Land Rover

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For more details of the vehicle's development between 1948 and 1985, see Land Rover Series.
Land Rover
Type Brand of Jaguar Land Rover
Industry Automotive
Founded Brand first used in 1948[1]
Headquarters Whitley, Coventry, United Kingdom[2]
Key people Dr Ralf Speth (CEO)
John Edwards (Global Brand Director)[3]
Products Automobiles
Owners Tata Motors
Parent Jaguar Land Rover
Website www.landrover.com
Land Rover marque
Owner Tata Motors
Country United Kingdom
Markets Automotive
Previous owners 1948–1967 Rover Company
1967–1968 Leyland Motor Corporation
1968–1986 British Leyland Motor Corporation
1986–2005 Rover Group
2005–2008 Ford Motor Company

Land Rover is a brand of the British car manufacturer Jaguar Land Rover, which specialises in four-wheel-drive vehicles.[4] Jaguar Land Rover, with its headquarters in Whitley, Coventry, was acquired by Tata Motors, an Indian company, in 2008.[5]

The Land Rover name was originally used by the Rover Company for one specific vehicle model, named simply the Land Rover, launched by Rover in 1948. Over the following years it developed into a marque encompassing a range of four-wheel-drive models, including the Defender, Discovery, Freelander, Range Rover, Range Rover Sport and Range Rover Evoque. Land Rovers are currently assembled in the company's Halewood and Solihull plants, with research and development taking place at JLR's Gaydon and Whitley engineering centres. Land Rover sold 194,000 vehicles worldwide in 2009.[6]

Although the brand originates from the original 1948 model, Land Rover as a company has only existed since 1978. Prior to this, it was a product line of the Rover Company which was subsequently absorbed into the Rover-Triumph division of the British Leyland Motor Corporation (BL) following Leyland Motor Corporation’s takeover of Rover in 1967. The ongoing commercial success of the original Land Rover series models, and latterly the Range Rover in the 1970s in the midst of BL's well-documented business troubles prompted the establishment of a separate Land Rover company but still under the BL umbrella, remaining part of the subsequent Rover Group in 1988, under the ownership of British Aerospace after the remains of British Leyland were broken up and privatised. In 1994 Rover Group plc was acquired by BMW. In 2000, Rover Group was broken up by BMW and Land Rover was sold to Ford Motor Company, becoming part of its Premier Automotive Group. In 2006 Ford purchased the Rover brand from BMW for around £6 million. This reunited the Rover and Land Rover brands for the first time since 2000 when the Rover group was broken up by BMW.

In June 2008, Ford sold both Land Rover and Jaguar Cars to the Indian Tata Motors. This sale also included the dormant Rover brand.[7][8][9]

In September 2013 Jaguar Land Rover announced plans to open a 100 million GBP (160 million USD) research and development centre in the University of Warwick, Coventry to create a next generation of vehicle technologies. The carmaker said around 1,000 academics and engineers would work there and that construction would start in 2014.[10][11]

History[edit]

Land Rover Series I
Land Rover Series II 88
Dashboard series IIA

The design for the original Land Rover vehicle was started in 1947 by Maurice Wilks, chief designer at the Rover Company, on his farm in Newborough, Anglesey.[12] It is said that he was inspired by an American World War II Jeep that he used one summer at his holiday home in Wales.[13][14] The first Land Rover prototype, later nicknamed 'Centre Steer', was built on a Jeep chassis and axles.[15]

The early choice of colour was dictated by military surplus supplies of aircraft cockpit paint, so early vehicles only came in various shades of light green; all models until recently feature sturdy box section ladder-frame chassis.

The early vehicles, such as the Series I, were field-tested at Long Bennington and designed to be field-serviced; advertisements for Rovers cite vehicles driven thousands of miles on banana oil. Now with more complex service requirements this is less of an option. The British Army maintains the use of the mechanically simple 2.5-litre four-cylinder 300TDi-engined versions rather than the electronically controlled 2.5-litre five-cylinder TD5 to retain some servicing simplicity. This engine also continued in use in some export markets using units built at a Ford plant in Brazil, where Land Rovers were built under licence and the engine was also used in Ford pick-up trucks built locally. Production of the TDi engine ended in the United Kingdom in 2006, meaning that Land Rover no longer offers it as an option. International Motors of Brazil offer an engine called the 2.8 TGV Power Torque, which is essentially a 2.8-litre version of the 300TDi, with a corresponding increase in power and torque.

During its ownership by Ford, Land Rover was once again associated with Jaguar – the first time the two companies had been under the same ownership since the British Leyland era. In many countries they shared a common sales and distribution network (including shared dealerships), and some models shared components and production facilities.

Sale to Tata[edit]

In June 2007, Ford Motor Company announced its plan to sell Land Rover, along with Jaguar. Ford retained the services of Goldman Sachs, Morgan Stanley and HSBC to advise it on the details of the deal. The buyer was initially expected to be announced by September 2007, but the sale was delayed and an announcement was not made until March 2008. A UK-based private equity firm, Alchemy Partners, and the India-headquartered Tata Motors and Mahindra and Mahindra expressed interest in purchasing Jaguar and Land Rover from the Ford Motor Company.[16][17]

Before the sale was announced, Anthony Bamford, chairman of British excavators manufacturer JCB, had expressed interest in purchasing Jaguar Cars in August, the year previously;[18] only to back out when told the sale would also involve Land Rover, which he did not wish to buy. [19] Tata Motors received endorsements from the Transport and General Workers' Union (TGWU)-Amicus[20] combine and Ford as a preferred bidder.[21]

In March 2008, Ford announced that it had agreed to sell its Jaguar and Land Rover operations to Tata Motors, and that the sale was expected to be completed by the end of the second quarter of 2008.[7] On 2 June 2008, the sale to Tata Motors was completed by both parties.[9] Included in the deal were the rights to three other British brands: Jaguar's own Daimler marque, as well as two dormant brands Lanchester and Rover.[22] BMW and Ford had previously retained ownership of the Rover brand to protect the integrity of the Land Rover brand, with which 'Rover' might be confused in the US 4x4 market; the Rover brand was originally used under licence by MG Rover until it collapsed in 2005, at which point it was re-acquired by the then Ford Motor Company owned Land Rover Limited.

As of August 2012, most Land Rovers in production are powered by Ford engines.[23] Under the terms of the acquisition, Tata has the right to buy engines from Ford until 2019.[24] In 2011, Tata confirmed plans that it is investing $559 million to build an engine assembly plant in the British West Midlands. However, it was only stated that the plant will produce four-cylinder engines. The eight-cylinder engines used in Land Rovers were not mentioned.[25]

Timeline[edit]

  • 1947: Rover's chief designer Maurice Wilks and his associates create a prototype using Jeep chassis and components[26]
  • 1948: The first Land Rover was officially launched 30 April 1948, at the Amsterdam Motor Show
  • 1958: Series II launched
  • 1961: Series IIA began production
  • 1967: Rover becomes part of Leyland Motors Ltd, later British Leyland (BL) as Rover Triumph
  • 1970: Introduction of the Range Rover
  • 1971: Series III launched
  • 1975: BL collapses and is nationalised, publication of the Ryder Report recommends that Land Rover be split from Rover and be treated as a separate company within BL and becomes part of the new commercial vehicle division called the Land Rover Leyland Group
  • 1976: One-millionth Land Rover leaves the production line
  • 1978: Land Rover Limited formed as a separate subsidiary of British Leyland[27]
  • 1980: Rover car production ends at Solihull with the transfer of SD1 production to Cowley, Oxford; Solihull is now exclusively for Land Rover manufacture. 5-door Range Rover introduced.
  • 1983: Land Rover 90 (Ninety)/110 (One-Ten)/127 (renamed Defender in 1990) introduced
  • 1986: BL plc becomes Rover Group plc; Project Llama started
  • 1986: Range Rover is introduced to the US market in April
  • 1988: Rover Group is privatised and becomes part of British Aerospace, and is now known simply as Rover
  • 1989: Introduction of Discovery
  • 1994: Rover Group is taken over by BMW. Introduction of second-generation Range Rover. (The original Range Rover was continued under the name 'Range Rover Classic' until 1995)
  • 1997: Land Rover introduces the Special Edition Discovery XD with AA Yellow paint, subdued wheels, SD type roof racks, and a few other off-road upgrades directly from the factory. Produced only for the North American market, the Special Vehicles Division of Land Rover created only 250 of these bright yellow SUV's.
  • 1997: Introduction of Freelander
  • 1998: Introduction of second generation of Discovery
  • 2000: BMW breaks up the Rover Group and sells Land Rover to Ford for £1.8 billion[28]
  • 2002: Introduction of third-generation Range Rover
  • 2004: Introduction of third-generation Discovery/LR3
  • 2005: Introduction of Range Rover Sport
  • 2005: Adoption of Jaguar AJ-V8 engine to replace the BMW M62 V8 in the Range Rover
  • 2005: Land Rover 'founder' Rover, collapses under the ownership of MG Rover Group
  • 2006: Announcement of a new 2.4-litre diesel engine, 6-speed gearbox, dash and forward-facing rear seats for Defender. Introduction of second generation of Freelander (Freelander 2). Ford acquires the Rover trademark from BMW, who previously licensed its use to MG Rover Group
  • 8 May 2007: 4,000,000th Land Rover rolls off the production line, a Discovery 3 (LR3), donated to The Born Free Foundation
  • 12 June 2007: Announcement from the Ford Motor Company that it plans to sell Land Rover and also Jaguar Cars
  • August 2007: Tata Motors and Mahindra and Mahindra as well as financial sponsors Cerberus Capital Management, TPG Capital and Apollo Global Management expressed their interest in purchasing Jaguar Cars and Land Rover from the Ford Motor Company.[29]
  • 26 March 2008: Ford agreed to sell their Jaguar Land Rover operations to Tata Motors.[7]
  • 2 June 2008: Tata Motors finalised their purchase of Jaguar and Land Rover from Ford.[9]
  • 2010: Introduction of fourth-generation Discovery/LR4
  • 2011: The Range Rover Evoque introduced
  • 2012: Fourth-generation Range Rover was exhibited at the 2012 Paris Motor Show
  • 2014: The New Discovery Range exhibited at the 2014 New York Motor show[30]

Manufacturing[edit]

80-inch Series I in 1952

Land Rovers were manufactured primarily at the Solihull plant, near Birmingham, but production of the Freelander was moved to the Halewood Body & Assembly plant near Liverpool, a former Ford car plant. The Freelander is also assembled in knock-down kit (CKD) form at Land Rover's facility in Pune, India.[31] Defender models are assembled under licence in several locations worldwide, including Spain (Santana Motors), Iran (Pazhan Morattab), Brazil (Karmann) and Turkey (Otokar).[32] The former BL/Rover Group technical centre at Gaydon in Warwickshire is one of the JLR group's design centres, and the former Jaguar Cars head office in Whitley is now the group head office and another group design facility.

In May 2010, Tata Motors announced that it plans to build Land Rover and Jaguar models in Mainland China (PRC) as the company seeks to cut costs and expand sales.[33] Currently Tata Motors are working on having all aluminium body constructions on all Land Rover vehicles. The Defender replacement is due for 2015, that too is expected to have an aluminium body, but it may be based off the Discovery Platforms.

Models[edit]

The 1997 Defender 90
Land Rover Series IIB Forward Control
Land Rover 109
6-wheel Land Rover Defender, Hong Kong Police Bomb Disposal

Historic[edit]

Current[edit]

2011 UK Land Rover model line-up
Model Type
Defender Large off-road 4×4
Freelander 2 (sold in some markets as LR2) Small off-road 4×4
Discovery 4 (sold in some markets as LR4) Large off-road 4×4
Range Rover Evoque Small off-road 4×4
Range Rover Sport Large off-road 4×4
Range Rover Large off-road 4×4

Concepts[edit]

Range Stormer – Land Rover's first concept vehicle, unveiled at the 2004 North American International Auto Show, later became the Range Rover Sport.(Gritzinger, 2004).

Land Rover LRX – Land Rover's second concept vehicle, first unveiled at the 2008 Detroit Auto Show. Originally a vehicle with ERAD technology, the production version did not include this. The car was then launched in 2011 as the Range Rover Evoque, and was the first Range Rover branded product to be offered with front wheel drive, and no low ratio transfer box.

Land Rover DC100 – Land Rover's third concept vehicle, first unveiled at the 2011 Frankfurt Auto Show, designed to be a replacement for the Land Rover Defender, though it is unlikely that the Defender's replacement will be exactly the same as the DC100 concept.

Land Rover Discovery Vision Concept – Land Rover's fourth concept vehicle, first unveiled at the 2014, was designed to be a replacement for the Land Rover Discovery models, This concept features Transparent Bonnet, Suicide doors, and Laser assisted lamps (there is a very little chance this will be included in any future production vehicles).

Military[edit]

Models developed for the UK Ministry of Defence (MoD) include:

  • 101 Forward Control – also known as the "Land Rover One Tonne FC"
  • 1/2 ton Lightweight – airportable military short-wheelbase from the Series 2a
  • Land Rover Wolf – an uprated Military Defender
  • Snatch Land Rover – Land Rover with composite armoured body in UK Armed Forces Service
  • 109 Series IIa and III ambulance (body by Marshalls of Cambridge)
  • Range Rover '6x6' Fire Appliance (conversion by Carmichael and Sons of Worcester) for RAF airfield use
  • 130 Defender ambulance
  • 'Llama' prototypes for 101 replacement.

Models developed for the Australian Army

Engines[edit]

Main article: Land Rover engines

During the history of the Land Rover many different engines have been fitted:

  • The inlet-over-exhaust petrol engines ("semi side-valve"), in both four- and six-cylinder variants, which were used for the very first Land Rovers in 1948, and which had their origins in pre-war Rover cars. Displacement of the first models was 1,600 cc.
  • The four-cylinder overhead-valve engines, both petrol and diesel, which first appeared (in diesel form) in 1957, near the end of Series One production, and evolved over the years to the 300 TDi turbodiesel, which remains in production today for some overseas markets.
  • The Buick-sourced all aluminium Rover V8 engine.
  • 1,997 cc Petrol, inlet-over-exhaust: Series I engine, carried over for the first few months of Series II production.
  • 2,052 cc Diesel, overhead-valve: Land Rover's first diesel engine, and one of the first small high-speed diesels produced in the UK. It appeared in 1957, and was used in Series II production until 1961. Looks almost identical to the later 2,286 cc engine, but many internal differences. It produced 51 bhp (38 kW).
  • 2,286 cc Petrol, overhead-valve, three-bearing crank:
  • 2,286 cc Diesel, overhead-valve, three-bearing crank: Appeared in 1961 alongside the redesigned 2,286 cc petrol engine at the start of Series IIA production, and shared its cylinder block and some other components. It produced 62 bhp (46 kW).
  • 2,625 cc Petrol, inlet-over-exhaust: Borrowed from the Rover saloon range, in response to demands from mid-1960s Land Rover users for more power and torque.
  • 2,286 cc petrol/diesel, overhead-valve type 11J: five-bearing crank: In 1980, Land Rover finally did something about the crank failures which had plagued its four-cylinder engines for 22 years.[citation needed] These engines lasted beyond the end of Series III production and into the first couple of years of the new Ninety and One Ten ranges.
  • 3,258 cc V8 Petrol: The ex-Buick all alloy V8 engine appeared in the Range Rover right from the start of production in 1970, but did not make its way into the company's utility vehicles until 1979.
  • 2,495 cc petrol, overhead valve: The final development of Land Rover's ohv petrol 'four', with hardened valve seats which allow running on unleaded (or LPG).
  • 2,495 cc diesel, overhead valve, type 12J: Land Rover reworked the old 'two and a quarter' diesel for the 1980s. The injection pump was driven off a toothed belt at the front of the engine (together with the camshaft), a change compared with the older diesels.
  • 2,495 cc turbodiesel, overhead valve, type 19J
  • 2,495 cc turbodiesel, overhead valve, 200TDi and 300TDi: Used in the Defender and Discovery from 1990. The cylinder block was similar to the previous engine, although strengthened but the cylinder head was all-new and a direct injection fuel system was used.
  • 2,495 cc turbodiesel, five-cylinder, TD5: An all-new engine for the second generation Discovery, and the Defender featuring electronic control of the fuel injection system, 'drive by wire' throttle, and other refinements
  • The original Freelander models were available with various Rover K-series engines.

Electric vehicles[edit]

Integrated Electric Rear Axle Drive (ERAD) technology, dubbed e-terrain technology,[34] will allow the vehicle to move off without starting the engine as well as supplying extra power over tough terrain.[34] Land Rover's Diesel ERAD Hybrid was developed as part of a multi-million-pound project supported by the UK Government's Energy Saving Trust, under the low carbon research and development programme. ERAD programme is one of a broad range of sustainability-focused engineering programmes that Land Rover is pursuing, brought together by the company under the collective name "e TERRAIN Technologies".[35]

Land Rover presented at the 2008 London Motor Show its new ERAD diesel-electric hybrid in a pair of Freelander 2 (LR2) prototypes. The new hybrid system is being designed as a scalable and modular system that could be applied across a variety of Land Rover models and powertrains.[36]

Land Rover unveiled the LRX hybrid concept at the 2008 North American International Auto Show in Detroit, for it to be going into production.[37] An ERAD will enable the car to run on electric power at speeds below 20 mph (32 km/h).[38]

In September 2011, the Range Rover Evoque was launched, though it was based on the LRX hybrid concept presented at the 2008 North American Auto Show, it did not include the ERAD system, included in the original concept.

In February 2013, Land Rover unveiled[39][40] at the 83rd Geneva Motor Show an All-Terrain Electric Defender that produces zero emissions. The electric vehicle was developed for research purposes following successful trials of the Defender-based electric vehicle, Leopard 1. The vehicle is capable of producing 70kW and 330Nm of torque and has a range of 80 kilometres or in low speed off-road use it can last for up to eight hours before recharging.

Abilities[edit]

Land-Rovers at AgQuip, Gunnedah, Australia

Power take-off (PTO) was integral to the Land Rover concept from 1948, enabling farm machinery and many other items to be run with the vehicle stationary. Maurice Wilks' original instruction was "...to have power take-offs everywhere!" The 1949 report by the British National Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Scottish Machinery Testing Station described "the power take-off is driven through a Hardy-Spicer propeller shaft from the main gearbox output and two interchangeable pinions giving two ratios. The PTO gearbox casing is bolted to the rear chassis cross-member and an 8 by 8 inches (200 mm × 200 mm) belt pulley driven from the PTO shaft through two bevel gears can be bolted to the PTO gearbox casing." PTOs remained regular options on Series I, II and III Land Rovers up to the demise of the Series Land Rover in 1985. An agricultural PTO on a Defender is possible as a special order.

Land Rover (the Series/Defender models) is that they are available in a variety of body styles, from a simple canvas-topped pick-up truck to a twelve-seat fully trimmed station wagon. Both Land Rover and out-of-house contractors have offered conversions and adaptations to the basic vehicle, such as fire engines, excavators, 'cherry picker' hydraulic platforms, ambulances, snowploughs, and six-wheel-drive versions, as well as one-off special builds including amphibious Land Rovers and vehicles fitted with tracks instead of wheels.

Military use[edit]

British Land Rover near Pyongyang, November 1950, during the Korean War
A mired Land Rover of the 1st Armoured Division being extracted during the Gulf War
Defenders of the Bermuda Regiment, 1994
Land Rovers on parade with the Italian Army, Navy and Air Force, June 2007

Various Land Rover models have been used in a military capacity, most notably by the British Army and Australian Army. Modifications may include military "blackout" lights, heavy-duty suspension, uprated brakes, 24 volt electrics, convoy lights, electronic suppression of the ignition system, blackout curtains and mounts for special equipment and small arms. Dedicated military models have been produced such as the 101 Forward Control and the air-portable 1/2 ton Lightweight. Military uses include light utility vehicle; communications platform; weapon platform for recoilless rifles, Anti-tank (e.g. TOW or M40 recoilless rifle) / Surface-to-Air Guided Weapons or machine guns; ambulances and workshops. The Discovery has also been used in small numbers, mostly as liaison vehicles.

Two models that have been designed for military use from the ground up are the 101 Forward Control from the early 1970s and the Lightweight or Airportable from the late 1960s. The latter was intended to be transported under a helicopter. The Royal Air Force Mountain Rescue Service (RAFMRS) teams were early users in the late 1950s and early 1960s, and their convoys of Land Rovers and larger military trucks are a sight often seen in the mountain areas of the United Kingdom. Originally RAFMRS Land Rovers had blue bodies and bright yellow tops, to be better seen from above. In 1981, the colour scheme was changed to green with yellow stripes. More recently, vehicles have been painted white, and are issued with fittings similar to civilian UK Mountain Rescue teams.

An adaptation of Land Rovers to military purposes is the "Pink Panther" models. Approximately 100 Series IIA models were adapted to reconnaissance use by the British special operations forces the SAS. For desert use they were often painted pink, hence the name. The vehicles were fitted with among other gear a sun compass, machine guns, larger fuel tanks and smoke dischargers. Similar adaptations were later made to Series IIIs and 90/110/Defenders.[41]

The Australian Army adapted the Land Rover Series 2 into the Long Range Patrol Vehicle for use by the Special Air Service Regiment and as an anti-tank "gunbuggy" fitted with an M40 recoilless rifle.

The 75th Ranger Regiment of the United States Army also adapted twelve versions of the Land Rover that were officially designated the Ranger Special Operations Vehicle.

Series and Defender models have also been armoured. The most widespread of these is the Shorts Shorland, built by Shorts Brothers of Belfast. The first of these were delivered in 1965 to the Royal Ulster Constabulary, the Northern Ireland police force. They were originally 109-inch (2,800 mm) wheelbase models with an armoured body and a turret from the Ferret armoured car. By 1990, there had been more than 1,000 produced.[42] In the 1970s, a more conventional armoured Land Rover was built for the Royal Ulster Constabulary in Wales called the Hotspur. The Land Rover Tangi was built by the Royal Ulster Constabulary's own vehicle engineering team during the 1990s. The British Army has used various armoured Land Rovers, first in Northern Ireland but also in more recent campaigns. They first added protective panels to Series General Service vehicles (the Vehicle Protection Kit (VPK)). Later they procured the Glover Webb APV and finally the Courtaulds (later NP Aerospace) Composite Armoured Vehicle, commonly known as Snatch. These were originally based on heavy-duty V8 110 chassis but some have recently been re-mounted on new chassis from Otokar of Turkey and fitted with diesel engines and air-conditioning for Iraq. Although these now have more in common with the 'Wolf' (Defender XD) Land Rovers that many mistakenly confuse them with, the Snatch and the Wolf are different vehicles.

The most radical conversion of a Land Rover for military purposes was the Centaur half-track. It was based on a Series III with a V8 engine and a shortened belt drive from the Alvis Scorpion light tank. A small number was manufactured, and they were used by Ghana, among others.

The Land Rover is used by military forces throughout the world. The current generation of Land Rover used by the British Army, the Snatch 2, have upgraded and strengthened chassis and suspension compared to civilian-specification vehicles. There is also the Land Rover WMIK (weapon mounted installation kit) used by the British Army. The WMIK consists of a driver, a raised gun, usually a Browning heavy machine gun or a grenade machine gun, this used for ground support, and a GPMG (general-purpose machine gunner) located next to the driver, this used for vehicle protection.

Competitive use[edit]

Highly modified Land Rovers have competed in the Dakar Rally and won the Macmillan 4x4 UK Challenge almost every year, as well as having been the vehicle used for the Camel Trophy. Now, Land Rover has its own G4 challenge.[43]

Driver training[edit]

Land Rover Experience was established in 1990, and consists of a network of centres throughout the world, set up to help customers get the most out of their vehicles' on and off-road capability. The flagship centres are Land Rover's bases at Solihull, Eastnor, Gaydon and Halewood. Courses offered include off-road driving, winching and trailer handling, along with a variety of corporate and individual 'Adventure Days'. The factory centres at Solihull and Halewood have manufacturing tours, while Gaydon has an engineering tour.

Safety[edit]

Model-by-model road accident statistics from the UK Department for Transport show that the Land Rover Defender is one of the safest cars on British roads as measured by chance of death in two-car injury accidents.[44] The figures, which were based on data collected by police forces following accidents between 2000 and 2004 in Great Britain, showed that Defender drivers had a 1% chance of being killed or seriously injured and a 33% chance of sustaining any kind of injury. Other four-wheel-drive vehicles scored equally highly, and collectively these vehicles were much safer for their passengers than those in other classes such as passenger cars and MPVs. These figures reflect the fact that drivers of large mass vehicles are likely to be safer, often at the expense of other drivers if they collide with smaller cars.

Clubs[edit]

The original Land Rover Owners Club was set up by the Rover Company in 1954. The company published the Land Rover Owners Club Review magazine for members from 1957 to 1968 when the club became the Rover Owners Association. This original association fell away when the company merged with British Leyland.

There are many Land Rover clubs throughout the UK and internationally. Land Rover clubs break down into a number of groups of varying interests.

Single Marque Clubs – Bring together owners of a specific model or series of vehicle such as the Land Rover Series One Club,[45] or the Discovery Owners Club.[46] Clubs based on ownership of earlier series vehicles tend to attract the purists amongst Land Rover owners whose interests often relate to restoration of their vehicles to their original condition.[citation needed]. Single marque clubs have a global membership.

Special Vehicle Clubs – At various times Land Rover have produced vehicles for specific events or on a specific theme, most notable are the Camel Trophy and G4 Challenge vehicles which have been sold on to the general public, and a range of Defenders that were loosely based on the custom vehicles produced for the Tomb Raider motion picture.

Regional Clubs in the UK break down into two groups, competitive and non-competitive. The non-competitive clubs activities generally relate to social events, off road driving or green laning on un-surfaced public highways or 'pay and play' days at off road centres. Competitive clubs are a phenomenon almost exclusively found within the UK, who as well as the non-competitive activities detailed above run competitive events such as Tyro, Road Taxed Vehicle (RTV) and Cross Country Vehicle (CCV) trials, winch and recovery challenges or speed events such as Competitive Safari's. All UK competitive events are run within the framework of rules created by the Motor Sports Association (MSA) with further vehicle specific rules applied by the host club or association. Outside of the UK regional clubs are independent and mostly non-competitive.

A number of clubs are affiliated to the Association of Land Rover Clubs (ALRC),[47] formerly known as the Association of Rover Clubs (ARC) the association applies its own vehicle regulations to all of its member clubs who have the opportunity to compete together at regional events and an annual national event with vehicles approved to the same standard. In recent years some non-competitive clubs have dropped their affiliation fifth ALRC. Few clubs outside of the UK are affiliated with ALRC.[48] Other than ALRC and the short lived Association of North American Rover Clubs (ANARC), which was created 1998 to celebrate Land Rover's 50th anniversary and disbanded in 2001, other groups of Land Rover clubs have affiliated with each other.

Land Rover owners were also early adopters of virtual clubs that are entirely based online. Bill Caloccia [49] created the original Land Rover Owner[50] email list (LRO) as single marque off shoot of the British Cars email list in May 1990.[51] Bill later created email lists in the mid 1990s for Range Rovers (RRO) and various regions (e.g., UK-LRO, AU-LRO, ZA-LRO, EU-LRO, IT-LRO, NL-LRO). In California members of the LRO list created mendo_recce in 1995.[52] LRO, UK-LRO, ZA-LRO and mendo_recce are still active email lists in 2014. As the web became popular forums web forums (e.g., Muddy Oval, Guns and Rovers, Defender Source, Land Rover Addict) and groups existing only in FaceBook or other social media sites have been created and are popular communication methods.

In 2005, under Ford ownership, Land Rover became more interested in the club environment. An internal club was formed, The Land Rover Club,[53] exclusive to employees of Ford's Premier Automotive Group (Now exclusive to the new 'Jaguar – Land Rover' group since the brand moved away from the Ford stable). Also, an agreement was generated to allow other clubs to use the Land Rover green oval logo under licence. In 2006, the Bedfordshire, Hertfordshire and Cambridgeshire club were the pilot licensees for the new agreement, who now benefit from a reciprocal arrangement where their own logo is trade marked[54] and owned by Land Rover and they can refer to themselves as a 'Land Rover Approved Club'.

Brand extensions[edit]

Bicycles[edit]

In 1995, Land Rover endorsed the production of a hand-made bicycle using its logo. The bicycle, called the Land Rover APB and manufactured by Pashley Cycles of Stratford-upon-Avon,[55] was the collapsible version of Pashley Cycles'Moulton APB (All Purpose Bicycle) model, with leading link front suspension and adjustable damping and stroke. Two more models immediately followed: the Land Rover XCB V-20, aimed primarily at younger riders (children); and the Land Rover XCB D-26, also available as the M26 with hydraulic rim brakes, front suspension and suspension seat pillar.

In June 2004, Land Rover released a comprehensive 25 model range of bicycles. The three main ranges are the "Defender", the "Discovery", and the "Freelander", each with different attributes. The "Discovery" is an all-rounder bicycle suited to a variety of terrains, "Defender" is most suited to rugged terrain and off road pursuits, whereas the "Freelander" is designed for an urban lifestyle. All bikes are made from lightweight aluminium.

In 2010 the range was relaunched in conjunction with British manufacturer 2x2.[56]

Coffee[edit]

Land Rover has had its name associated with coffee since 2005, when the Land Rover Coffee company was established.[57]

Pushchairs[edit]

Land Rover gave UK pram company Pegasus a licence to produce a three-wheeler range of Land Rover ATP pushchairs. The design reflected the heritage of the marque, with a light metal frame with canvas seating, held together with push-studs and tough simple parts like brakes and hinges. They could be collapsed completely flat, with wheels removed in seconds. The basic frame could be adapted with modules to allow a baby to lie flat or a bubble windscreen to completely enclose the child. The frame also came in long or short-handled versions, and could be repaired with home tools. The design was simple, light, and rugged and able to travel in all terrains (hence the ATP for all-terrain pushchair.) It came in three military looking colours: a light blue, a sand colour and olive drab. Production was discontinued in 2002.[58]

Similar vehicles[edit]

  • Santana Motor Spanish licensed producer of modified Land Rovers
    • Iveco Massif Italian variant of Santana Anibal (produced jointly with Iveco,essentially a rebadged and branded PS-10) – rebadged and restyled version of the Santana PS-10. In 2010, the sales of the Iveco Massif were not as expected and Iveco decided to stop the agreement with Santana.
  • Morattab, an SUV manufacturer based in Tehran, Iran, has produced the Herour, a clone of the Series, since 1962. The currently produced models are versions of the "Series IV" made by Santana Motor of Spain until the early 1990s, when the production tooling and design were sold to Morattab and shipped to Iran. As such unlicensed Morattab clones differ significantly from the final Series III built by Land Rover in the United Kingdom. For example, Series IV models have parabolic leaf springs, one-piece windscreens and fully fitted interiors. Morattab also fits locally built 1.8-litre 4-cylinder petrol engines derived from Nissan instead of the 2.25-litre 4-cylinder or 3.3-litre 6-cylinder engines fitted to the Santana Series IV.[59]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  59. ^ http://www.morattab.ir/en/Service/item/Product/34/HEROUR

External links[edit]