Lamassu

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The Lamassu in Persepolis

A lamassu (Cuneiform: 𒀭𒆗, AN.KAL; Sumerian: dlamma; Akkadian: lamassu; sometimes called a lamassus[1][2]) is an Assyrian protective deity, often depicted with a bull or lion's body, eagle's wings, and human's head.[3] In some writings, it is portrayed to represent a female deity.[4][5] A less frequently used name is shedu (Cuneiform: 𒀭𒆘, AN.KAL×BAD; Sumerian: dalad; Akkadian, šēdu; Hebrew: שד) which refers to the male counterpart of a lamassu.[6] See the terminology section for a full explanation of the relationship of the names. The Lammasu or Lumasi represent the zodiacs, parent-stars, or constellations.[7][8]

Iconography[edit]

Lamassu at the Louvre.

In art, lamassu were depicted as hybrids, either winged bulls or lions with the head of a human male. The motif of a winged animal with a human head is common to the Near East, first recorded in Ebla around 3000 BCE. The first distinct lamassu motif appeared in Assyria during the reign of Tiglath-Pileser[disambiguation needed]as a symbol of power.[9][10] The Assyrians typically prominently placed lamassu at the entrances of cities and palaces. From the front they appear to stand, and from the side, walk. Notable representations include those at the British Museum in London, the Musée du Louvre in Paris, the National Museum of Iraq in Baghdad, the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, the Pergamon Museum in Berlin and the Oriental Institute, Chicago. A winged bull with the head of a bearded man appears on the logo of the United States Forces - Iraq.

Terminology[edit]

The Lammasu or Lumasi represent the zodiacs, parent-stars, or constellations.[11][12] They are depicted as protective deities because they encompass all life within them. In the Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh they are depicted as physical deities as well, which is where the Lammasu iconography originates, these deities could be microcosms of their microcosmic zodiac, parent-star, or constellation. Although "lamassu" had a different iconography and portrayal in Sumerian culture, the terms lamassu, alad, and shedu evolved throughout the Assyro-Akkadian culture from the Sumerian culture to denote the Assyrian-winged-man-bull symbol and statues during the Neo-Assyrian empire. Female lamassus were called "apsasû".[3] The motif of the Assyrian-winged-man-bull called Aladlammu and Lamassu interchangeably is not the lamassu or alad of Sumerian origin which were depicted with different iconography.[clarification needed] These monumental statues were called aladlammû or lamassu which meant "protective spirit".[3][clarification needed] In Hittite the Sumerian form dLAMMA is used both a name for the so-called "Tutelary deity" identified in certain later texts with Inara and a title given to various other tutelary or similar protective gods.[13] In the Enûma Eliš they are both symbolized as the zodiacs, parent-stars, or constellations and as physical deities as well as was in the Epic of Gilgamesh.

Mythology[edit]

Human-headed winged bull, otherwise known as a Šedu from Khorsabad. University of Chicago Oriental Institute. Gypsum (?) Neo-Assyrian Period, c. 721-705 BCE

The lamassu is a celestial being from Mesopotamian mythology bearing a human head, bull's body, sometimes with the horns and the ears of a bull, and wings. It appears frequently in Mesopotamian art. The lamassu and shedu were household protective spirits of the common Babylonian people, becoming associated later as royal protectors, were placed as sentinels at the entrances.[citation needed] The Akkadians associated the god Papsukkal with lamassu and the god Išum with shedu.

To protect houses, the lamassu were engraved in clay tablets, which were then buried under the door's threshold. They were often placed as a pair at the entrance of palaces. At the entrance of cities, they were sculpted in colossal size, and placed as a pair, one at each side of the door of the city, that generally had doors in the surrounding wall, each one looking towards one of the cardinal points.

The ancient Jewish people were influenced by the iconography of Assyrian culture. The prophet Ezekial wrote about a fantastic being made up of aspects of a human being, a lion, an eagle and a bull. Later, in the early Christian period, the four Gospels were ascribed to each of these components. When it was depicted in art, this image was called the Tetramorph.

In fiction[edit]

Lammasu [sic] and shedu are two distinct types of good-aligned creatures in the role-playing game Dungeons & Dragons. Lammasu also appear in the Magic: The Gathering trading card game as the white card Hunted Lammasu[14] in the Ravnica: City of Guilds expansion, as well as the white card Venerable Lammasu[15] found in the Khans of Tarkir expansion.

A bull with a man's head is found among the creatures that make up Aslan's army in The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe by C.S. Lewis. He appears at the Stone Table, challenging the White Witch "with a great bellowing voice". In the film Alexander, Lamassu are seen at the Ishtar Gate in Babylon. In the Disney movie Aladdin, a gold Lamassu can be found in the scene where Aladdin and Abu enter the cave in the desert to find the lamp.

In the Games Workshop miniatures wargame, Warhammer Fantasy Battle, the Lamasu was a mount for the Chaos Dwarf army. It has since returned as part of the Storm of Magic expansion release. A Lammasu briefly appears in the Fablehaven series.

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

External video
Assyrian Human Headed Winged Lion and Bull (Lamassu), Smarthistory[16]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Kriwaczek, Paul. Babylon: Mesopotamia and the Birth of Civilization, p. 37.
  2. ^ http://www.torrossa.it/resources/an/2401509#page=241
  3. ^ a b c Livius.org
  4. ^ Beaulieu, Paul-Alain. The Pantheon of Uruk during the Neo-Babylonian Period. Retrieved 9 December 2010. 
  5. ^ "The Pennsylvania Sumerian Dictionary". Retrieved 9 December 2010. 
  6. ^ Black, Jeremy; Green, Anthony (2003). An Illustrated dictionary, Gods, Demons and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia. The British Museum Press. ISBN 0-7141-1705-6. 
  7. ^ Hewitt, J.F. History and Chronology of the Myth-Making Age. p. 85. 
  8. ^ W. King, Leonard. Enuma Elish Vol 1 & 2: The Seven Tablets of Creation; The Babylonian and Assyrian Legends Concerning the Creation of the World and of Mankind. p. 78. 
  9. ^ "History - Mesopotamia". BBC. 
  10. ^ "Lamassu". ancientneaeast.net. 
  11. ^ Hewitt, J.F. History and Chronology of the Myth-Making Age. p. 85. 
  12. ^ W. King, Leonard. Enuma Elish Vol 1 & 2: The Seven Tablets of Creation; The Babylonian and Assyrian Legends Concerning the Creation of the World and of Mankind. p. 78. 
  13. ^ Gregory McMahon, The Hittite State Cult of the Tutelary Deities. Oriental Institute Assyriological Studies, no. 25
  14. ^ "Hunted Lammasu". 
  15. ^ "Venerable Lammasu". 
  16. ^ "Assyrian Human Headed Winged Lion and Bull (Lamassu)". Smarthistory at Khan Academy. Retrieved January 8, 2013. 

External links[edit]