Land mines in North Africa

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This article discusses the problem represented by landmines in North Africa, the consequent suffering of its peoples, and how the countries in the region deal with this problem.

History[edit]

On 10 June 1940, during World War II, Italy declared war on Great Britain and France . The Italians being already existing in their colonies, along with colonies' native peoples, are included in this conflict. The Italians initially attacked Egypt, and the British, tied with Egyptians by the 1936 treaty, counterattacked and occupied Cyrenaica. The Italians asked for help from their German allies, and so, they entered the theatre of war in North Africa. War continued with no decisive victory until the German-Italian forces had been defeated at the Second Battle of Alamein in late 1942. German-Italian forces withdrew from Egypt and Libya to Tunisia. The British, with the help of American allies defeated their opponents on 12 May 1943, ending the North African campaign.

During the war, each side used land-mines to impede the enemy's progress. While it is unknown how many were used throughout North Africa, it is known from the memoirs of Erwin Rommel that some 80,000 mines were laid at the Buerat-Line in Libya.[1]

Many of the mines are still operational and pose a risk to local populations. The responsibility for removing them has been left to the governments of North African nations.

Egypt[edit]

One of United Nations's missions estimated that there are 19.7 million mines in the western desert of Egypt.[2] Great efforts has been done in extracting mines.[citation needed] In a 1997 interview with major-general Ibrahim Abdul-Fattah, chief of the military engineers force in the Egyptian armed forces, he stated that 8301 Egyptian persons (civilian and military) were affected by land mines by 1997. Of them, 7611 were wounded and 690 were killed.[3]

Libya[edit]

Land mine from WW II at Bir Hakeim, Libya
Defused dud near Bir Hakeim, Libya

The White Book, issued by Libyan government in 1981, shows that for every year from 1939 (before the war) to 1975, there are killed citizens by the explosion of left-over military munitions (including mines), except for the years 1969-70.[4] Year 1945 had the bloodiest record of 130 killed.[5] Most of mine fields are in the coastal area,[6] the most populated zone of the country.

Libya also has a bad heritage of land mines from the Libyan-Egyptian war in 1977. During the Libyan civil war in 2011, Muammar al Qadafi regime laid land mines to check the advance of the rebel forces.[7]

In the 1990s about one dozen explosives removal teams worked in the former battle fields, in Libya, to defuse land mines and duds. Since the European countries didn't feel responsible for the removal of these explosives, the Libyan government had to pay for this dangerous work.[8]

Tunisia[edit]

  • The contributor has no accurate figures from Tunisia, but can have an idea from one of thirty volumes telling the story of World War II. One of the scripts said: " On March 17 [1943] he [General Patton] captured Gafsa…On April 8 …joined up with the 8th Army, whilst on his left, the French XIX Corps moved towards the Eastern Dorsale. But neither of them was able to intercept the Italian army as it retreated north towards Enfidaville via Sfax and Sousse. This was because of the vast numbers of land-mines that Italian and German sappers laid , one of which …killed ..Major-General Edouard Welvert, commanding the "Constantine" Motorised Division, as they were entering Kairouan".[9]
  • Today, the Tunisian Army is extracting by his own potential between 200-300 mines every year.[10]

Diplomatic Efforts[edit]

Although these three countries suffer from the same problem, they never unified their diplomatic engagements with the formerly belligerent countries, Italy, Germany, and Great Britain. This weakened their positions in demanding the extraction of the mines, and compensation for war damages. Libya, and Egypt work apart. Tunisia signed in December 1997 the Ottawa Treaty calling for banning the use of mines in warfare,[11] but this signing will not save its people from the danger of mines.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The Rommel Papers, vol.5, p.650
  2. ^ A. I. Mahmud, p.233
  3. ^ A. I. Mahmud, p.250
  4. ^ The White Book, p.146-147
  5. ^ The White Book, p.146
  6. ^ The White Book, p.149
  7. ^ Libya:Government Use of Landmines Confirmed
  8. ^ (German) http://www.focus.de/magazin/archiv/minen-deutsche-spuren-im-sahara-sand_aid_142977.html
  9. ^ Peter Young (ed.), the History of World War II, vol.12, p.1087
  10. ^ A. I. Mahmud, p.208
  11. ^ A. I. Mahmud, pp.140-141

References[edit]

  • Basil Henry Liddell-Hart (ed.)," The Rommel Papers", translated to Arabic by Fathi Abdullah An Nimr, Maktabat al Anglo-Misriya, Cairo.
  • Ahmed Ibrahim Mahmud, " Mushkilat al Algham fi Misr wa Ab'ad al Mushkila fil Alam: Khususiyat al Hala al Misriya", Markaz Al-Ahram lid Dirasat as Siyasiya wal Stratijiya, Cairo, 2000.
  • Libya, The White Book, Markaz Al-Jihad Al-Libi, 1981.
  • Peter Young (ed.), the History of World War II, vol.12, Orbis Publication, 1984.

External links[edit]