Languages of Afghanistan

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Languages of Afghanistan
Afghanistan Ethnolinguistic Groups 1997.jpg
Official languages Pashto and Dari[1]
Regional languages Pashto, Dari, Hazaragi, Uzbek, Turkmen, Balochi, Pashayi
Sign languages Afghan Sign Language

Afghanistan is a multilingual country in which two languages - Pashto and Dari - are both official and most widely spoken.[1] Dari is the official name of the Persian language in Afghanistan. Both, Pashto and Persian, are Indo-European languages from the Iranian languages sub-family. Other regional languages, such as Uzbek, Turkmen, Balochi, Pashayi and Nuristani are spoken by minority groups across the country.

Minor languages may include Ashkunu, Kamkata-viri, Vasi-vari, Tregami and Kalasha-ala, Pamiri (Shughni, Munji, Ishkashimi and Wakhi), Brahui, Hindko, and Kyrgyz. Harald Haarmann believes that Afghanistan is home to more than 40 minor languages,[2] with around 200 different dialects.

Language policy[edit]

Pashto and Dari are the official languages of Afghanistan.[1] In 1980, other regional languages were granted official status in the regions where they are the language of the majority.[3] Article 16 of the 2004 Afghan Constitution states that "The Turkic languages (Uzbek and Turkmen), Balochi, Pashayi, Nuristani and Pamiri (alsana) are – in addition to Pashto and Dari – the third official language in areas where the majority speaks them. The practical modalities for implementation of this provision shall be specified by law."[1]

Naming policy[edit]

Dari is a term long recommended by Afghan authorities to designate the Persian dialects spoken in Afghanistan, in contrast to the dialects spoken in neighboring Iran.[4] Although still widely known as "Farsi" ("Persian") to its native speakers, the name was officially changed to Dari in 1964.[5] Dari must not be confused with the dialect of Kabul, which is the dominant Persian dialect in Afghanistan. Apart from a few basics of vocabulary, however (and more Indo-Persian calligraphic styles in the Perso-Arabic script), there is little difference between formal written Persian of Afghanistan and of Iran. The term Dari is often loosely used for the characteristic spoken Persian of Afghanistan - in general the dialect of Kabul - but is best restricted to formal spoken registers (poetry, speeches, newscasts, and other broadcast announcements).[5]

Overview[edit]

Persian (Dari) functions as the nation's lingua franca and is the native tongue of various Afghan ethnic groups including the Tajiks, Hazaras, and Aimak.[6] Pashto is the native tongue of the Pashtuns, the dominant ethnic group in Afghanistan.[7] Due to Afghanistan's multi-ethnic character, language variety as well as bilingualism and multilingualism are common phenomena.

Afghan school textbooks written in Pashto language

The exact figures about the size and composition of the various ethnolinguistic groups are unavailable since no systematic census has been held in Afghanistan in decades.[8] Estimates suggest the following primary languages:

Language World Factbook[9]/Library of Congress[10]/Ethnologue[11]/Iranica[3]
Pashto 35-55%
Dari 25-50%
Uzbek 8.5-9%
Turkmen 2.5%
Other languages  4%

According to a 2006 opinion poll survey involving 6,226 randomly selected Afghan citizens by the Asia Foundation, Dari was the first language of 49% of the polled people, while an additional 37% spoke it as a second language; 42% were able to read Dari. Pashto was the first language of 40%, with an additional 28% stating the ability to speak Pashto as a second language; 33% were able to read Pashto. Uzbek was the first language of 9% and a second language for 6%. Turkmen was the first language of 2% and a second language for 3%. English was spoken by 8% and Urdu by 7%.[12]

A later study found that Dari was, by a wide margin, the most widely-spoken language in urban Afghanistan, with as many as 93% of urban Afghans claiming to speak it, but only 75% of rural Afghans claiming the same.[13]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Article Sixteen of the 2004 Constitution of Afghanistan". 2004. Retrieved June 13, 2012. "From among the languages of Pashto, Dari, Uzbek, Turkmen, Baluchi, Pashai, Nuristani, Pamiri (alsana), Arab and other languages spoken in the country, Pashto and Dari are the official languages of the state." 
  2. ^ Harald Haarmann: Sprachen-Almanach – Zahlen und Fakten zu allen Sprachen der Welt. Campus-Verl., Frankfurt/Main 2002, ISBN 3-593-36572-3, S.273–274; Afghanistan
  3. ^ a b "AFGHANISTAN v. Languages". Ch. M. Kieffer. Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 2012-04-08. "A. Official languages. Paṧtō (1) is the native tongue of 50 to 55 percent of Afghans... Persian (2) is the language most spoken in Afghanistan. The native tongue of twenty five percent of the population, it is split into numerous dialects." 
  4. ^ Ch. M. Kieffer, "AFGHANISTAN v. Languages", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, origianlly from 1982.
  5. ^ a b R. Farhadi and J. R. Perry, Kaboli, Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, originally in Vol. XV, Fasc. 3, pp. 276-280, 2009.
  6. ^ "Languages of Afghanistan". Encyclopaedia Britannica. 
  7. ^ "Ethnic groups". BBC News. Retrieved 7 June 2013. "Pashtun: Estimated to be in excess of 45% of the population, the Pashtuns have been the most dominant ethnic group in Afghanistan." 
  8. ^ O'toole, Pam (October 6, 2004). "Afghan poll's ethnic battleground". BBC News. Retrieved 2010-09-16. 
  9. ^ CIA World Factbook
  10. ^ Library of Congress (2008)
  11. ^ "Languages of Afghanistan". SIL International. Ethnologue: Languages of the World. Retrieved 2012-04-08. 
  12. ^ "Afghanistan in 2006 - A survey of the Afghan people" (PDF). Kabul, Afghanistan: The Asia Foundation. 2006. Retrieved 2010-10-29.  "Uruzgan, representing 1.1 percent of the population of Afghanistan, and Zabul, representing 1.2 percent, were excluded from the sampling plan due to extreme security conditions during the fieldwork period of the survey."
  13. ^ "Afghanistan in 2013 - A survey of the Afghan people" (PDF). Kabul, Afghanistan: The Asia Foundation. 2012. Retrieved 2014-03-12. 

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