Landing Craft Mechanized

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
An American Landing Craft Mechanized (LCM in June 2009.
Troops and a LCM in August 1943
An LCM during the invasion of Leyte

The Landing Craft Mechanized (LCM) or Landing Craft Mechanical is a landing craft designed for carrying vehicles. They came to prominence during the Second World War when they were used to land troops or tanks during Allied amphibious assaults.

Variants[edit]

There was no single design of LCM used, unlike the Landing Craft, Vehicle, Personnel (LCVP) or Landing Craft Assault (LCA) landing craft made by the US and UK respectively. There were several different designs built by the UK and US and by different manufacturers.

The British Motor Landing Craft was conceived and tested in the 1920s and was used from 1924 in exercises. It was the first purpose built tank landing craft. It was the progenitor of all subsequent LCM designs.

LCM (1)[edit]

Main article: LCM 1

The Landing Craft, Mechanised Mark I was an early British model. It was able to be slung under the davits of a liner or on a cargo ship boom with the result that it was limited to a 16 ton tank.[1]

The Landing Craft, Mechanised Mark I was used during the Allied landings in Norway[citation needed], and at Dieppe and some 600 were built.

  • Displacement: 35 tonnes
  • Length : 13.6 m
  • Width : 4.27 m
  • Draught : 1.22 m
  • Machinery : two Chrysler 100 hp petrol engines
  • Speed : 7 knots
  • Crew : 6 men
  • Armament : two .303 in. Lewis guns
  • capacity: one medium tank, or 26.8 tons of cargo or 60 troops
    • 100 men [2]
    • 54,500 lbs with 9 inches of freeboard[3]

LCM (2)[edit]

Main article: LCM (2)
  • Displacement: 29 tons
  • Length: 45 ft (14 m)
  • Beam: 14 ft 1 in (4.3 m)
  • Draft: 13 ft (4.0 m)
  • Speed: 8.5 knots (15.7 km/h)
  • Armament: two .50-cal M2 Browning machine guns
  • Crew: 4
  • capacity; 100 troops, or one 13.5 ton tank, or 15 tons of cargo

The first American LCM design, from the US Navy's Bureau of Construction and Repair. Approximately 150 were built by American Car & Foundry and Higgins Industries.

LCM (3)[edit]

Higgins LCM-3 at Battleship Cove

There were two designs:

  • BUREAU

Capable of carrying 120,000 lb (54,000 kg) of cargo.

  • Higgins

The builder, Higgins Industries, was also responsible for the LCVP. In appearance very similar to the LCVP with a 10-foot (3.0 m) wide load area at the front and a small armoured (1/4 inch steel) wheelhouse on the aft decking over the engine room. A Higgins LCM-3 is on display at the Battleship Cove maritime museum in Fall River, Massachusetts.[4]

  • Displacement: 52 tons (loaded); 23 tons (empty)
  • Length: 50 feet (15 m)
  • Beam: 14 feet (4.3 m)
  • Draft: 3 feet (0.91 m) (forward); 4 feet (1.2 m) (aft)
  • Speed: 8 knots (9.2 mph) (loaded); 11 knots (13 mph) (empty)
  • Armament: two .50-cal M2 Browning machine guns
  • Crew: 4
  • Capacity: One 30-ton tank (e.g. M4 Sherman), 60 troops, or 60,000 lb (27,000 kg) of cargo

LCM (4)[edit]

In the years 1943 and 1944, seventy-seven LCM(4)s were built.[5] Outwardly, the LCM(4) was almost completely identical to a late model LCM(1) - the difference lay inside the pontoon. Here special bilge pumps and special ballast tanks allowed the LCM(4) to alter trim to increase stability when partially loaded.

LCM (5)[edit]

British model of LCM

LCM (6)[edit]

An LCM (3) extended by 6 feet (1.8 m) amidships. Many were later adapted as Armoured Troop Carriers (ATCs or "Tangos") for the Mobile Riverine Force in the Vietnam War; others became "Zippos" with flamethrowers, "Monitors" with 105mm guns or "Charlie" command variants.

  • Power Plant:
    • 2 Detroit 6-71 Diesel engines; 348 hp (260 kW) sustained; twin shaft; or
    • 2 Detroit 8V-71 Diesel engines; 460 hp (340 kW) sustained; twin shaft
  • Length: 56.2 feet (17.1 m)
  • Beam: 14 feet (4.3 m)
  • Displacement: 64 tons (65 metric tons) full load
  • Speed: 9 kt (10.3 mph, 16.6 km/h)
  • Range:130 miles (240 km) at 9 knots (17 km/h)
  • Military lift: 34 tons (34.6 metric tons) or 80 troops
  • Crew: 5

LCM (7)[edit]

British model of LCM

LCM (8)[edit]

LCM-8 in March 1972
Main article: LCM-8

General characteristics, LCM 8 Type

  • Power Plant: 2 Detroit 12V-71 Diesel engines; 680 hp (510 kW) sustained; twin shafts
  • Length: 73.7 feet (22.5 m)
  • Beam: 21 feet (6.4 m)
  • Displacement: 105 tons (106.7 metric tons) full load
  • Speed: 12 kt (13.8 mph, 22.2 km/h)
  • Range: 190 nm (350 km) at 9 knots (17 km/h) full load
  • Capacity: 53.5 tons (54.4 metric tons)
  • Military lift: one M48 or one M60 tank or 200 troops
  • Crew: 5

Operators[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ William F Buckingham. D-Day the First 72 hours Tempus Publishing, Stroud. 2004
  2. ^ http://members.lycos.co.uk/Indochine/cefeo/boats.html#LCM1
  3. ^ Norman Friedman U.S. Amphibious Ships and Craft: An Illustrated Design History Naval Institute Press, 2002 9781557502506
  4. ^ http://www.battleshipcove.org/exhibits-lcm.htm
  5. ^ Ladd, 1976, p. 44
  6. ^ http://turkishnavy.net/c-302-lcm-class/

References[edit]

External links[edit]