Toyota Land Cruiser

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Not to be confused with Studebaker Land Cruiser.
Toyota Land Cruiser
2007 Toyota Land Cruiser-200 01.jpg
2007 Toyota Land Cruiser (J200)
Overview
Manufacturer Toyota
Production 1951–present
Body and chassis
Class Off-road vehicle

The Toyota Land Cruiser (Japanese: トヨタ ランドクルーザー Toyota Rando-kurūzā?) is a series of four-wheel drive vehicles produced by the Japanese car maker Toyota. It is Toyota's longest running series.[1]

Production of the first generation Land Cruiser began in 1951 (90 units) as Toyota's version of a Jeep-like vehicle.[2][3] The Land Cruiser has been produced in convertible, hardtop, station wagon, and utility truck versions. The Land Cruiser's reliability and longevity has led to huge popularity, especially in Australia where it is the best-selling body-on-frame, four-wheel drive vehicle.[4] Toyota also extensively tests the Land Cruiser in the Australian outback — considered to be one of the toughest operating environments in both temperature and terrain.[5][6][7] Main rivals include the Range Rover, Land Rover Discovery, Jeep Wrangler, Mitsubishi Pajero and Nissan Patrol. In Japan, the Land Cruiser is exclusive to Toyota Japanese dealerships called Toyota Store.

As of 2014, the Toyota Land Cruiser J200 is avaliable in every market except Canada, North Korea, and South Korea.

Origin[edit]

When the Imperial Japanese Army occupied the Philippines in 1941 they found an old Bantam Mk II Jeep and promptly sent it to Japan. The Japanese military authorities ordered Toyota to make a similar vehicle but to change the appearance. The resulting Model AK prototype led to the Yon-Shiki Kogata Kamotsu-Sha (小型貨物 type 4 compact cargo-truck).

Later in 1941 the Japanese government told Toyota to produce a light truck for Japan's military. In 1942 Toyota developed the AK10 prototype by reverse-engineering a Bantam GP Jeep. The half-ton truck features an upright front grille, flat front wheel arches that angled down and back like the FJ40, headlights mounted above the wheel arches on either side of the radiator, and a folding windshield. The AK10 is powered by the 2259 cc, 4-cylinder Type C engine from the Toyota Model AE sedan coupled to a three-speed manual transmission and two-speed transfer gearbox. Unlike the U.S. Jeep, few AK10's were ever used and photographs of them in the battlefield are rare.

The postwar Toyota "Jeep" BJ is completely different from the AK10 and inherits no mechanical parts from it.

Off-road oriented[edit]

BJ and FJ (1951–1955)[edit]

BJ and FJ
Overview
Production 1951–1955
Assembly Toyota City, Japan (ARACO)
Body and chassis
Body style 2-door softtop
Layout FR layout
Powertrain
Engine
  • 3.4 L B I6
  • 3.9 L F I6
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,650 mm (104.3 in)
  • 1950 — The Korean War created demand for a military light utility vehicle. The war put a Jeep on Japan's doorstep. The United States government ordered 100 vehicles with the new Willys specs and Toyota was asked to build them.
  • 1951 — The Toyota "Jeep" BJ prototype was developed in January 1951. This came from the demand for military-type utility vehicles, much like the British Land Rover Series 1 that appeared in 1948. The Jeep BJ was larger than the original U.S. Jeep and more powerful thanks to its Type B 3.4 L six-cylinder OHV Gasoline engine which generated 63 kW (86 PS; 84 hp) at 3600 rpm and 215 N·m (159 lb·ft) torque at 1600 rpm. It had a part-time four-wheel drive system like the Jeep. Unlike the Jeep, however, the Jeep BJ had no low-range transfer case.
  • 1951 — In July 1951, Toyota's test driver Ichiro Taira drove the next generation of the Jeep BJ prototype up to the sixth stage of Mount Fuji, the first vehicle to climb that high. The test was overseen by the National Police Agency (NPA). Impressed by this feat, the NPA quickly placed an order for 289 of these offroad vehicles, making the Jeep BJ their official patrol car.[8]
  • 1953 — Regular production of the "Toyota Jeep BJ" began at Toyota Honsya Plant (Rolling chassis assembly), and body assembly and painting was done at Arakawa Bankin Kogyo KK, later known as ARACO (now an affiliate of Toyota Auto Body Co.).[8] The "Toyota Jeep BJ" Series was introduced alongside the following:
    • BJ-T (Touring),
    • BJ-R (Radio),
    • BJ-J (Cowl-chassis for a fire-engine).
  • 1954 — The name "Land Cruiser" was created by the technical director Hanji Umehara. "In England we had another competitor — Land Rover. I had to come up with a name for our car that would not sound less dignified than those of our competitors. That is why I decided to call it 'Land Cruiser'," he recalls.[8] The name had already been used on the US Studebaker Land Cruiser car from 1934 to 1954 but this didn't cause any problems.
  • 1954 — The 93 kW (126 PS; 125 hp), 3.9 L Type F gasoline engine added for the fire-engine chassis. Models are renamed as:
    • BJ-T (Touring),
    • BJ-R (Radio),
    • BJ-J (Cowl-chassis for a fire-engine),
    • FJ-J (Cowl-chassis for a fire-engine).

J20, J30 (1955–1960)[edit]

J20/J30
FJ25 Land Cruiser.jpg
Overview
Production 1955–1960
Assembly Toyota City, Japan (ARACO)
Body and chassis
Body style
Layout FR layout
Powertrain
Engine
  • 3.4 L B I6
  • 3.9 L F I6
Dimensions
Wheelbase
  • 2,285 mm (90.0 in)
  • 2,430 mm (95.7 in)
  • 2,650 mm (104.3 in)
  • 1955 — The Second generation, 20 Series was introduced. It was designed to have more civilian appeal than the BJ for export reasons. It also had more stylish bodywork and a better ride thanks to longer four-plate leaf springs which had been adapted from the Toyota Light Truck. It had a more powerful 135 PS (99 kW) 3.9 L six-cylinder Type F gasoline engine, but still only had a three speed gearbox. The interior of the vehicles were made more comfortable by moving the engine 120 mm (4.7 in) forward. The 20 Series still had no low range, but it had synchromesh on the third and fourth gears.[citation needed]
  • 1957 — A 4-door Station Wagon was added as the FJ35V on a 2,650 mm (104.3 in) wheelbase. Land Cruisers were first imported into Australia by B&D Motors as FJ25/28 cab chassis with Australian made bodies.[9] They were the first Japanese cars to be regularly exported to the country[10] and a few were initially used in the Snowy Mountains Hydroelectric Scheme, by sub contractor Theiss Constructions.[11]
  • 1958 — FJ25 production commenced in Brazil; this being the first Toyota vehicle built outside Japan.

J40 (1960–1984)[edit]

J40
Toyota Land Cruiser 1980s.jpg
Overview
Also called
  • Toyota Bandeirante (Brazil)
  • Toyota Macho (Venezuela)
Production 1960–1984
Assembly
Body and chassis
Body style
Layout Front engine, rear-wheel drive / four-wheel drive
Powertrain
Engine
Transmission
  • 3-speed manual
  • 4-speed manual (from 1974)
Dimensions
Wheelbase
  • 2,285 mm (90.0 in)
  • 2,430 mm (95.7 in)
  • 2,650 mm (104.3 in)
  • 2,950 mm (116.1 in)
Length 3,840.5 mm (151.2 in)
Width 1,666.2 mm (65.6 in)
Height
  • 1,950.7 mm (76.8 in) (softtop)
  • 2,000 mm (78.8 in) (hardtop)
Curb weight
  • 1,480 kg (3,263 lb) (softtop)
  • 1,554 kg (3,427 lb) (hardtop)
  • 1960 — The 20 Series was upgraded to the now classic 40. Toyota made many production changes by buying new steel presses. Mechanically, the FJ40 was given a new 93 kW (126 PS; 125 hp), 3.9 L F engine and the Land Cruiser finally received low-range gearing, but continued the three speed main gearbox. The Brazilian model was rebadged the Bandeirante and received a Mercedes-Benz-built diesel engine generating 58 kW (79 PS; 78 hp).
  • 1965 — Global production surpassed 50,000 vehicles.
    The Land Cruiser was the best selling Toyota in the United States.
  • 1968 — The 100,000th Land Cruiser was sold worldwide.
  • 1972 — The 200,000th Land Cruiser was sold worldwide.
  • 1973 — The 300,000th Land Cruiser was sold worldwide.
    The first diesel Land Cruiser was introduced for export on long wheelbase models with a six-cylinder H engine[citation needed].
  • 1974 — A four-cylinder 3.0 L B diesel was offered. The introduction of this engine boosted sales in Japan by putting the Land Cruiser in a lower tax compact Freight-car category than its 3.9 L gasoline version. Note: the new B diesel engine was different from the B gasoline engine used in the original BJ.
  • 1975 — The 3.9 L gasoline engine was replaced by a larger, more powerful 4.2 L 2F unit.
    The FJ55 received front disc brakes.
    The 3.6 L H diesel engine was optional in some markets in the HJ45.[12]
  • 1976 — United States-version FJ40 Land Cruisers received front disc brakes like the FJ55. The Toyota Land Cruiser Association was founded in California.
  • 1977 — The Irish Army took delivery of the first of 77 FJ45 Land Cruisers. Although fast, reliable and with good off-road performance the type tended to rust excessively in the wet Irish climate. A few which did not succumb to the effects of weather were repainted in gloss olive green and survive as ceremonial gun tractors at military funerals.
  • 1978 — The first BJ / FJ40 and FJ55 models were officially sold in West Germany with both diesel (BJ40) and petrol engines (FJ40 /55).
  • 1979 — United States-version FJ40s were updated this year with a new wider, square bezel surrounding the headlights.
    Power steering and cooler were offered in FJ40s for the first time The diesel engine was improved, evolving into the 3.2 L 2B only in Japan.
  • 1980 — The H diesel engine (HJ45) was replaced by the 4.0 L 2H engine (HJ47).[12]
  • 1981 — the Diesel version received front disc brakes and the more powerful 3.4 L 3B engine, and added LWB BJ45 with 3B.
  • 1983 — the last FJ40s imported to the U.S. were 1983 models (mid-1982 to mid-1983). It is unknown how many were imported by Toyota, but many guess the number to be around 300. 1983 FJ40s typically bring a premium for their rarity, though they are not much different from 1982 models (mid-1981 to mid-1982).
  • 1984 — the North American market was limited to Canada with the BJ42, which had a 5-speed (overdrive) transmission that was widely sought. Originally around CA$14,000.

J70 (1984–present)[edit]

70 Series
Toyota Land Cruiser HZJ76HV 001.jpg
Overview
Also called
  • Toyota Machito (Venezuela)
  • Zo Reken (Haiti)
Production 1984–present
Assembly
Body and chassis
Body style
Layout Front engine, rear-wheel drive / four-wheel drive
Powertrain
Engine
Transmission 5-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase
  • 2,310 mm (90.9 in)
  • 2,600 mm (102.4 in)
  • 2,730 mm (107.5 in)
  • 2,980 mm (117.3 in)
  • 3,180 mm (125.2 in)
Length 4,995 mm (196.7 in)
Width 1,870 mm (73.6 in)
Height 2,070 mm (81.5 in)
  • 1984 — 70 Series was introduced as a soft-top, hard-top, FRP top, utility, cab-chassis, and Troop Carrier (inward facing rear seats).The petrol engine was replaced with a 4.0 L 3F engine. The 70 Light had a four-wheel coil spring solid-axle suspension for better ride quality. This lighter duty version of the Land Cruiser had the 22R 2.4 L gasoline engine, 2L and 2L-T (turbo) 2.4 L diesel engines commonly found in the Toyota Hilux. The 70 Light was sold in some markets as the Bundera or the Landcruiser II, later called 70 Prado. The 70 Prado eventually became popular and evolved into the 90. An automatic transmission (A440F) was introduced making it the first four-wheel drive Japanese vehicle with an automatic transmission.
  • 1990 — New-generation diesel engines were introduced including a 3.4 L five-cylinder SOHC naturally aspirated motor (1PZ),and a 4.2 L six-cylinder SOHC naturally aspirated motor (1 HZ).
  • 1993 to 1996 — the KZ 3.0 L turbocharged diesel engine replaced the LJ in the 70 series in European markets where this model was known as the KZJ70.
  • 1993 — An advanced 24-valve, 4.5 L six-cylinder petrol engine, 1FZ-FE was introduced.
  • 1999 — Toyota updated the 70 series in several ways. The solid front axle received coil-spring suspension. The rear leaf springs were lengthened for increased ride comfort and wheel travel. The six-bolt wheels were replaced with five-bolt wheels. Several smaller modifications to the drivetrain provided increased durability. The long-wheel-base models received new designations: 78 for the troop carrier, and 79 for the pick-up.
  • 2002 — HDJ79 is introduced to Australia with the 1HD-FTE 4.2 L six-cylinder 24-valve turbodiesel EFI engine.
  • 2007 — Toyota's first turbodiesel V8 engine, the 1VD-FTV was released in some countries for the 70 Series Land Cruiser. Other modifications include the addition of a 4-door medium-wheel-base model (the 76) and an altered front look on all models.
  • 2012 – Addition of the 79 Double Cab pickup, in South Africa (4.2 L Diesel or 4.0 L Petrol) and Australia (4.5 L V8 Diesel).
  • The Sixth and Seventh generations of the Land Cruiser are still being produced and sold in African and Latin American regions. Production in Venezuela ended in 2008.
  • The 70 series is also still marketed in Australia as 4-door wagon, 2-door 'Troop Carrier', 2 door cab-chassis and 4 door cab-chassis.
BJ74 Mid wheelbase FRP-top 3.4D-T LX (Japan) 
HZJ75LV Troop Carrier 4.2D 
HZJ79R Cab-chassis 4.2D 
New South Wales Rural Fire Service Toyota Land Cruiser Personnel carrier 

Comfort oriented[edit]

J50 (1967–1980)[edit]

J50
1979 Toyota Land Cruiser FJ55.jpg
1979 FJ55 (US)
Overview
Production 1967–1980
Assembly Toyota City, Japan (ARACO)
Body and chassis
Body style 4-door station wagon
Layout Front engine, four-wheel drive
Powertrain
Engine
Transmission 3- or 4-speed manual (J30, H41 or H42)
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,700 mm (106.3 in)
Length 4,675 mm (184.1 in)
Width 1,735 mm (68.3 in)
Height 1,865 mm (73.4 in)

The Land Cruiser 55 was produced from 1967 to 1980. Toyota refers to the FJ55G and FJ55V as the first "real" station wagon in the Land Cruiser series, thus marking the beginning of the station wagon branch. It was the first Land Cruiser to have fully enclosed box frame members. Of all the Land Cruiser wagons sold in the U.S., including the FJ45, it is the only one to not have hatch and tailgate in the rear, but rather a tailgate only with an electrically operated window that can be retracted into the tailgate.[14]

  • 1967 — Production of the FJ55 began. The FJ55 was a 4-door station wagon version based on the FJ40's Drive-train, replacing the 4-Door FJ45V (I). It was colloquially known as the "Moose". It has also been referred to as a "pig" or an "iron pig". The FJ55 had a longer wheelbase 2700 mm and was designed to be sold in North America and Australia.
  • Jan 1975 saw the F engine replaced by the 2F engine.[12] Unusual for Toyota, the model (e.g. FJ55) did not change.
  • Model 56 is in Japan only, with 2F engine (January 1975 — July 1980).

J60 (1980–1989)[edit]

J60
Toyota Land Cruiser.jpg
Overview
Also called Toyota Samurai (Venezuela)
Production 1980–1989
Assembly
Body and chassis
Body style Full size SUV, 4-door station wagon
Layout Front engine, four-wheel drive
Powertrain
Engine
  • 4.2 L 2F I6 (FJ60)
  • 4.0 L 3F I6 (FJ62)
  • 4.0 L 3F-E I6 (FJ62 from 1988)
  • 3.4 L 3B I4 diesel (BJ60)
  • 4.0 L 2H I6 diesel (HJ60)
  • 4.0 L 12H-T I6 turbo diesel (HJ61)
Transmission
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,730 mm (107.5 in)
Length 4,675 mm (184.1 in)
Width 1,800 mm (70.9 in)
Height 1,750 mm (68.9 in)

The Land Cruiser 60 series was produced from 1980 through 1990 for most markets but the Cumana Plant in Venezuela continued until 1992 for their local market. It is a front engine, four door wagon which can seat five to eight[citation needed] people. Like all Land Cruiser generations, it is well known in the off-road world for its off-road abilities but was somewhat limited by its awkward departure angles.[citation needed] The 60 series was available in the following solid exterior colors: Alpine White, Brown, Desert Beige, Freeborn Red, Royal Blue; and in the following metallic exterior colors: Charcoal Gray, Cognac, Gray-Blue, Rootbeer, Sky Blue, Stardust Silver.

  • 1980 — The 60 series was introduced. While still retaining the rugged off-road characteristics of previous Land Cruisers, the 60 was designed to better compete in the emerging sport utility vehicle market. The 60 was given a variety of comforts like air conditioning, a rear heater and an upgraded interior. The FJ60's "2F" petrol engine was left unchanged from the "40" series while six-cylinder 4.0 L 2H and four-cylinder 3.4 L 3B diesel engines were added to the product line.
  • 1981 — Land Cruiser sales surpassed 1 million and a high-roof version was introduced. The 60 series was introduced to South Africa when a stock Land Cruiser competed in the Toyota 1000 km Desert Race in the punishing wilds of Botswana.
  • 1984 — This was the final year for the 40 series.
  • 1984 — Alongside the 60 series, the 70 series was introduced.
  • 1985 — The Direct-injection 12H-T turbodiesel engine was introduced.
  • 1988 — The petrol engine was upgraded to a 4.0 L 3F-E EFI engine. The FJ62G VX-Series was introduced allowing the Land Cruiser to be sold in Japan as a passenger vehicle.
Toyota Land Cruiser post-facelift (US) 
1981–1987 Toyota Land Cruiser (FJ60; Australia) 
1987–1990 Toyota Land Cruiser (FJ62RG) GX (Australia) 

J80 (1990–1997)[edit]

J80
Toyota Land Cruiser -- 03-25-2010.jpg
Overview
Also called Toyota Land Cruiser Autana (Colombia and Venezuela)
Production
  • January 1990 – December 1997
  • 1992–2008 (Venezuela)
[15]
Assembly
Body and chassis
Body style 4-door SUV
Layout Front engine / four-wheel drive
Related Lexus LX 450
Powertrain
Engine
Transmission
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,850 mm (112.2 in)
Length
  • 4,780 mm (188.2 in) (1990–94)
  • 4,820 mm (189.8 in) (1995–97)
Width
  • 1,830 mm (72.0 in) (1990–91)
  • 1,930 mm (76.0 in) (1992–97)
Height
  • 1,785 mm (70.3 in) (1990–91)
  • 1,860 mm (73.2 in) (1992–94)
  • 1,870 mm (73.6 in) (1995–97)
Curb weight
  • 2,084 kg (4,594 lb) (1990–92)
  • 2,159 kg (4,760 lb) (1993–97)

The Land Cruiser 80 series was unveiled in October 1989 at the Tokyo Motor Show and launched in early 1990. It had swing-out back doors, which were replaced by a winch door in 1994. The Land Cruiser was nicknamed the Burbuja (Bubble) in Colombia and Venezuela due to its roundness, but it was officially released as Land Cruiser Autana in both countries. The name is a reference to the Tepui mesa Autana, a spectacular plateau and cave system along the Guiana Shield craton. Land Cruiser sales reached 2 million vehicles.

  • 1990 — The 80 series station wagon was introduced, replacing the 60 series. All 80s sold in North America and Europe now have a full-time four-wheel drive system. In Japan, Africa, and Australia, a part-time system was still available. 80s produced between 1990 and 1991 had an open centre differential which was lockable in 4HI and automatically locked in 4LO. From 1992 onward, vehicles with anti-lock brakes had a viscous coupling that sent a maximum of 30% torque to the non-slipping axle. The differential was lockable in 4HI and automatically locked in 4LO.
  • 1990 — A new generation of diesel engines were introduced, adding to the engines available in the 80 series. The 80 series came with either a (3F-E) six-cylinder naturally aspirated petrol engine, a six-cylinder SOHC naturally aspirated diesel engine, (1HZ), or a 1HD-T direct injection turbo diesel.
  • 1991 — By mid-1991 the (3F-E) was introduced to the Australian market, a fuel injected version of the 3F.
  • 1993 — An advanced 24-valve, 4.5 L six-cylinder petrol engine, 1FZ-FE was introduced. Larger brakes were added from October 1992 and the total wheelbase was made slightly longer. Front and rear axle lockers (code k294) appeared as an option. The High Pinion Electric Locking front differential become available in US models. In May 1993 Toyota began using R134 refrigerant in the air conditioning system. Serial numbers lower than JT3DJ81xxxxx38947 use R12 refrigerant.
  • 1994 — A limited edition Land Cruiser Blue Marlin (FZJ80R) was introduced into the Australian market. They have 4.5 L straight 6 petrol motors with double-overhead cams, automatic or manual transmission and 158 kW (215 PS; 212 hp) at 4600 rpm. The car is blue from the Blue Marlin fish and they have the Blue Marlin logo throughout the car. Some of the features that the Blue Marlin included were altimeters, power windows, disk brakes, leather gear knob and steering wheel, central locking, leather trim, chrome handles and sidesteps, 16" alloy wheels, limited-slip differential, anti-lock brakes (ABS), power steering, CD and cassette players, flares, and a limited edition bull bar. Only 500 were made.
  • 1995 — Driver and passenger airbags were introduced as were adjustable shoulder-belt anchors and an anti-lock braking system. The "T O Y O T A" badge was replaced with the modern Toyota logo (which is sometimes described as a "bean with a hat" aka "the sombrero").
  • 1996 — In the Dakar Rally, a pair of Land Cruisers finished first and second in the unmodified production class. All American and British 80s adopted anti-lock brakes and airbags as standard equipment. The Land Cruiser was withdrawn from Canada this year and was replaced by the Lexus LX 450.
  • 1997 — A limited run of Land Cruiser 80s was built specifically for collectors and therefore called the Land Cruiser Collector's Edition. The Collectors Edition sported Collectors Edition badging, "Collector's Edition" embroidered floor mats, automatic climate control, wheels with the "D" windows painted dark grey and special grey side moldings, and black pearl badging. The Collectors Edition was only available for the 1997 model year and the package was added to many of the available body colors.
  • 1997 — 4744 FZJ80 Land Cruisers were sold in the United States as "40th Anniversary Limited Edition" models. They were available in 2 colours; Antique Sage Pearl (often referred to as Riverrock, Pewter, or Grey) and Emerald Green. The 40th Anniversary models included apron badges, a serial number badge on the centre console, black pearl exterior badges, "40th Anniversary Limited Edition" embroidered floor mats, automatic climate control, two-tone tan and brown leather interiors, and wheels with the "D" windows painted dark gray. Many were manufactured with the optional electric front and rear locking differentials, keyless entry, port-installed roof racks, and running boards. There are some examples that did not have many of these extras. This is the last year for the electric locking front differentials.
  • 2008 — Last 80-Series vehicle was built in Venezuela which was the only country producing the vehicles after production ended in Japan in 1997.
Pre-facelift Toyota Land Cruiser (FJ80R) GXL, Australia 
Facelift Toyota Land Cruiser (FZJ80R) GXL, Australia 
Facelift Toyota Land Cruiser, US 
Facelift Toyota Land Cruiser (HZJ80R) GXL, Australia 
Land Cruiser with swing-out back-doors (HZJ81V), Japan 
Designation Engine Power Torque Availability
FJ80R/L 3F-E 4.0 L petrol I6 112 kW (152 PS; 150 hp) at 4,000 rpm 290 N·m (214 lb·ft) at 3,000 rpm Australia, North America
FZJ80R/L 1FZ-FE 4.5 L petrol I6 158 kW (215 PS; 212 hp) at 4,600 rpm 373 N·m (275 lb·ft) at 3,200 rpm Australia, Gulf Cooperation Council states, North Africa, North America
HDJ80R 1HD-T 4.2 L turbodiesel I6 115 kW (156 PS; 154 hp) at 3,600 rpm 357 N·m (263 lb·ft) at 1,800 rpm Australia
HZJ80R 1HZ 4.2 L diesel I6 96 kW (131 PS; 129 hp) at 4,000 rpm 271 N·m (200 lb·ft) at 2,000 rpm Australia

R means Right hand drive version, excluding Japanese domestic market.

J100 (1998–2007)[edit]

J100
Toyota Land Cruiser -- 03-21-2012 1.JPG
Pre-facelift Toyota Land Cruiser (US)
Overview
Also called Lexus LX 470
Production January 1998–2007
Assembly Japan: Toyota City (ARACO)
Body and chassis
Body style 4-door wagon
Powertrain
Engine
Transmission
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,850 mm (112.2 in)
Length 4,890 mm (192.5 in)
Width 1,941 mm (76.4 in)
Height 1,849 mm (72.8 in)
Curb weight 2,320 kg (5,115 lb)

In January 1998, the 100 series Land Cruiser was introduced to replace the 8-year-old 80 series. The 100 series was previewed in October 1997 as the "Grand Cruiser" at the 32nd Tokyo Motor Show. Development began in 1992, with final design being frozen in mid-1994.[16]

Pre-facelift Toyota Land Cruiser GXL (FZJ105; Australia)

There are two distinct versions of the 100-series, the 100 and the 105. The two versions look very similar, but there are significant differences under the bodywork. Despite these differences and official model names, both the 100 and 105 are collectively known as the 100 series.

The 105 carried over the majority of its chassis and powertrain from the 80-series with coil suspended solid axles front and rear, and straight-6 petrol and diesel engines. These models were only sold in African, Australian, Russian, and South American markets.

The 100 models were fitted with a slightly wider chassis, independent front suspension (IFS) and two new engines. The change to IFS was a first for a Land Cruiser, and was made (in combination with rack-and-pinion steering) to improve on-road handling. However it also limited the vehicle’s off-road capability and durability, hence the decision to offer the solid axle 105 models alongside the IFS 100 models in some markets. The table below identifies the range of 100 and 105 models and their worldwide availability.

Although the 100 and 105 bodies are identical, there are some exterior visual indications between the two. The most obvious is the front end of the vehicle often appearing lower than the rear on the 100 models, due to the IFS. The other indicator is the design of the wheels. The 100 models have almost flat wheel designs, while the 105 models have dished wheels. This difference allows the two versions to retain similar wheel tracks, even though the 100 has a significantly wider axle track to allow for the IFS system.

Facelift Toyota Land Cruiser (US)

The introduction of a V8 engine was also a first for a Land Cruiser, and was specifically intended to improve sales in the North-American market, where it was the only engine available. In Australia, the 100 V8 was initially only available in the range-topping GXV model, while entry and mid-range models were the 105 powered by the 1FZ-FE I6 petrol, or 1HZ diesel engines. The new 1HD-FTE turbo-diesel 100 was added to the Australian range in October 2000 after being available in Europe and the UK since launch in 1998. The 4WD media in Australia were critical of Toyota’s decision to offer the acclaimed 1HD-FTE engine only in combination with IFS. Australian 4WD Monthly magazine said "We will never forgive Toyota for going independent at the front with the mighty 4.2 turbo-diesel".

The 100 series formed the basis for the Lexus LX 470, which was also sold in Japan as the Toyota Cygnus.

The 100 series was called the Toyota Land Cruiser Amazon in the UK and Ireland from 1998 to 2007.

In 2000, Toyota celebrated the 50th anniversary of the Land Cruiser with commemorative models offered in several countries. Total global production to date was 3.72 million vehicles.

The 100 series remained in production until late 2007, with several minor facelifts such as headlights, taillights, front grill, rear spoiler and specification changes introduced over the years.

Designation Engine Power Torque Availability
HZJ105 1HZ 4.2 L diesel I6 96 kW (131 PS; 129 hp) at 3,800 rpm 271 N·m (200 lb·ft) at 2,200 rpm Africa, Asia, Australia, Middle East, South America
FZJ105 1FZ-FE 4.5 L petrol I6 158 kW (215 PS; 212 hp) at 4,600 rpm 373 N·m (275 lb·ft) at 3,200 rpm Africa, Asia, Australia, Middle East, South America
FZJ100 1FZ-FE 4.5 L petrol I6 158 kW (215 PS; 212 hp) at 4,600 rpm 373 N·m (275 lb·ft) at 3,200 rpm Middle East
UZJ100 2UZ-FE 4.7 L petrol V8 170 kW (231 PS; 228 hp) at 4,800 rpm 410 N·m (302 lb·ft) at 3,400 rpm Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, Japan, Middle East, North America, UK
HDJ1001 1HD-T 4.2 L turbodiesel I6 123 kW (167 PS; 165 hp) at 3,600 rpm 352 N·m (260 lb·ft) at 2,000 rpm Africa, South America
HDJ1002 1HD-FTE 4.2 L turbodiesel I6 150 kW (204 PS; 201 hp) at 3,400 rpm 430 N·m (317 lb·ft) at 1,400 rpm Australia*, Europe, Japan, UK, New Zealand.

*This engine not released in Australia until 2000.

The 100-series is generally considered a durable and reliable vehicle, however there have been three known issues identified, generally for vehicles operating in harsh conditions:

  • The IFS 100-series gained a reputation for front suspension failures in operating conditions where the front suspension was prone to hitting the bump stops. Several companies produce strengthened lower wishbones to prevent cracks from developing.[17]
  • Both IFS 100 and Live-axle 105 models have been reported as suffering from broken front differential centres when driven in harsh conditions.[18] The most common front differential failures in IFS models are reported in vehicles produced between mid-1997 and mid-1999 (i.e. the model years 1998 and 1999), when Toyota fitted the 100 Series IFS with a 2-pinion front differential (the pinion gear would flex away from the ring gear under shock loads). In 1999 (model year 2000) the IFS Landcruiser received a 4-pinion front differential that was more robust — fewer failures were reported.[citation needed]
First facelift Toyota Land Cruiser GXL (HDJ100; Australia) 
Second facelift Toyota Land Cruiser Sahara (UZJ100; Australia) 

J200 (2007–present)[edit]

J200
2007-2011 Toyota Land Cruiser (UZJ200R) Sahara wagon (2011-11-18) 01.jpg
Overview
Also called
  • Toyota Roraima (Venezuela)
  • Toyota Land Cruiser V8(Europe)
  • Lexus LX570
Production September 2007–present
Model years 2008–present
Assembly
Body and chassis
Body style 5-door SUV
Layout Front engine / four-wheel drive
Related Lexus LX
Powertrain
Engine
Transmission
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,850 mm (112.2 in)
Length 4,950 mm (194.9 in)
Width 1,970 mm (77.6 in)
Height 1,880 mm (74.0 in)
Curb weight 2,405–2,665 kg (5,302–5,875 lb)

In 2002, a 5-year development plan on a successor to the 100-series platform commenced under Sadayoshi Koyari and Tetsuya Tada. By 2004, 10 years after the design selection of its predecessor in 1994, a final production design was settled on for the 2008 J200. Prototype related tests were conducted for over 2 years between 2004 and early 2007. The redesigned Toyota Land Cruiser was introduced in late 2007. Known as the 200 Series, it shares the Lexus LX 570's platform and overall design. The frame was new, derived from the second-generation Tundra[citation needed] but shortened and strengthened by 20 percent. Bigger brake rotors and calipers were added and the front suspension was made heavier duty than the Land Cruiser's first effort at IFS in the 100-series and this underbelly is also protected by skid plates. Also, the roof pillars were redesigned to better protect occupants in a rollover.

2011 Toyota Land Cruiser (J200)
2013 Toyota Land Cruiser (J200)

The 200 Series encountered some criticism due to its bland body restyling, with some[who?] claiming that Toyota has 'overdeveloped' the classic trademarked Land Cruiser identity in its efforts to fit the Land Cruiser into modern 21st century motoring and vehicle design. Nonetheless, the Land Cruiser remains the NATO vehicle of choice[citation needed] and remains a competent off-road vehicle.

The vehicle entered production in September 2007 and was available for sale from September or November, depending on country. It became available in Venezuela for sale early in November under the local nickname of "Roraima" (taken from Mount Roraima). Early reliability has proven to be excellent.

The 200 Series, offered numerous features and upgrades over its predecessor not limited to the cosmetic changes made to the body and interior, including:

  • Smart Entry — A sensor is triggered when the remote is brought near the vehicle, allowing the user to simply touch the door handle to open it.
  • Smart Start — Start/Stop push button for ignition; a key is not required.
  • 4-zone climate control on Sahara models, with outlet vents increased from 18 to 28
  • 10 airbags (VX & Sahara)
  • Stronger and lighter frame

Various driver assist technologies not offered on previous models, including:

  • CRAWL, a four-wheel drive control system that operates like an off-road cruise control, automatically maintaining a low uniform vehicle speed using brakes and throttle
  • Downhill Assist Control
  • Multi-terrain anti-lock braking system (ABS)
  • Kinetic Dynamic Suspension System (KDSS), allows for greater wheel articulation
  • An optional rear-view camera (VX)
  • Leather seats are available in full option (VX)

Engine and transmission improvements include:

  • An all new optional V8 diesel engine, the Toyota VD engine (a twin-turbo version of the engine used in the 70 Series since 2007).
  • Automatic transmission standard across all levels of trim of the 200 Series, five-speed manual transmission is offered only with the 4.0 L GX models (in selected regions). A five-speed automatic gearbox is assigned to the 4.7 L petrol models, while the 4.5 L diesel models receive a six-speed automatic.

In Japan, the Land Cruiser had a minor change in 2009 when it received the 4.6 L V8 1UR-FE engine and the gearbox was replaced with a 6-speed automatic.[22] Although the new 4608 cc 1UR-FE is smaller than the old 4663 cc 2UZ-FE engine, the power has been increased from 212 to 234 kW (288 to 318 PS; 284 to 314 hp), torque increased from 448 to 460 N·m (330 to 339 lb·ft) and fuel consumption improved from 6.6 to 7.1 km/L (19 to 20 mpg-imp; 16 to 17 mpg-US) (Japan 10·15 mode measurement).

In the Middle East, the Land Cruiser 200 series was introduced in late 2007 as a 2008 model, for 2008 to 2010 there was three engine choices, 179 kW (240 hp) 4.7L 1GR-FE petrol, 202 kW (271 hp) 2UZ-FE petrol and 162–173 kW (217–232 hp) 1VD-FTV 4.5 L turbo diesel.[23] Starting in 2011, the 270 kW (362 hp) 3UR-FE was offered along with the previous engines.[24] For 2012, the 1GR-FE gained dual VVT-i increased power to 202 kW (271 hp), the 4.7 L 2UZ-FE was dropped in favour of the new 227 kW (304 hp) 4.6 L 1UR-FE, and the 5.7 L and 4.5 L diesel were unchanged, although the latter was dropped in some markets.[25]

In North America, the Land Cruiser 200 series is offered with one trim level and engine, the 5.7 L 3UR-FE V8 petrol engine producing 284 kW (386 PS; 381 hp) and 544 N·m (401 lb·ft) of torque channeled through a six-speed automatic. Towing is rated at 3,700 kg (8,200 lb). Beige or black leather is standard along with a 14 speaker JBL sound system. The only wheel choice is 18 in (460 mm) allowing a lot of sidewall so the vehicle can be driven off-road without modification though a more aggressive tread pattern is advised for deep mud.

For the 2013 model year, Toyota added all previously optional safety and luxury options as standard. The Land Cruiser now gets pushbutton start, HID headlights with beam level adjustment, a power moonroof, heated front and rear seats, a rear-seat DVD entertainment system, bluetooth, rearview camera with parking sensors, navigation system, HD radio and Entune. Another new feature is the Multi-terrain Select system which helps control wheelspin and brake lockup giving the selectable choices of: Rock, Rock & Dirt, Mogul, Loose Rock, and Mud & Sand.

In Oceania, the 200 Series is offered in four different levels of trim: GX, GXL, VX, and Sahara.

Sales[edit]

Toyota Land Cruiser of the Rally Dakar, 1992 in Paris
Calendar year United States
2000 15,509[26]
2001 7,591
2002 6,752[27]
2003 6,671
2004 6,778[28]
2005 4,870
2006 3,376[29]
2007 3,251
2008 3,801[30]
2009 2,261
2010 1,807[31]
2011 1,662[32]
2012 2,895[33]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Vehicle Heritage — Land Cruiser". TOYOTA MOTOR CORPORATION GLOBAL WEBSITE. Retrieved 2012-03-13. 
  2. ^ "Model BJ – Built From Good Materials – 1951–1955". Toyota Land Cruiser Data Library. Toyota. Retrieved 2013-06-23. 
  3. ^ "Worldwide Annual Production". Toyota Land Cruiser Data Library. Toyota. Retrieved 2013-06-23. 
  4. ^ "Autoweb Australia". Autoweb.com.au. Retrieved 2010-10-30. 
  5. ^ "SPY PHOTOS: More New Toyota LandCruiser". Worldcarfans.com. 2007-02-13. Retrieved 2010-01-16. 
  6. ^ GoAutoMedia (2008-04-05). "Lexus LX LX570 5-dr wagon — First drive: LX570 is the lap of Lexus SUV luxury". GoAuto. Retrieved 2010-01-16. 
  7. ^ "Toyota 200 Series LandCruiser". Drive.com.au. 2008-01-11. Retrieved 2010-01-16. 
  8. ^ a b c The Story of Land Cruiser. Tokyo: 4×4 Magazine Co. 1985. 
  9. ^ "The Long Run — Toyota: The first 40 years in Australia", Pedr Davis, South Hurstville: Type Forty Pty Ltd, 1999, ISBN 0-947079-99-8, p24.
  10. ^ "Land Cruisers from Japan". The Age. September 20, 1957. p. 1. 
  11. ^ O'Kane, Tony (January 18, 2010). "2010 Toyota Landcruiser 76 Series GXL Wagon Road Test and Review". The Motor Report. Retrieved January 19, 2010. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Toyota Vehicle Identification Manual", Toyota Motor Corporation, Overseas Parts Department, Catalog No.97913-84, 1984, Japan
  13. ^ Mastrostefano, Raffaele, ed. (1990). Quattroruote: Tutte le Auto del Mondo 1990 (in Italian). Milano: Editoriale Domus S.p.A. pp. 1340–1341. 
  14. ^ "Land Cruiser — Model 55 Series". Toyota Motor Corporation Global Website. Retrieved 2012-03-14. 
  15. ^ "General Status of Plants in Japan – Honsha Plant". Toyota. 2012. Retrieved 2014-06-28. 
  16. ^ "New Land Cruiser gets V8 — Toyota Land Cruiser — includes related article on the Lexus LX450". Automotive Industries. 1998. 
  17. ^ Pepper, Robert (July 2006). "LC100 Suspension Solutions". Overlander 4WD Magazine. Retrieved 18 July 2010. 
  18. ^ "2005 4×4 of the Year", Australian 4WD Monthly, October 2005: 63–67 
  19. ^ "Toyota Japan Land Cruiser". Toyota.jp. Retrieved 2010-10-30. 
  20. ^ "Goo-net 2007 Land Cruiser". Goo-net.com. Retrieved 2010-10-30. 
  21. ^ "Exterior Dimensions" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-10-30. 
  22. ^ "Toyota Japan 2009 Land Cruiser press release". Toyota.co.jp. 2009-04-16. Retrieved 2010-10-30. 
  23. ^ "Toyota Land Cruiser 2008-2009 UAE KSA Qatar GCC". DriveArabia.com. Retrieved 2014-07-18. 
  24. ^ "Toyota Land Cruiser 2010-2011 UAE KSA Qatar GCC". DriveArabia.com. Retrieved 2014-07-18. 
  25. ^ "Toyota Land Cruiser 2012-2013 UAE KSA Qatar GCC". DriveArabia.com. Retrieved 2014-07-18. 
  26. ^ "Toyota Sets Sales Record for Sixth Year in a Row". Theautochannel.com. Retrieved 2009-12-12. 
  27. ^ "Toyota Announces Best Sales Year in Its 46-Year History, Breaks Sales Record for Eighth Year in a Row". Theautochannel.com. Retrieved 2009-12-12. 
  28. ^ "Toyota Reports 2005 and December Sales". Theautochannel.com. 2006-01-04. Retrieved 2009-12-12. 
  29. ^ "Toyota Reports 2007 and December Sales". Theautochannel.com. 2008-01-03. Retrieved 2009-12-12. 
  30. ^ "Toyota Reports 2008 and December Sales". Theautochannel.com. 2009-01-05. Retrieved 2009-12-12. 
  31. ^ "December 2010 Sales Chart". Toyota USA. 2011-01-04. Retrieved 2011-12-24. 
  32. ^ "These are your top 10 worst-selling vehicles of 2011". www.autoblog.com. 2012-01-05. Retrieved 2012-03-12. 
  33. ^ "December 2012 and Year-End Sales Chart". Toyota USA Newsroom. 2013-01-03. Retrieved 2013-01-04. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Wohlfarth, Alexander (2012). The Land Cruiser Legend. Heel-Verlag. ISBN 978-3868526592. 

External links[edit]