Lancia Delta (3rd generation)
|Body and chassis|
|Class||Compact executive car|
|Body style||5-door hatchback|
The Lancia Delta is a compact luxury car produced by Italian automaker Lancia with the first generation produced between 1979 and 1994, the second generation from 1993 to 1999, and the third generation Delta entered production in 2008.
The Delta was first shown at the Frankfurt Motor Show in 1979. The Delta dominated the World Rally Championship during the late 1980s and early 1990s. The homologation requirements of Group A regulations meant marketing road-going versions of these competition cars — the Lancia Delta HF 4WD and HF Integrale. A total of 44,296 Integrales were produced.
- 1 First generation
- 2 Saab-Lancia 600
- 3 Lancia Hyena
- 4 Second generation
- 5 Third generation
- 6 Safety
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
1991 Lancia Delta GT i.e.
|Also called||Saab-Lancia 600|
|Body and chassis|
|Body style||5-door hatchback|
|Layout||Front engine, front-wheel drive / four-wheel drive|
|Engine||1.3 L I4
1.5 L I4
1.6 L I4
2.0 L Turbocharged I4
1.9 L Turbodiesel I4
|Wheelbase||2,540 mm (100 in)|
|Length||3,900 mm (150 in)|
|Width||1,700 mm (67 in)|
|Height||1,380 mm (54 in)|
The first Delta (Type 831) was a five-door hatchback, based on the Fiat Ritmo, designed by Giorgetto Giugiaro and released in 1979. Between 1980 and 1982, it was also sold in Sweden by Saab Automobile, badged as the Saab-Lancia 600. The Delta was voted 1980 European Car of the Year. At launch it came with a choice of 1302cc 75 bhp or 1498cc 85 bhp engines and 5-speed gearbox. Later other engine options became available along with an optional automatic transmission. In 1983, 1585cc engines in both normally aspirated 105PS and turbocharged 130PS versions became available.
The Delta range was first introduced to the United Kingdom in 1980 and remained virtually unchanged until 1986, when small changes were made to the cars' body shape, the engines updated and the four-wheel drive model introduced.
A special Delta HF Integrale version was a four-wheel drive hot hatch with a turbocharged petrol engine. Modified versions of the HF dominated the World Rally Championship, scoring 46 WRC victories overall and winning the Constructors Championship a record six times in a row from 1987 to 1992, in addition to Drivers' Championship titles for Juha Kankkunen (1987 and 1991) and Miki Biasion (1988 and 1989).
The Lancia Delta S4, which the works team ran immediately prior to the HF 4WD and Integrale models' world championship careers from the season-ending 1985 RAC Rally until the end of the 1986 season, while sharing the same name and appearance, was a Group B race car designed and built specifically for rallying, and was entirely different from the mass produced consumer versions.
Group B rallying was dropped at the end of the 1986 season, but the Delta HF 4WD was not suited to Group A rallying. The Delta HF Turbo became the road car top of the Delta range. There is very little to distinguish the car from the earlier 'Turbo i.e.' apart from the four-headlight system, fog lamps mounted in the front spoiler, 4WD badging on the rear hatch, small side skirts and two raised air intakes on the bonnet (hood). The later car is therefore virtually indistinguishable from the 1600 cc HF Turbo i.e.
In the Delta HF 4X4, Lancia opted for a four-wheel drive system with an in-built torque-splitting action. Three differentials were used. Drive to the front wheels is linked through a free-floating differential; drive to the rear wheels is transmitted via a 56/44 front/rear torque-splitting Ferguson viscous-coupling-controlled epicyclic central differential. At the rear wheels is a Torsen (torque sensing) rear differential. It divides the torque between the wheels according to the available grip, with a maximum lockup of 70%.
The basic suspension layout of the Delta 4WD remains the same as in the rest of the two-wheel drive Delta range: MacPherson strut–type independent suspension with dual-rate dampers and helicoidal springs, with the struts and springs set slightly off-centre.
The suspension mounting provided more isolation by incorporating flexible rubber links. Progressive rebound bumpers were adopted, while the damper rates, front and rear toe-in and the relative angle between springs and dampers have all been altered. The steering was power-assisted rack and pinion.
The Lancia HF Integrale incorporated some of the features of the Delta HF 4WD into a road car. The engine was a 8-valve 2 L fuel injected 4-cylinder, with balancing shafts. The HF version featured new valves, valve seats and water pump, larger water and oil radiators, more powerful cooling fan and bigger air cleaner. A larger capacity Garrett T3 turbocharger with improved air flow and bigger inter-cooler, revised settings for the electronic injection/ignition control unit and a knock sensor, boost power output to 185 bhp (DIN) (136 kW) at 5300 rpm and maximum torque of 31 m·kgf (304 N·m, 224 lbf·ft) at 3500 rpm.
The HF Integrale had permanent 4-wheel drive, a front transversely mounted engine and five-speed gearbox. An epicyclic centre differential normally splits the torque 56 per cent to the front axle, 44 per cent to the rear. A Ferguson viscous coupling balanced the torque split between front and rear axles depending on road conditions and tyre grip. The Torsen rear differential further divides the torque delivered to each rear wheel according to grip available. A shorter final drive ratio (3.111 instead of 2.944 on the HF 4WD) matched the larger 6.5x15 wheels to give 24 mph/1000 rpm (39 km/h per 1000 rpm) in fifth gear.
Braking and suspension were uprated to 284 mm (11.2 in) ventilated front discs, a larger brake master cylinder and servo, as well as revised front springs, dampers, and front struts.
The HF Integrale was facelited with bulged wheel arches for the wider section 195/55 VR tyres on 15-inch 6J alloy wheels. A new bonnet incorporated air louvres while the restyled bumpers wrapped around to meet the wheel arches at front and rear. The front bumper, now wider, incorporates air intakes and for the rectangular auxiliary driving lights. The side skirts are faired into the wheel arches at front and rear and the twin rear view mirrors are finished in body colour.
The 16v Integrale was developed for rallying, introduced at the 1989 Geneva Motorshow, and made a winning debut on the 1989 San Remo Rally.
It featured a raised centre of the bonnet to accommodate the new 16 valve engine, as well as wider wheels and tyres and new identity badges front and rear. The torque split was changed to 47% front and 53% rear.
The turbocharged 2-litre Lancia 16v engine produced 200 bhp (149 kW) at 5500 rpm, for a maximum speed of 137 mph (220 km/h) and 0–100 km/h (0-62 mph) in 5.5 seconds. Changes included larger injectors, a more responsive Garrett T3 turbocharger, more efficient intercooler, and the ability to run on unleaded fuel without modification. Torque distribution is now 47% front and 53% rear.
The first Evoluzione cars were built at the end of 1991 and through 1992. These were to be the final homologation cars for the Lancia Rally Team; the Catalytic Evoluzione II (below) was never rallied by the factory.
The Evoluzione I had a wider track front and rear than earlier Deltas. The bodyside arches were extended and became more rounded. The wings were now made in a single pressing. The front strut top mounts were also raised, which necessitated a front strut brace. The new Integrale retained the four wheel drive layout. The engine was modified to produce 210 bhp (157 kW) at 5750 rpm.
External changes included: new grilles in the front bumper to improve the air intake for engine compartment cooling; a redesigned bonnet (hood) with new lateral air slats to further assist underbonnet ventilation; an adjustable roof spoiler above the tailgate; new five-bolt wheels with the same design of the rally cars; and a new single exhaust pipe.
Integrale Evoluzione II
Presented in June 1993, the second Evolution version of the Delta HF Integrale featured an updated version of the 2-litre 16-valve turbo engine to produce more power, as well as a three-way catalyst and Lambda probe. A Marelli integrated engine control system with an 8 MHz clock frequency which incorporates:
- timed sequential multipoint injection;
- self-adapting injection times;
- automatic idling control;
- engine protection strategies depending on the temperature of intaken air;
- Mapped ignition with two double outlet coils;
- Three-way catalyst and pre-catalyst with lambda probe (oxygen sensor) on the turbine outlet link;
- Anti-evaporation system with air line for canister flushing optimised for the turboengine;
- New Garrett turbocharger: water-cooled with boost-drive management i.e. boost controlled by feedback from the central control unit on the basis of revs/throttle angle;
- Knock control by engine block sensor and new signal handling software for spark park advance, fuel quantity injected, and turbocharging;
The engine developed 215 PS (158 kW) DIN (against 210 PS on the earlier uncatalysed version) and maximum torque of 32 kgf·m (314 N·m) (formerly 31 kgf·m or 300 N·m).
The 1993 Integrale received a cosmetic and functional facelift that included.
- new 16" light alloy rims with 205/45 ZR 16 tyres;
- body colour roof moulding to underline the connection between the roof and the Solar control windows;
- aluminium fuel cap and air-intake grilles on the front mudguards;
- red-painted cylinder head;
- new leather-covered three-spoke MOMO steering wheel;
- standard Recaro seats upholstered in beige Alcantara with diagonal stitching.
|cc||cu in||PS||kW||hp||@ rpm||N·m||lb·ft||@ rpm||km/h||mph|
|1.1 (Greece only)||1,116||68.1||64||47||63||5800||85||63||3500||—||—||—|
|1.6 HF Turbo||1984||1,585||96.7||130||96||128||5600||191||141||3700||195||121|
|1.6 HF Turbo||1985||1,585||96.7||140||103||138||5500||191||141||3500||8.7||203||126|
|HF Integrale 8v||1987||1,995||121.7||185||136||182||5300||304||224||2500||6.6||215||134|
|HF integrale 16V||1989||1,995||121.7||200||147||197||5500||298||220||3000||5.7||220||137|
|HF integrale "Evo1"||1991||1,995||121.7||210||154||207||5400||300||221||3500||5.7||220||137|
|HF integrale "Evo2"||1993||1,995||121.7||215||158||212||5750||314||232||2500||5.7||220||137|
See: Lancia Delta Group A
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (July 2012)|
During the early 1980s the top level of rallying was dominated by the Group B formula, for which Lancia produced the rear-drive 037 and then, when that became obsolete, the Delta S4. The entire formula was abolished at the end of the 1986 season, however, after a string of fatal accidents, leaving Group A as the top formula for the 1987 and subsequent seasons.
The change in the rules left many manufacturers without a suitable car. However, The Delta HF 4WD featured a two-litre turbocharged engine and four-wheel-drive, but its wheel arches were restrictive and the wheels and brakes were too small, and the suspension travel was limited.
In 1987 the Lancias were driven by Massimo Biasion, Juha Kankkunen and Markku Alén. Biasion opened with victory in the Monte Carlo Rally and later in the season won the Argentina and Sanremo rallies. However, Juha Kankkunen’s four podium places, coupled with victories on the Olympus Rally and the final round, the RAC Rally, saw him clinch the title ahead of Markku Alén, whose title hopes ended on the RAC with a series of accidents, including overturning the car in front of the television cameras on one of the opening day's short spectator stages. Lancia won seven of the eleven rounds which counted towards the manufacturers’ championship, and with them the world title. However, Kankkunen left the team at the end of the season and joined Toyota.
The Delta HF 4WD also won the first two events of the 1988 season, Bruno Saby taking the win at Monte Carlo and Markku Alén in Sweden, before the Integrale appeared at the third round in Portugal. Markku Alen went out with transmission failure early in the event. However, the Biasion continued to win the event. A new and stronger six-speed gearbox was introduced for the next event. Lancia then dominated the rest of the season. Only once were they beaten in a straight fight, on the dry asphalt of Corsica by Didier Auriol in a Sierra Cosworth. By the season’s end Lancia had won ten of the eleven rounds which counted for the manufacturers’ series, and Biasion was drivers’ World Champion, having clinched the title on the penultimate round. Markku Alén rounded off the season with victory on the RAC Rally, a personal first for the Finn.
By this time serious competitors emerged, including the Toyota Celica GT-Four ST165, which in the hands of Juha Kankkunen had run Markku Alén close on the previous year’s 1000 Lakes Rally before retiring with mechanical failure. The Toyota remained unreliable for the first part of the 1989 season, however, and Lancia, with Biasion, Alen and Auriol (whom the team had recruited after his performances in the Ford the previous year) the lead drivers, were able to pull out a substantial championship lead. By the time guest driver Mikael Ericsson took it to victory on the Rally Argentina, the 8v Integrale had won all of its previous twelve World Championship events. Later in the season, however, developmental difficulties with the Mitsubishi Galant were overcome and Mikael Ericsson, now driving for Mitsubishi, won the 1000 Lakes Rally, where no Lancias finished in the top three. Kankkunen then took the Toyota to a maiden victory in Australia, with his team mate Kenneth Eriksson second and Alén third. The Integrale was beginning to slip behind its key competitors, but by then Lancia was already working on the next evolution.
The Integrale 16v made its début on the 1989 Rallye Sanremo where, for the first and only time, it ran in Italian racing red. Didier Auriol went out early in the event after a high-speed crash, but Biasion went on to win. Having won the both the manufacturers’ and drivers’ titles for the third year running, Lancia declined to contest the final round of the season, the RAC Rally. Lancia continued to use the 16v Integrale throughout the 1990 season. Juha Kankkunen rejoined the team, joining Biasion and Auriol. Lancia won the manufacturers’ title, with six wins, but these were shared between the team's three drivers, and in the drivers’ title race Sainz, driving a Toyota Celica GT-Four, took the lead. The issue was eventually settled on the RAC Rally, when Kankkunen crashed whilst leading, leaving the Spanish driver to take the title, the first time since 1986 that Lancia had not won both drivers’ and manufacturers’ championships.
The 1991 season saw another close battle between Toyota and Lancia. Juha Kankkunen the Delta took wins in Kenya, Argentina, Finland, and Australia, and Didier Auriol also won at Sanremo, give Lancia the manufacturers’ title for a record fifth time. Meanwhile, Sainz crashed out in Australia and retired with electrical failure in Catalunya, putting Kankkunen in contention for the driver’s title. The 1991 RAC Rally saw a close battle in the British forests between Kankkunen and Sainz, which was settled late in the event when the head gasket blew on Sainz's Toyota, giving Kankkunen his third driver's championship.
During the latter part of the season, Lancia developed the Evoluzione version of the Delta, sometimes nicknamed the 'Deltona' or 'Super Delta,' which would début on the 1992 Monte Carlo. This final evolution, with its stiffer body, wider wheel arches, bigger wheels and brakes, improved suspension and aerodynamics and more powerful engine, was 5-6% faster under most circumstances than the 16v car. Lancia officially withdrew from rallying at the end of 1991. For the next two seasons the cars would be run by the semi-private Jolly Club team, albeit initially with continuing support from the factory.
For 1992, Auriol dominated the early part of the season for Lancia, taking a record six wins and pulling out a large championship lead. Kankkunen also scored consistent podium finishes and a win in Portugal, whilst guest driver Andrea Aghini won the Rallye Sanremo. Lancia took the manufacturers’ title for a sixth consecutive year.
For 1993, Auriol and Kankkunen both left Lancia and joined the Toyota team, while Sainz moved to the Jolly Club, where he was supported by Aghini and Gustavo Trelles. Lancia's sponsorship from Martini also ended, and the Jolly Club Deltas ran in the colours of Sainz’s sponsor, oil firm Repsol. With the end of the factory’s involvement technical developments were minor. Sainz took second on the Acropolis Rally, but that was the car’s best placing. He finished second again at Sanremo, but the team was subsequently disqualified and docked points for fuel irregularities, and Sainz had by then retired from the Catalunya Rally with electrical failure. The Jolly Club decided not to contest the final round of the series and withdrew, signalling the end of both the Delta's career as a top-line rally car and Lancia's involvement in the World Rally Championship.
In total, the four evolutions of the Lancia Delta won 46 World Championship rallies, and Lancia’s run of six consecutive manufacturers’ titles remains a record.
Outside the World Championship the Delta was used by several private teams, with varying degrees of backing from the works team. Jolly Club ran as a second-string team throughout the Group A era, before taking over from the official works team for 1992-3. Other teams using the car included Astra Motorsport and HF Grifone. Drivers using Deltas run by teams such as these won the European title in every year between 1987 and 1991, and also in 1993, the car’s last major success. Astra continued to run Deltas on European and some World Championship events in 1994, the best result being fourth place for Alessandro Fiorio on the Acropolis Rally. Deltas also took many national titles in continental Europe.
The deal was a part of the 1980s co-operation between the Swedish car manufacturer Saab and the Italian Fiat Group, which includes Lancia and Alfa Romeo in addition to Fiat. The partnership also resulted in the 'Type 4' project, which provided the common platforms for the Saab 9000, the Lancia Thema, the Fiat Croma and the Alfa Romeo 164.
The 600 was developed because Saab did not have the finances to support the production of entirely new models and looked to other companies in order to provide a new model line-up.
The first years it was sold as GLS and the exclusive GLE, but due to poor sales because of the high price tag the GLE-model was later dropped from the lineup. It was offered only with the 1.5-litre engine that had 85 horsepower connected to a manual 5-speed gearbox.
The Saab-Lancia 600 was designed by Giorgetto Giugiaro and, in common with the company's other models, was a front-wheel drive and a hatchback, with a rallying pedigree. The Lancia Delta earned the European Car of the Year Award in 1980.
The Saab-Lancia 600 was sold only in Sweden, Finland, and Norway.
The Integrale based Hyena was an initiative of the Dutch classic car restorer and collector Paul Koot in collaboration with Zagato. The Hyena was designed in 1990 by Marco Pedracini (Zagato), and introduced at the Brussels Motor Show in January 1992. The Hyena was based on the Delta Integrale floorpan structure, but with a 2-door coupe body.
Fiat refused to participate in the project, which complicated the production process. Integrales were stripped down in The Netherlands and then sent to Zagato in Italy to have the new composite/alloy body fitted and for final assembly. All of this made the Hyena very expensive to build and they were sold for around $75,000. The Hyena weighed around 200 kilograms (440 lb) less than original Integrale, had 250 PS (184 kW), and could accelerate from 0–100 km in 5.4 seconds.
There were only 25 Hyenas made between 1992 and 1993.
|Assembly||Pomigliano d'Arco, Naples|
|Designer||I.DE.A Institute's Ercole Spada|
|Body and chassis|
|Body style||3- and 5-door hatchback|
|Platform||Fiat Type Two (Tipo Due) platform|
Alfa Romeo 145
Alfa Romeo 146
Alfa Romeo 155
|Wheelbase||2,540 mm (100 in)|
|Length||4,011 mm (157.9 in)|
|Width||1,759 mm (69.3 in)|
|Height||1,430 mm (56 in)|
|Curb weight||1,130–1,330 kg (2,491–2,932 lb)|
The successor to the original Delta, the 'Nuova Delta' (Type 836), was introduced in 1993 based on the Fiat Tipo platform. The Nuova Delta was targeted at customers more interested in comfort and convenience.
The Nuova Delta was offered with engine versions up to 193 PS (142 kW; 190 hp), but without four-wheel drive. Until 1995 only five-door hatchback body styles was offered, when the three-door was introduced under the name HPE. In 1996 two 1.8-litre engines were introduced (one with variable valve timing) and the naturally aspirated 2.0 was discontinued.
|cc||cu in||PS||kW||hp||@ rpm|
|SOHC 8V I4 petrol||1,581||96.5||75||55||74||6000||93-99|
|DOHC 16V I4 petrol||1,581||96.5||103||76||102||6000||96-99|
|DOHC 8V I4 petrol||1,756||107.2||105||77||104||6000||93-96|
|16V DOHC I4 petrol||1,995||121.7||139||102||137||6000||93-96|
|SOHC I4 petrol||1,747||106.6||113||83||111||6000||96-99|
|VVT I4 petrol||1,747||106.6||130||96||130||6300||96-99|
|16V DOHC I4 petrol turbo||1,995||121.7||186||137||183||5500||93-96|
|16V DOHC I4 petrol turbo||1,995||121.7||193||142||190||5500||96-99|
|I4 sohc turbodiesel||1,929||117.7||90||66||89||4100||93-99|
|Also called||Chrysler Delta (UK and Ireland)|
|Assembly||Cassino, Frosinone, Italy|
|Designer||Lancia Centro Stile|
|Body and chassis|
|Body style||5-door hatchback|
|Platform||Fiat C platform|
|Related||Fiat Bravo (2007)|
|Engine||1.4 L TurboJet petrol
1.8 L DI TurboJet petrol
1.6 L Multijet diesel
1.9 L Multijet TwinTurbo diesel
2.0 L Multijet diesel
|Wheelbase||2,700 mm (110 in)|
|Length||4,520 mm (178 in)|
|Width||1,797 mm (70.7 in)|
|Height||1,499 mm (59.0 in)|
The world première of the new HPE concept was held at the 63rd Venice International Film Festival.
The new Lancia Delta (Type 844) was unveiled at the 2008 Geneva Motor Show.
The Lancia brand was reintroduced to the Scandinavian, Russian, and Turkish markets in 2007. The new Delta meant a return by Lancia to the UK market during 2009.
Delta as well as being an historical name from Lancia’s past is also being interpreted this time around by Lancia as a mathematical symbol that stands for change, difference and evolution. Designed by the Lancia Style Centre, this car is aimed at the luxury end of the small family car segment. The Delta is 4.52 m (178.0 in) long, 1.797 m (70.7 in) wide and 1.499 m (59.0 in) high, and has a wheelbase of 2.7 m (106.3 in), 10 cm (3.9 in) more than the Fiat Bravo. It has five doors and can be considered a hatchback or an estate (see Hatchback vs. Station wagon).
At the 2010 North American International Auto Show, a badge-engineered version of the Delta under the Chrysler brand was unveiled as a concept car for a potential North American release. The Delta, along with the Ypsilon, is marketed as a Chrysler in the UK and Ireland.
The new Delta offers a number of options and equipment including a Bose Hi-Fi radio incorporating a CD player and MP3 file reader with steering-wheel mounted controls, the Blue&Me system developed with Microsoft, and a new satellite navigation system developed with Magneti Marelli.
Further technical equipment included to effect the ride and handling will include an advanced ESC (Electronic Stability Control) system and SDC suspension (with electronic damping control, also by Magneti Marelli).
The new Delta also has a driving assistant featuring electric eye monitors that give feedback to steering wheel to suggest corrections to the driver. The car is available also with semi-automatic parking assistant.
The 2011 facelift of the Delta received trim level changes, a Chrysler-derived 'family' grille, and a 105 PS (77 kW; 104 hp) 1.6-litre Multijet diesel engine with lower fuel consumption and CO
2 emissions. The new version of the Delta was expected to be presented at the 2011 Geneva Motor Show.
Engines available at launch were 120 PS (88 kW) and 150 PS (110 kW) 1.4 L Turbojet petrol engines and 1.6 L 120 PS (88 kW) MultiJet diesel, 2.0 Multijet with 165 PS (121 kW) and 1.9 Twinturbo Multijet with 190 PS (140 kW). A new petrol unit was launched later: 1.8 Di Turbojet with 200 PS (147 kW).
|cc||cu in||PS||kW||hp||@ rpm||N·m||lb·ft||@ rpm||0–100 km/h,s||km/h||mph|
|1.4 T-Jet 16V||I4||1,368||83.5||120||88||120||5000||206||152||2000||9.8||195||121||2008-|
|1.4 T-Jet 16V||I4||1,368||83.5||150||110||150||5500||206||152||2250||8.7||210||130||2008–2010|
|1.4 T-Jet MultiAir||I4||1,368||83.5||140||100||140||n/a||230||170||1750||9.2||202||126||2010-|
|1.8 Di T-Jet 16V||I4||1,742||106.3||200||147||197||5000||320||236||2000||7.4||230||143|
|1.6 Multijet 16V||I4||1,598||97.5||105||77||104||4000||300||220||1500||10.7||186||116||2011-|
|2.0 Multijet 16V||I4||1,956||119.4||165||121||163||4000||360||270||1750||8.5||214||133|
|1.9 Twinturbo Multijet 16V||I4||1,910||117||190||140||190||4000||400||300||2000||7.9||222||138||2008-|
The 2008 Lancia Delta passed the Euro NCAP car safety tests with following ratings:
|Euro NCAP test results|
|Lancia Delta (2008)|
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