List of landings on extraterrestrial bodies

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This is a list of all spacecraft landings on other planets and bodies in the solar system, including soft landings and both intended and unintended hard impacts. The list includes orbiters that were intentionally crashed, but not orbiters which later crashed in an unplanned manner due to orbit decay.

For a list of all planetary missions, including orbiters and flybys, see List of Solar System probes.

Landings[edit]

Colour key:

     – Successful soft landing with intelligible data return.

Planets[edit]

Venus[edit]

Mission Country/Agency Date of landing/impact Coordinates Notes
Venera 3 Soviet Union USSR 1 March 1966 Probably around -20° to 20° N, 60° to 80° E First impact on the surface of another planet. Contact lost before atmospheric entry.
Venera 4 Soviet Union USSR 18 October 1967 Estimated near 19°N 38°E / 19°N 38°E / 19; 38.[1] Crushed by atmospheric pressure before impact.
Venera 5 Soviet Union USSR 16 May 1969 3°S 18°E / 3°S 18°E / -3; 18 Atmospheric probe; crushed by atmospheric pressure before impact.
Venera 6 Soviet Union USSR 17 May 1969 5°S 23°E / 5°S 23°E / -5; 23 Atmospheric probe; crushed by atmospheric pressure before impact.
Venera 7 Soviet Union USSR 15 December 1970 5°S 351°E / 5°S 351°E / -5; 351 First successful soft landing on another planet; transmitted from surface for 23 minutes.
Venera 8 Soviet Union USSR 22 July 1972 Within 150 km radius of 10°42′S 335°15′E / 10.70°S 335.25°E / -10.70; 335.25 Soft landing; transmitted from surface for 50 minutes.
Venera 9 lander Soviet Union USSR 22 October 1975 Within a 150 km radius of 31°01′N 291°38′E / 31.01°N 291.64°E / 31.01; 291.64 Soft landing; transmitted from surface for 53 minutes. First pictures from surface.
Venera 10 lander Soviet Union USSR 25 October 1975 Within a 150 km radius of 15°25′N 291°31′E / 15.42°N 291.51°E / 15.42; 291.51 Soft landing; transmitted from surface for 65 minutes.
Pioneer Venus Multiprobe United States USA 9 December 1978 Surviving "Day Probe" landed at
31°18′S 317°00′E / 31.3°S 317.0°E / -31.3; 317.0
One of four atmospheric probes survived impact and continued to transmit for 67 minutes.
Venera 12 lander Soviet Union USSR 21 December 1978 7°S 294°E / 7°S 294°E / -7; 294 Soft landing; transmitted from surface for 110 minutes.
Venera 11 lander Soviet Union USSR 25 December 1978 14°S 299°E / 14°S 299°E / -14; 299 Soft landing; transmitted from surface for 95 minutes.
Venera 13 lander Soviet Union USSR 1 March 1982 7°30′S 303°00′E / 7.5°S 303°E / -7.5; 303 Soft landing; transmitted from surface for 127 minutes.
Venera 14 lander Soviet Union USSR 5 March 1982 13°15′S 310°00′E / 13.25°S 310°E / -13.25; 310 Soft landing; transmitted from surface for 57 minutes.
Vega 1 lander Soviet Union USSR 11 June 1985 7°12′N 177°48′E / 7.2°N 177.8°E / 7.2; 177.8 Soft landing; some instruments failed to return data.
Vega 2 lander Soviet Union USSR 15 June 1985 7°08′S 177°40′E / 7.14°S 177.67°E / -7.14; 177.67 Soft landing; transmitted from surface for 57 minutes.

Mars[edit]

Mission Country/Agency Date of landing/impact Coordinates Notes
Mars 2 lander Soviet Union USSR 27 November 1971 45°S 30°W / 45°S 30°W / -45; -30 First man-made object on Mars. No contact after crash landing.
Mars 3 lander Soviet Union USSR 2 December 1971 45°S 158°W / 45°S 158°W / -45; -158 First soft landing on Mars. An attempt to receive clear images from surface failed.[2] Sent signal for only 20 seconds after landing.
Mars 6 lander Soviet Union USSR 12 March 1974 23°54′S 19°25′W / 23.90°S 19.42°W / -23.90; -19.42 Contact lost at landing.
Viking 1 lander United States USA 20 July 1976 22°41′49″N 48°13′19″W / 22.697°N 48.222°W / 22.697; -48.222 Successful soft landing.
Viking 2 lander United States USA 3 September 1976 48°16′08″N 134°00′36″E / 48.269°N 134.010°E / 48.269; 134.010 Successful soft landing.
Mars Pathfinder and Sojourner rover United States USA 4 July 1997 19°08′N 33°13′W / 19.13°N 33.22°W / 19.13; -33.22 First airbag landing on Mars and first Mars rover.
Mars Polar Lander United States USA 3 December 1999 Contact lost prior to landing.
Beagle 2 United Kingdom UK/
Not the esa logo.png ESA
25 December 2003 No contact after landing attempt. It is not known for certain that the craft reached the Martian surface (either intact or at all[3]).
MER-A 'Spirit' United States USA 3 January 2004 14°34′18″S 175°28′43″E / 14.5718°S 175.4785°E / -14.5718; 175.4785 Mars rover. Contact lost 22 March 2010.
MER-B 'Opportunity' United States USA 25 January 2004 1°57′S 5°32′W / 1.95°S 5.53°W / -1.95; -5.53 Mars rover.
Phoenix United States USA 25 May 2008 68°13′08″N 125°44′57″W / 68.218830°N 125.749222°W / 68.218830; -125.749222 Landed in the north polar region, and investigated whether conditions there are suitable for life to have evolved.
Mars Science Laboratory (Curiosity) United States USA 6 August 2012 4°35′22″S 137°26′30″E / 4.5895°S 137.4417°E / -4.5895; 137.4417 Mars Rover. Landed in Gale Crater.

Jupiter[edit]

Mission Country/Agency Date of landing/impact Notes
Galileo atmospheric probe United States USA 7 December 1995 Atmospheric probe of Jupiter. [Not a "landing," but an intentional impact with a planetary body.]
Galileo United States USA 21 September 2003 Main craft was intentionally directed at Jupiter and disintegrated in Jovian atmosphere. [Not a "landing," but an intentional impact with a planetary body.]

Planetary moons[edit]

Moon[edit]

Mission Country/Agency Date of landing/impact Coordinates Notes
Luna 1 Soviet Union USSR 4 January 1959 Missed the moon.
Luna 2 Soviet Union USSR 13 September 1959

29°06′N 0°00′E / 29.1°N -0°E / 29.1; -0 || Intentional hard impact.

Ranger 4 United States USA 26 April 1962

15°30′S 130°42′W / 15.5°S 130.7°W / -15.5; -130.7 || Intentional hard impact; hit lunar far side due to failure of navigation system.

Ranger 6 United States USA 2 February 1964

9°24′N 21°30′E / 9.4°N 21.5°E / 9.4; 21.5 || Intentional hard impact.

Ranger 7 United States USA 31 July 1964

10°21′S 20°35′W / 10.35°S 20.58°W / -10.35; -20.58 || Intentional hard impact.

Ranger 8 United States USA 20 February 1965

2°43′N 24°37′E / 2.72°N 24.61°E / 2.72; 24.61 || Intentional hard impact.

Ranger 9 United States USA 24 March 1965

12°50′S 2°22′W / 12.83°S 2.37°W / -12.83; -2.37 || Intentional hard impact.

Luna 5 Soviet Union USSR 12 May 1965

31°S 8°W / 31°S 8°W / -31; -8 || Unsuccessful attempt at soft landing; crashed into Moon.

Luna 7 Soviet Union USSR 7 October 1965

9°48′N 47°48′W / 9.8°N 47.8°W / 9.8; -47.8 || Unsuccessful attempt at soft landing; crashed into Moon.

Luna 8 Soviet Union USSR 6 December 1965

9°36′N 62°00′W / 9.6°N 62°W / 9.6; -62 || Unsuccessful attempt at soft landing; crashed into Moon.

Luna 9 Soviet Union USSR 3 February 1966

7°08′N 64°22′W / 7.13°N 64.37°W / 7.13; -64.37 || First successful soft landing; first pictures from the surface.

Surveyor 1 United States USA 2 June 1966

2°28′S 43°20′W / 2.47°S 43.33°W / -2.47; -43.33 || Soft landing.

Surveyor 2 United States USA 23 September 1966 Unsuccessful attempt at soft landing; crashed into Moon.
Lunar Orbiter 1 United States USA 29 October 1966 Lunar orbiter, intentionally crashed at end of mission.
Luna 13 Soviet Union USSR 24 December 1966 18°52′N 62°3′W / 18.867°N 62.050°W / 18.867; -62.050 Soft landing.
Surveyor 3 United States USA 20 April 1967

3°01′41″S 23°27′30″W / 3.028175°S 23.458208°W / -3.028175; -23.458208 || Soft landing. First lander visited by a later manned mission (Apollo 12).

Surveyor 4 United States USA 17 July 1967 Contact lost on descent.
Surveyor 5 United States USA 11 September 1967

1°28′N 23°12′E / 1.46°N 23.20°E / 1.46; 23.20 || Soft landing.

Surveyor 6 United States USA 10 November 1967

0°29′N 1°24′W / 0.49°N 1.40°W / 0.49; -1.40 || Soft landing.

Surveyor 7 United States USA 10 January 1968

40°52′S 11°28′W / 40.86°S 11.47°W / -40.86; -11.47 || Soft landing.

Apollo 11 United States USA 20 July 1969 0°40′26.69″N 23°28′22.69″E / 0.6740806°N 23.4729694°E / 0.6740806; 23.4729694 First manned landing.
Luna 15 Soviet Union USSR 21 July 1969 Possible attempted sample return; crashed into Moon.
Apollo 12 United States USA 18 November 1969

3°00′45″S 23°25′18″W / 3.012389°S 23.421569°W / -3.012389; -23.421569 || Manned mission.

Apollo 13 United States USA 14 April 1970 S-IVB stage crashed for seismic research (rocket stages from some other Apollo missions that successfully landed were also crashed in this manner[4])
Luna 16 Soviet Union USSR 20 September 1970 0°41′S 56°18′E / 0.683°S 56.300°E / -0.683; 56.300 First successful robotic sample return.
Luna 17/Lunokhod 1 Soviet Union USSR 17 November 1970 38°17′N 35°0′W / 38.283°N 35.000°W / 38.283; -35.000 Robotic lunar rover.
Apollo 14 United States USA 5 February 1971 3°38′43.08″S 17°28′16.90″W / 3.6453000°S 17.4713611°W / -3.6453000; -17.4713611 Manned mission.
Apollo 15 United States USA 30 July 1971 26°7′55.99″N 3°38′1.90″E / 26.1322194°N 3.6338611°E / 26.1322194; 3.6338611 (Apollo 15 landing) Manned mission; lunar rover.
Luna 18 Soviet Union USSR 11 September 1971 Failed attempt at sample return; probable crash-landing.
Luna 20 Soviet Union USSR 21 February 1972 3°32′N 56°33′E / 3.533°N 56.550°E / 3.533; 56.550 Robotic sample return.
Apollo 16 United States USA 21 April 1972 8°58′22.84″S 15°30′0.68″E / 8.9730111°S 15.5001889°E / -8.9730111; 15.5001889 Manned mission; lunar rover.
Apollo 17 United States USA 7 December 1972 20°11′26.88″N 30°46′18.05″E / 20.1908000°N 30.7716806°E / 20.1908000; 30.7716806 (Apollo 17 landing) Manned mission; lunar rover. Last manned landing on extraterrestrial bodies to date.
Luna 21/Lunokhod 2 Soviet Union USSR 8 January 1973 25°51′N 30°27′E / 25.850°N 30.450°E / 25.850; 30.450 Robotic lunar rover.
Luna 23 Soviet Union USSR 6 November 1974 Failed attempt at sample return; damaged on landing.
Luna 24 Soviet Union USSR 18 August 1976 12°45′N 62°12′E / 12.750°N 62.200°E / 12.750; 62.200 Robotic sample return.
Hiten Japan Japan 10 April 1993 Lunar orbiter, intentionally crashed at end of mission.
Lunar Prospector United States USA 31 July 1999

87°42′S 42°06′E / 87.7°S 42.1°E / -87.7; 42.1 || Lunar orbiter, intentionally crashed into polar crater at end of mission to test for liberation of water vapour (not detected).

SMART-1 Not the esa logo.png ESA 3 September 2006 Lunar orbiter, intentionally crashed at end of mission.
Chandrayaan-1 Moon Impact Probe India ISRO 14 November 2008 Impactor.
SELENE Rstar (Okina)  Japan 12 February 2009 Lunar orbiter, casually crashed at end of mission.
Chang'e 1  China 1 March 2009 Lunar orbiter, intentionally crashed at end of mission.
Kaguya  Japan 10 June 2009 Lunar orbiter, intentionally crashed at end of mission.
LCROSS (Centaur)  USA 9 October 2009 84°40′30″S 48°43′30″W / 84.675°S 48.725°W / -84.675; -48.725
84°43′44″S 49°21′36″W / 84.729°S 49.360°W / -84.729; -49.360
Impactors. Water found.
LCROSS (Shepherding Spacecraft)
Chang'e 3  China 14 December 2013 44°07′N 19°31′W / 44.12°N 19.51°W / 44.12; -19.51 First soft landing on moon since 1976.

Moons of Mars[edit]

Phobos
Mission Country/Agency Date of landing/impact Coordinates Notes

Note: Phobos landing was unsuccessfully attempted by Phobos 2 in 1989.

Moons of Saturn[edit]

Titan
Mission Country/Agency Date of landing/impact Coordinates Notes
Huygens probe Not the esa logo.png ESA/
United States USA/
Italy Italy(ASI)
14 January 2005 10°17′37″S 163°10′39″E / 10.2936°S 163.1775°E / -10.2936; 163.1775 Titan floating lander. Successful soft landing. Transmitted data for 90 minutes following landing.

Other bodies[edit]

Asteroids, comets, other natural satellites, other bodies

Asteroids[edit]

Body Mission Country/Agency Date of landing/impact Coordinates Notes
Eros (asteroid) NEAR Shoemaker United States USA 12 February 2001 Designed as an orbiter, but an improvised landing was carried out on completion of the main mission. Transmission from the surface continued for about 16 days.
Itokawa (asteroid) Hayabusa Japan Japan 19 November 2005 Accidentally stayed for 30 min.
25 November 2005 Stayed for 1 sec. Sample return (very small amount of dust successfully returned to Earth).

Comets[edit]

Body Mission Country/Agency Date of landing/impact Coordinates Notes
Comet 9P/Tempel 1 Deep Impact United States USA 4 July 2005 Impactor.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Brian Harvey (2007). Russian planetary exploration. Springer. pp. 98–101. ISBN 0-387-46343-7. 
  2. ^ "Mars 3". Retrieved 2010-05-28. 
  3. ^ "Life on Mars? Crystal clear images which give us our best ever view of the red planet", Mail Online, 27th May 2008
  4. ^ "The Sky is Falling", NASA, April 28, 2006