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The history of Langenburg begins with the building of a castle on the western hill crag. Prehistoric settling is likely, but not proven. Langenburg is first documented in 1226. The free Lords of Langenburg, which stepped into history in 1201, were closely related to the Lords of Hohenlohe. Maybe they even held family bonds. After the Langenburgs had died out, the Hohenlohe family inherited the possessions. Langenburg thus came under the rule of Hohenlohe and remained part of the Principality for the next centuries. Since 1568 Langenburg was the residency of the county and latter principality Hohenlohe-Langenburg.
In the 17th Century, Langenburg was the site of witch trials. The last victims, Anna Schmieg and Barbara Schleicher, were executed in 1672.