Land speed record
||It has been suggested that Wheel-driven land speed record be merged into this article. (Discuss) Proposed since February 2013.|
The land speed record (or absolute land speed record) is the highest speed achieved by a wheeled vehicle on land. There is no single body for validation and regulation; in practice the Category C ("Special Vehicles") flying start regulations are used, officiated by regional or national organizations under the auspices of the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile. The record is standardized as the speed over a course of fixed length, averaged over two runs (commonly called "passes"). Two runs are required in opposite directions within one hour, and a new record mark must exceed the previous one by at least one percent to be validated. There are numerous other class records for cars; motorcycles fall into a separate class.
Different clubs had different standards and did not always recognise the same world records until 1924, when the Association Internationale des Automobile Clubs Reconnus (AIACR) introduced new regulations: two passes in opposite directions (to negate the effects of wind) averaged with a maximum of 30 minutes (later more) between runs, average gradient of the racing surface not more than 1 percent, timing gear accurate within 0.01sec, and cars must be wheel-driven. National or regional auto clubs (such as AAA and SCTA) had to be AIACR members to ensure records would be recognized. The AIACR became the FIA in 1947. Controversy arose in 1963: Spirit of America failed on being a three-wheeler (leading the Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme to certify the record when the FIA refused) and not wheel-driven so the FIA introduced a special wheel-driven class. No holder of the absolute record since has been wheel-driven.
Women's land speed record
In 1906 Dorothy Levitt broke the women's world speed record for the flying kilometer, recording a speed of 91 mph (146.25 km/h) and receiving the sobriquet the "Fastest Girl on Earth". She drove a six-cylinder Napier motorcar, a 100 hp (74.6 kW) development of the K5, in a speed trial in Blackpool. The subsequent record was held by Lee Breedlove, the wife of Craig Breedlove, who piloted her husband's Spirit of America - Sonic 1 to a record of 308.506 mph (496.492 km/h) in 1965, making her the fastest woman alive, as of 1974[update]. According to author Rachel Kushner, Craig Breedlove had talked Lee into taking the car out for a record attempt in order to monopolize the salt flats for the day and block one of his competitors from making a record attempt.
The current women's land speed record is held by Kitty O'Neil, a stuntwoman who in 1976 drove a jet-powered vehicle named the SMI Motivator to reach an average two-way speed of 512.710 mph (825.127 km/h) at the Alvord Desert. Through her career as a stuntwoman, she met Bill Fredrick, the stunt technology maker and high-speed car designer who built the "Motivator" vehicle. A $20,000 contract afforded O'Neil the chance to drive the car in an attempt to break only the women's land speed record; Kitty O'Neil was contractually obligated not to attempt to break the broader land speed record, so that movie director and fellow stuntperson Hal Needham could make the attempt instead.
|December 18, 1898||Achères, Yvelines, France||Gaston de Chasseloup-Laubat||Jeantaud Duc||Electric||39.24||63.15|
|December 18, 1898||Achères, Yvelines, France||Gaston de Chasseloup-Laubat||Jeantaud Duc||Electric||57.65||92.78||First specialist land speed record vehicle, first 60 mph pass|
|January 17, 1899||Achères, Yvelines, France||Camille Jenatzy||La Jamais Contente||Electric||65.792||105.882||First man to break a land speed record |
|April 13, 1902||Nice, France
Promenade des Anglais
Oeuf de Pâques (Easter Egg)
|Aug 5, 1902||Albis-St. Arnoult, France||William K. Vanderbilt||Mors||Internal combustion||76.08||122.438||First IC-powered record|
|January 12, 1904||Lake St. Clair, USA||Henry Ford||Ford 999 Racer||IC||—||91.37||147.05||On frozen lake (Not recognized by L'Automobile Club de France)|
|January 26, 1906||Ormond Beach, USA||Fred Marriott||Stanley Rocket||Steam||127.66||205.44||First record over 200 km/h (124 mph). First speed greater than contemporary rail speed record.
Remained the record for steam powered vehicles until 25 August 2009.
|November 6, 1909||Brooklands, United Kingdom||Victor Hémery||Benz No 1
200 hp (150 kW)
|IC||125.94||202.68||115.93||186.57||First run using electronic timing|
|June 24, 1914||Brooklands, United Kingdom||Lydston Hornsted||Benz No 3
200 hp (150 kW)
|IC||—||124.09||199.70||First 2-way record, set at Brooklands under new Association International des Automobile Clubs Reconnus (AIACR) 2-way rule|
|July 12, 1924||France||Ernest Eldridge||FIAT Mephistopheles||IC||—||145.89||234.98||Fastest LSR ever on a public road|
|September 25, 1924||Pendine, United Kingdom||Malcolm Campbell||Sunbeam 350HP||IC||—||146.16||235.22||First landspeed record by Malcolm Campbell|
|July 21, 1925||Pendine, United Kingdom||Malcolm Campbell||Sunbeam 350HP||IC||—||150.87||242.8||First person to travel over 150 mph|
|April 28, 1926||Pendine, United Kingdom||Parry Thomas||Babs||IC||—||170||273.6|
|February 4, 1927||Pendine, United Kingdom||Malcolm Campbell||Blue Bird||IC||—||174.88||281.44|||
|March 29, 1927||Daytona Beach, USA||Henry Segrave||Mystery
(aka "Sunbeam 1000 hp")
|203.79||327.97||The first car to reach a speed over 200 mph (320 km/h)|
|February 19, 1928||Daytona Beach, USA||Malcolm Campbell||Blue Bird||206.956||333.048|||
|April 22, 1928||Daytona Beach, USA||Ray Keech||Triplex Special||3 Liberty||207.552||334.007|||
|March 11, 1929||Daytona Beach, USA||Henry Segrave||Golden Arrow||925 hp (690 kW) Napier||231.446||372.459||Segrave was knighted for this effort|
|February 5, 1931||Verneuk Pan, South Africa||Malcolm Campbell||Blue Bird||IC||246.09||396.025||First 250 mph (400 km/h) pass. Campbell was knighted for this effort|
|February 24, 1932||Daytona Beach, USA||Malcolm Campbell||Blue Bird||IC||253.97||408.73|||
|February 22, 1933||Daytona Beach, USA||Malcolm Campbell||Blue Bird||IC||272.46||438.48|||
|March 7, 1935||Daytona Beach, USA||Malcolm Campbell||Blue Bird||IC||276.816||445.472|||
|September 3, 1935||Bonneville Salt Flats, USA||Malcolm Campbell||Blue Bird||IC||301.129||484.598||First 300 mph (480 km/h) pass, first absolute record set at Bonneville|
|November 19, 1937||Bonneville Salt Flats, USA||George Eyston||Thunderbolt||Two Rolls-Royce Schneider Trophy engines (4,700 hp (3,500 kW))||311.42||501.16|||
|August 27, 1938||Bonneville Salt Flats, USA||George Eyston||Thunderbolt||345.49||556.012|
|15 September 1938||Bonneville Salt Flats, USA||John Cobb||Railton||350.2||563.566|||
|September 16, 1938||Bonneville Salt Flats, USA||George Eyston||Thunderbolt||357.5||575.314|||
|August 23, 1939||Bonneville Salt Flats, USA||John Cobb||Railton Special||IC||369.74||595.04||367.91|
|September 16, 1947||Bonneville Salt Flats, USA||John Cobb||Railton Mobil Special||IC||394.196||634.397||394.19||634.39|
|July 17, 1964||Lake Eyre, Australia||Donald Campbell||Bluebird CN7||turboshaft||403.10||644.96|
1963–present (jet and rocket propulsion)
Craig Breedlove's mark of 407.447 miles per hour (655.722 km/h), set in Spirit of America in September 1963, was initially considered unofficial. The vehicle breached the FIA regulations on two grounds: it had only three wheels, and it was not wheel-driven, since its jet engine did not supply power to its axles. Some time later, the Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme created a non-wheel-driven category, and ratified Spirit of America's time for this mark. On July 27, 1964, Donald Campbell's Bluebird CN7 posted a speed of 403.10 miles per hour (648.73 km/h) on Lake Eyre, Australia. This became the official FIA LSR, although Campbell was disappointed not to have beaten Breedlove's time. In October, several four-wheel jet-cars surpassed the 1963 mark, but were eligible for neither FIA nor FIM ratification. The confusion of having three different LSRs lasted until December 11, 1964, when the FIA and FIM met in Paris and agreed to recognize as an absolute LSR the higher speed recorded by either body, by any vehicles running on wheels, whether wheel-driven or not. Thus, Art Arfons' Green Monster was belatedly recognized as the absolute LSR holder, Bluebird the holder of the wheel-driven land speed record, and Spirit of America the tricycle record holder. No wheel-driven car has since held the absolute record.
|August 5, 1963||Bonneville Salt Flats, USA||Craig Breedlove||Spirit of America||Turbojet||407.447||Ratified by FIM as vehicle has 3 wheels.|
|October 2, 1964||Bonneville Salt Flats, USA||Tom Green||Wingfoot Express||Turbojet||413.2|
|October 5, 1964||Bonneville Salt Flats, USA||Art Arfons||Green Monster||Turbojet||434.03|
|November 2, 1965||Bonneville Salt Flats, USA||Craig Breedlove||Spirit of America - Sonic 1||Turbojet||555.485||893.966||555.485||893.966|
|November 15, 1965||Bonneville Salt Flats, USA||Craig Breedlove||Spirit of America - Sonic 1||Turbojet||594||955.950||600.601||-|
|October 23, 1970||Bonneville Salt Flats, USA||Gary Gabelich||Blue Flame||Rocket||630.478||1014.656||622.407||1001.667|||
|October 4, 1983||Black Rock Desert, USA||Richard Noble||Thrust2||Turbojet||634.051||1020.406||633.47||1019.47|||
|September 25, 1997||Black Rock Desert, USA||Andy Green||ThrustSSC||Turbofan||713.990||1149.055||714.144||1149.303|||
|October 15, 1997||Black Rock Desert, USA||Andy Green||ThrustSSC||Turbofan||760.343||1223.657||763.035||1227.986|
- List of vehicle speed records
- Wheel-driven land speed record
- British land speed record
- List of fastest production cars
- Land speed record for rail vehicles
- Motorcycle land speed record
- Pioneer 2M – Soviet Union attempt at the land speed record in early 1960s
- Budweiser Rocket – Reached a momentary top speed of 746 mph (1,201 km/h) and claimed to have broken the sound barrier in 1979
- North American Eagle Project – Aiming for 808 mph (1,300 km/h) to break current record.
- Bloodhound SSC – Project aiming for 1,050 mph (1,690 km/h).
- Rosco McGlashan – Australia's fastest man on the land. His Aussie Invader team is building[when?] a fully rocket-powered LSR car.
- The Bullet Project – Australia's land speed record challenger
||This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (August 2009)|
- "FIA land speed records". FIA. Retrieved 2008-10-16.
- Regulations for Record Attempts - CHAPTER 2 - FIA
- "§105. Conditions for the recognition of international or world records". Sporting Code: Chapter 7: Records. FIA. Retrieved 2008-10-16.
- Northey, Tom (1974). "Land Speed Record: The Fastest Men on Earth". In Ian Ward. World of Automobiles. Vol. 10. London: Orbis. p. 1162.
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- Hull, Peter G. "Napier: The Stradivarius of the Road", in Northey, Tom, ed. The World of Automobiles (London: Orbis, 1974), Volume 13, p.1483.
- G.N. Georgano Cars: Early and Vintage, 1886–1930. (London: Grange-Universal, 1985).
- "Women in Motorsport - Timeline". Btinternet.com. Archived from the original on 2012-07-24. Retrieved 2010-10-17.[dead link]
- Twite, Mike. (1974), "Breedlove: Towards the sound barrier", World of Automobiles, Orbis Publishing 2: 231
- "Knowingly Navigating the Unknown", Maria Russo, The New York Times, May 7, 2013
- Ellen Jares, Sue. "The Renaissance Woman of Danger—That's Tiny Kitty O'Neil". People. Retrieved 7 January 2014.
- Phinizy, Coles. "A Rocket Ride To Glory And Gloom". SI Vault. Retrieved 7 January 2014.
- "Deaf stuntwoman Kitty O'Neil sets women's land-speed record". History. Retrieved 7 January 2014.
- Northey, p.1161.
- Cars Against the Clock, The World Land Speed Record, Robert B. Jackson (New York, Henry Z. Walck, Inc.), p.19, ISBN 0-8098-2078-1
-  - The British Steam Car Challenge
- Scott A. G. M. Crawford, "Campbell, Sir Malcolm (1885–1948)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, Jan 2011 accessed 20 April 2013
- Holthusen, Peter J.R. (1986). The Land Speed Record ISBN 0-85429-499-6
- Northey, Tom (1974). "Land Speed Record: The Fastest Men on Earth". In Tom Northey. World of Automobiles. Vol. 10 (London: Orbis), pp.1164-5.
- Northey, p.1165.
- Twite, Mike. "Craig Breedlove: Toward the Sound Barrier", in World of Automobiles (Volume 2, p.231).
- "from our motoring correspondent" (December 12, 1964). "Land Speed Record Agreement". The Times (Issue 56193). p. 7, col E.
- Cars Against the Clock, The Fastest Men on Earth, Clifton, Paul, New York, The John Day Company, page 238, L.C. 66-15097
- Spirit of America, Breedlove, Craig, Chicago, Illinois, Henry Regnery Company, pages 183-184, L.C. 71-143833
- "FIA land speed records, Cat C". FIA. Retrieved 2009-07-12.
- http://fia.com/en-GB/sport/records/Pages/Introduction.aspx FIA, retrieved 17 January 2011
- Autoracing Speed Records at DMOZ
- Aussie Invader official website - Australian challengers to the supersonic showdown
- The UK Land Speed Racing Association
- Speed Record Club - The Speed Record Club seeks to promote an informed and educated enthusiast identity, reporting accurately and impartially to the best of its ability on record-breaking engineering, events, attempts and history.
- The Land Speed Record in the Sixties: an on-line collection