin with high affinity.". Blood97 (1): 312–20. doi:10.1182/blood.V97.1.312. PMID11133776.
McArthur CP, Wang Y, Heruth D, Gustafson S (2001). "Amplification of extracellular matrix and oncogenes in tat-transfected human salivary gland cell lines with expression of laminin, fibronectin, collagens I, III, IV, c-myc and p53.". Arch. Oral Biol.46 (6): 545–55. doi:10.1016/S0003-9969(01)00014-0. PMID11311202.