Lancia Flaminia

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Lancia Flaminia
Lancia Flaminia-GT-Touring-2800.JPG
Lancia Flaminia GT Touring Coupé 2800
Overview
Manufacturer Lancia
Production 1957–1970
Designer Pininfarina (Berlina, Coupé, 335)
Ercole Spada[1] at Zagato (Sport, Super Sport)
Touring (GT, GTL, Convertible) [2]
Body and chassis
Class Luxury car
Body style 4-door sedan (Pininfarina)
2-door coupé (Pininfarina)
2-door coupé (Zagato)
2-door coupé (Touring)
2-door cabrio (Touring)
4-door landaulet limousine (Pininfarina)[2]
Layout FR layout
Related Lancia Aurelia[2]
Powertrain
Engine 2.5 L OHC Lancia V6
2.8 L OHC Lancia V6[2]
Transmission 4-speed manual
Saxomat semi-auto[2]
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,870 mm (113 in) saloon
2,515 mm (99.0 in) coupé
Length 4,877 mm (192.0 in) saloon
4,496 mm (177.0 in) coupé
Width 1,753 mm (69.0 in) saloon
1,651 mm (65.0 in) coupé
Height 1,473 mm (58.0 in) saloon
1,295 mm (51.0 in) coupé
Curb weight 1,430 kg (3,150 lb) saloon
1,440 kg (3,170 lb)
Pinin. coupé
Chronology
Predecessor Lancia Aurelia

The Lancia Flaminia (Tipo 813/823/824/826) is a luxury car from the Italian automaker, Lancia, built from 1957 to 1970. It was Lancia's flagship model at that time, replacing the Aurelia. It was available throughout its lifetime as saloon, coupé and cabriolet. The Flaminia coupé and cabriolet were coachbuilt cars with bodies from several prestigious Italian coachbuilders. Four "presidential" stretched limousine Flaminias were produced by Pininfarina for use on state occasions.

There were 12,633 Flaminias sold over 13 years.[3] Coupés outsold the four-door saloon, an unusual occurrence otherwise seen at the time only in American compact and midsize models whose coupe versions were standard factory models that cost the same or less than the sedan, while the Flaminia coupes' coachbuilt bodies made them considerably more expensive than the limousine-like Berlina.

Name[edit]

The Flaminia was named after the Via Flaminia, the road leading from Rome to Ariminum (Rimini). This respected the established Lancia tradition of naming individual models after Roman roads.

1956 Lancia Florida

Development[edit]

The Flaminia's chassis was a development of the Aurelia's, but was significantly upgraded. The front suspension was changed to a more conventional configuration with double wishbones, coil springs, telescopic shock absorbers, and an anti-roll bar. The rear suspension retained the De Dion setup, with a transaxle mounted at the rear as in the Aurelia. The first Berlina was available with drum brake or discs, all other models used discs only.

The original two bodies of the Flaminia were developed by Pininfarina and modelled after his two Aurelia-based motor show specials, named Florida. The Florida I, presented at the 1956 Turin Motor show, was a saloon with rear suicide doors. The Florida II, presented a year later at the Salon International de l'Auto in Geneva, was a 4-door coupé, and became Battista Farina's personal car of choice. The production version of the Lancia Flaminia appeared in 1957.[2]

Flaminia development timeline: Spring 1955: Pinin Farina Florida 4-door based on Lancia Aurelia chassis. March 1956 (Geneva): Pinin Farina Florida 2-door based on Lancia Aurelia chassis. April 1956 (Turin): Lancia Flaminia with 'suicide' door and coil spring suspension. March 1957 (Geneva): Lancia Flaminia with traditional door arrangement.

Engines[edit]

For more details, see Lancia V6 engine

The Flaminia's engine was an evolution of the world's first V6, which was introduced in the Aurelia. It had increased bore and decreased stroke. The engines were mounted longitudinally, powering the rear wheels through a 4-speed rear-mounted transaxle. A version with increased displacement was introduced in 1962.[2]

Engines
Year Displacement Configuration Power Notes
1957–1961 2.5 L (2458 cc/149 in3) Single-carburetor 102 hp (76 kW)
1957–1962 119 hp (89 kW) 2-door versions
1961–1963 110 hp (82 kW) Different carburetor
1957–1962 Triple-carburettor 140 hp (104 kW) Sport, Convertibile, GT
1962–1970 2.8 L (2775 cc/169 in3) Triple-barrel carburetor 128 hp (95 kW) Berlina
1962–1967 136 hp (101 kW) Coupé
1962–1967 150 hp (112 kW) Sport, Convertibile, GT, and GTL
1964–1967 Triple-carburetor 152 hp (113 kW) Super Sport

Body styles[edit]

Berlina[edit]

Lancia Flaminia Berlina

The first Flaminia berlina was revealed at the Turin Motor show in March 1957. It differed from the production version by having, Florida-inspired, rear doors that opened opposite to the front doors. 1956 Lancia range. All the other versions have front-hinged doors. The saloon version of the car was generally designated by the Italian word for this body style, Berlina. Designed by Pininfarina based on the Florida I prototype, this was the only body to be built by Lancia themselves, as well as becoming the only body to last through the entire production period. There were 3,344 Berlinas built with the 2.5 L engine (102/110 bhp specification), and additional 599 with the 2.8 L (128 bhp). They were assembled at Lancia's old facility at Borgo San Paolo as the last model to be built there.[2][3]


Coupé[edit]

Lancia Flaminia Coupé Pininfarina

The Coupé was also penned by Pininfarina, and built by the coachbuilder. It was very similar to the Florida II prototype with a 2+2 layout. Like all other 2-door versions, the Coupé had a shortened wheelbase relative to the Berlina. The front end of the Coupé does not differ from the Berlina majorly, but the headlight frames are completely round, whereas they point slightly upwards in the saloon. 5,236 Coupés (4,151 with the 2.5, 1,085 with the 2.8) were built until 1967.[2][3]

GT, GTL and Convertible[edit]

Lancia Flaminia GT, 1961

Carrozzeria Touring designed and built these aluminum bodied two-door versions, which can be easily distinguished by their four round headlights (rather than two on Pininfarina Flaminias), and a shorter cabin - the wheelbase was decreased significantly for the GT and Convertibile, allowing for only two seats to be mounted. The GT was a coupé, while the Convertibile was obviously a cabriolet version (with optional hardtop). The GTL, introduced in 1962, was a 2+2 version of the GT with a slightly longer wheelbase. The Convertibile was in production until 1964, with 847 made in total (180 with the 2.8), while the GT and GTL lasted until 1965, with 1718 GTs and 300 GTLs made (out of which, 168 GTs and 297 GTLs with the 2.8).[2][3]

Sport and Super Sport[edit]

Lancia Flaminia Sport Zagato

The Sport was built by Zagato, and was also a two-seater. It used the same shorter wheelbase chassis as the GT, and had a very distinctive rounded aluminium body with pop-out handles. The Super Sport replaced the Sport in 1964, with the introduction of the 2.8 L 152 bhp (113 kW) engine. The first Sports had flush covered headlights, later changed to more classic round ones. The Super Sport also saw some changes - the rear was updated to a Kammback, while the front was made more aerodynamic with distinctive tear-shape headlight casings. Until 1967, 593 Sports and Super Sports were built (99 Preseries, 344 Sports, 150 Supersports).[2][3]

335 (Presidenziale/Quirinale)[edit]

Flaminia Presidenziale

When in 1960 Queen Elizabeth II announced her visit to Italy the then President Giovanni Gronchi commissioned Pininfarina to deliver four stretched Lancia Flaminia limousines to appropriately service the visit, and also renew the dated presidential fleet. The cars were built between 1960 and 1961 in a record time of 6 months to a detailed specification, with the assistance of General Motors with regard to various electric extras. They were seven-seater landaulets, in dark blue livery with black Connolly Leather upholstery, Voxon radio and Pirelli tires.[2][3] They were first used in Turin at the inauguration of the Celebrazioni del Centenario dell'Unità d'Italia (celebrations for the centenary of Italy's unification), and subsequently for the contestual visit of Queen Elizabeth II.

This model was officially called Flaminia 335 (due to its wheelbase of 335 cm, or 131.9 inches), and is also commonly referred to as Presidenziale or Quirinale (after Quirinal Palace, the residence of the President of the Italian Republic). The individual cars were named Belsito, Belmonte, Belvedere and Belfiore.

All four survive today, and were restored by Fiat Auto in 2001.[4] Two of them are on display in automobile museums: one at Museo Nazionale dell'Automobile, to which it was donated by President Carlo Azeglio Ciampi, and another at Museo Storico della Motorizzazione Militare together with other dismissed presidential cars. The remaining two are still kept in service for the most solemn state occasions, like the Republic Day parade or presidential inaugurations.[5] There were rumors of a fifth 335 being donated to the Queen, but this seems unsubstantiated.[6][7]

Coupé Speciale[edit]

One-off coupe presented in 1963 and designed by Tom Tjaarda at Pininfarina. Based on the short chassis 2.8 liter triple carbureted variant.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Chris Koopmann. "Ercole Spada". zagato-cars.com. Retrieved 2012-05-24. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "CarsFromItaly.com Lancia pages". Archived from the original on 2005-03-24. Retrieved 2006-05-13. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f "Jean de Barsy's Flaminia pages - production figures, famous owners". Archived from the original on 2009-08-09. Retrieved 2006-05-13. 
  4. ^ "Lancia mod. Flaminia presidenziale" (in italian). Museo Nazionale dell'Automobile. Retrieved December 28, 2013. 
  5. ^ "A proposito del parco macchine della Presidenza della Repubblica" [About the automobile fleet of the Presidency of the Italian Republic] (Press release) (in italian). Rome, Italy: Segretariato Generale della Presidenza della Repubblica. 2011-08-04. Retrieved 2013-12-29. 
  6. ^ "4Car Feature - Classic presidential limos". Archived from the original on 2006-05-29. Retrieved 2006-05-13. 
  7. ^ "Tutte le auto del presidente". Kataweb. Archived from the original on 23 July 2004. Retrieved 2009-08-21.  (Italian) (via Google Translate)

External links[edit]