Demographics of Cuba

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Demographics of Cuba
Population of cuba, 1774-2012.png
Scatter plot of the population of Cuba (in thousands), 1774–2012
Population 11,167,325 (2012)
11,061,886 (2013 est.)
Density 100.7/km2 (2012)
99.8/km2 (2013 est.)
Growth rate -0.1% (2002–12)
Birth rate 9.92 births/1,000 inhabitants (2013 est.)
Death rate 7.58 deaths/1,000 inhabitants(2013 est.)
Life expectancy 78.0 years (2013 est.)
 • male 75.8 years (2013 est.)
 • female 80.4 years (2013 est.)
Fertility rate 1.46 children/women (2013 est.)
Infant mortality rate 4.76 deaths/births (2013 est.)
Age structure
0–14 years 16.6% (2013 est.)
15–64 years 71.1% (2013 est.)
65 and over 12.3% (2013 est.)
Sex ratio
Total 0.99 (2013 est.)
At birth 1.06 (2013 est.)
Under 15 1.06 (2013 est.)
15–64 years 1.01 (2013 est.)
65 and over 0.82 (2013 est.)
Nationality
Nationality Cuban
Major ethnic White (65.1%) (2002)
Minor ethnic Mulatto and mestizo (24.8%), black (10.1%) (2002)
Language
Official Spanish

The demographic characteristics of the North American country of Cuba are known through census which have been conducted and analyzed by different bureaus since 1774. The National Office of Statistics of Cuba (ONE) since 1953. The most-recent census was conducted in September 2012. The population of Cuba at the 2012 census was 11.1 million. The population density is 100.7 inhabitants per square kilometer, and the overall life expectancy in Cuba is 78.0 years. The population has always increased from one census to the next, with the exception of the 2011 census, when the count decreased by 10,000. Since 1950, Cuba's birth rate has surpassed its death rate; the natural growth rate of the country is positive. Cuba is in the fourth stage of demographic transition. In terms of age structure, the population is dominated (71.1%) by the 15–64 year-old segment. The median age of the population is 39.5, and the gender ratio of the total population is 0.99 males per female.

Cuba is inhabited by mostly by whites (65.1%), while minorities include mulatto and mestizo (24.8%) and black (10.1%).

Population[edit]

Historical population
Year Pop.   ±% p.a.  
1774 171,620 —    
1792 272,300 +2.60%
1817 572,363 +3.02%
1827 704,487 +2.10%
1841 1,007,624 +2.59%
1861 1,396,530 +1.65%
1877 1,509,291 +0.49%
1899 1,572,797 +0.19%
1907 2,048,980 +3.36%
1919 2,889,004 +2.90%
1931 3,962,344 +2.67%
1943 4,778,583 +1.57%
1953 5,829,029 +2.01%
1970 8,569,121 +2.29%
1981 9,723,605 +1.16%
2002 11,177,743 +0.67%
2012 11,167,325 −0.01%
Source: [1]

According to the 2002 census, Cuba's population was 11,177,743, whereas the 2012 census numbered the population at 11,167,325.[2] The drop between the 2002 and 2012 censuses was the first drop in Cuba's population since Cuba's war of independence. This drop was due to low fertility and emigration, as during this time (fiscal years 2003-2012), 332,028 Cubans received legal permanent residence in the United States.[3]

Population by region in 2002[edit]

Population and Area by region
Province Area (km²) Area (%) Population Population (%) Density
Cuba Total 109,886.19 100 11,177,743 100 101.72
Pinar del Río 10,904.03 9.92 726,574 6.50 66.63
La Habana 5,791.59 5.22 711,066 6.36 124.06
Ciudad de la Habana 721.01 0.66 2,201,610 19.70 3053.49
Matanzas 11,802.72 10.74 670,427 6.00 56.80
Villa Clara 8,412.41 7.06 817,395 7.31 97.17
Cienfuegos 4,180.02 3.80 395,183 3.54 94.54
Sancti Spíritus 6,736.51 6.13 460,328 4.12 68.33
Ciego de Ávila 6,783.13 6.17 411,766 3.68 60.70
Camagüey 15,615.02 14.21 784,178 7.02 50.22
Las Tunas 6,587.75 6.00 525,485 4.70 79.77
Holguín 9,292.83 8.46 1,021,321 9.14 109.90
Granma 8,375.49 7.62 822,452 7.36 98,20
Santiago de Cuba 6,156.44 5.60 1,036,281 9.27 168.32
Guantánamo 6,167.97 5.61 507,118 4.54 82.22
Isla de la Juventud 2,419.27 2.20 86,559 0.77 35.78

Largest cities[edit]

Vital statistics[4][5][edit]

Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rate Infant mortality rate
1950 5 920 163 122 39 190 123 932 27.9 6.7 21.2
1951 6 051 142 693 40 939 101 754 23.9 6.9 17.0
1952 6 180 143 750 37 221 106 529 23.6 6.1 17.5
1953 6 305 150 000 37 161 112 839 24.2 6.0 18.2
1954 6 424 160 000 35 712 124 288 25.4 5.7 19.7
1955 6 539 170 000 37 264 132 736 26.5 5.8 20.7
1956 6 652 180 000 36 321 143 679 27.6 5.6 22.0
1957 6 765 188 100 40 572 147 528 28.4 6.1 22.3
1958 6 881 200 000 42 508 157 492 29.7 6.3 23.4
1959 7 005 204 300 44 043 160 257 29.8 6.4 23.4
1960 7 141 214 900 43 164 171 736 30.8 6.2 24.6
1961 7 290 234 600 45 945 188 655 32.9 6.4 26.5
1962 7 450 260 900 51 580 209 320 35.9 7.1 28.8
1963 7 618 256 900 49 624 207 276 34.6 6.7 27.9
1964 7 787 264 300 47 922 216 378 34.8 6.3 28.5
1965 7 952 263 975 50 027 213 948 34.0 6.5 27.6
1966 8 110 255 413 50 846 204 567 32.3 6.4 25.9
1967 8 264 255 311 51 030 204 281 31.7 6.3 25.3
1968 8 413 246 807 53 920 192 887 30.1 6.6 23.5
1969 8 563 238 095 55 654 182 441 28.5 6.7 21.8
1970 8 715 237 019 53 761 183 258 27.8 6.3 21.5
1971 8 870 256 014 54 109 201 905 29.5 6.2 23.2
1972 9 025 247 997 48 534 199 463 28.0 5.5 22.5
1973 9 176 226 005 51 238 174 767 25.1 5.7 19.4
1974 9 315 203 066 51 724 151 342 22.1 5.6 16.5
1975 9 438 192 941 50 961 142 958 20.7 5.5 15.4
1976 9 544 187 555 53 080 134 475 19.9 5.6 14.3
1977 9 634 168 960 56 084 112 876 17.8 5.9 11.9
1978 9 710 148 249 55 100 93 149 15.5 5.8 9.7
1979 9 776 143 551 54 838 88 713 14.9 5.7 9.2
1980 9 835 136 900 55 707 81 193 14.1 5.7 8.4
1981 9 886 136 211 57 941 78 397 13.9 5.9 8.0
1982 9 931 159 759 56 224 103 274 16.2 5.7 10.5
1983 9 975 165 284 58 348 106 938 16.6 5.9 10.8
1984 10 029 166 281 59 801 106 386 16.6 6.0 10.6
1985 10 097 182 067 64 415 117 637 18.0 6.4 11.6
1986 10 184 166 049 63 145 102 904 16.3 6.2 10.1
1987 10 286 179 477 65 079 114 398 17.4 6.3 11.1
1988 10 396 187 911 67 944 119 967 18.0 6.5 11.5
1989 10 504 184 891 67 356 117 535 17.6 6.4 11.2
1990 10 601 186 658 72 144 114 514 17.6 6.8 10.8
1991 10 685 173 896 71 709 102 187 16.3 6.7 9.6
1992 10 758 157 349 75 457 81 892 14.6 7.0 7.6
1993 10 822 152 226 78 531 73 695 14.1 7.3 6.8
1994 10 879 147 265 78 648 68 617 13.5 7.2 6.3
1995 10 932 147 170 77 937 69 233 13.5 7.1 6.3
1996 10 981 148 276 79 662 68 614 13.5 7.3 6.2
1997 11 024 152 681 77 316 75 365 13.8 7.0 6.8
1998 11 064 151 080 77 565 73 515 13.7 7.0 6.6
1999 11 102 150 871 79 499 71 372 13.6 7.2 6.4
2000 11 138 143 528 76 463 67 065 12.9 6.9 6.0
2001 11 175 138 718 79 395 59 323 12.4 7.1 5.3
2002 11 212 141 276 73 882 67 394 12.6 6.6 6.0
2003 11 246 136 795 78 434 58 361 12.2 7.0 5.2
2004 11 273 127 192 81 110 46 082 11.3 7.2 4.1
2005 11 292 120 716 84 824 35 892 10.7 7.5 3.2
2006 11 301 111 323 80 831 30 492 9.9 7.2 2.7
2007 11 302 112 472 81 927 30 545 10.0 7.2 2.7 1.43
2008 11 296 122 569 86 423 36 146 10.9 7.7 3.2 1.59 4.7
2009 11 289 130 036 86 943 43 093 11.5 7.7 3.8 1.70 4.8
2010 11 282 127 746 91 048 36 698 11.3 8.1 3.3 1.69 4.5
2011 11 276 133 067 87 040 46 027 11.8 7.7 4.1 1.77 4.9
2012 11 271 125 674 89 368 36 306 11.2 7.9 3.2 1.69
2013 125 880 92 269 33 611 11.2 8.2 3.0

Racial groups[edit]

Year White Mulatto/Mestizo Black Asian
2002 65,05% 23,84% 10,08% 1,02%
2012 64,01% 26,6% 9,3% 0,0%

Cuban ancestry[edit]

The 2002 census figures supplied by the government claim that 65% of Cubans were white.

Official 1775-1899 Cuba Census [6]
White Non-white
Census Number Percentage Number Percentage
1775 96,440 56.2 75,180 43.8
1792 153,559 56.4 118,741 43.6
1817 257,380 45.0 314,983 55.0
1827 311,051 44.2 393,435 55.8
1841 418,291 41.5 589,333 58.5
1861 793,484 56.8 603,046 43.2
1877 1,023,394 67.8 485,897 32.2
1887 1,102,889 67.6 528,798 32.4
1899 1,067,354 67.9 505,443 32.1
According to the Census, the Chinese were counted as white.

The ancestry of Cubans comes from many sources:

During the 18th, 19th and early part of the 20th century, large waves of Spanish immigrants from Canary Islands, Catalonia, Andalusia, Galicia, and Asturias emigrated to Cuba. Between 1882 and 1898, a total of 508,455 people left Spain, and more than 750,000 Spanish immigrants left for Cuba between 1899 and 1923, with many returning to Spain.[7]

The Slave trade brought Africans to Cuba during its early history: Between 1842 and 1873, 221,000 African slaves entered Cuba.[7]

Other European people that have contributed include:

People from Asia:

Between 1842 and 1873, 124,800 Chinese arrived.[7]

There is also a small number of Jews living in Cuba.

Genetics[edit]

An autosomal study from 2014 has found out the genetic ancestry in Cuba to be 72% european, 20% african and 8% native american.[8]

A 1995 study done on the population of Pinar del Rio, found that 50% of the Mt-DNA lineages (female lineages) could be traced back to Europeans, 46% to Africans and 4% to Native Americans. This figure is consistent with both the historical background of the region, and the current demographics of it.[9]

According to another study in 2008, the Native American contribution to present-day Cubans accounted for 33% of the maternal lineages, whereas Africa and Eurasia contributed 45% and 22% of the lineages, respectively. Haplogroup A2 is the main Native American haplogroup in Cuba (21.9% of the total sample), accounting for 67% of the Native American mtDNA gene pool. Regarding Y-chromosome haplogroups (male lineages), 78.8% of the sequences found in Cubans are of West Eurasian origin, 19.7% of African origin and 1.5% of East Asian origin. Among the West Eurasian fraction, the vast majority of individuals belong to West European haplogroup R1b. The African lineages found in Cubans have a Western (haplogroups E1, E2, E1b1a ) and Northern (E1b1b-M81 ) African origin. The "Berber" haplogroup E1b1b1b (E-M81), is found at a frequency of 6.1%.[10]

According to Fregel et al. (2009), the fact that autochthonous male North African E-M81 and female U6 lineages from the Canaries have been detected in Cuba and Iberoamerica, demonstrates that Canary Islanders with indigenous ancestors actively participated in the American colonization.[11]

Y-DNA[edit]

N[12] E-M33 E-M75 E-M2 E1b1b-M35 E1b1b-M78 E1b1b-M81 E1b1b-M123 G I J2 T R1a R1b N/O O-P31
132 0.8% 1.5% 9.8% 1.5% 4.5% 6.1% 1.5% 6.1% 8.3% 6.1% 1.5% 1.5% 50.8% 0.8% 0.8%

mtDNA[edit]

N[12] L U6 A B C D H I1 J* J2a J1b J2 K T* T1a T2 T U* U4 U4a2 U5a V W
245 43.3% 2% 22.4% 2% 5.3% 3.3% 9% 0.4% 2.4% 0.4% 0.4% 0.4% 0.8% 0.4% 0.8% 0.8% 0.8% 0.8% 0.8% 1.2% 0.8% 0.8% 0.4%

Language[edit]

See also: Cuban Spanish

Spanish is the official language of Cuba. Of all the regional variations of the Spanish language, traditional Cuban Spanish is most similar to, and originates largely from the Spanish spoken in the Canary Islands. Cuba owes much of their speech patterns to the Canarian migration, which in the 19th and early 20th century was heavy and continuous. There was also migrations of Galicians and Asturians as well, but they did not leave a mirror image on their accent on the Cuban accent like the Canarian people did. Much of the typical Cuban replacements for standard Spanish vocabulary stems from Canarian lexicon. For example, guagua (bus) differs from standard Spanish autobús the former originated in the Canaries and is an onomatopoeia stemming from the sound of a Klaxon horn (wah-wah!). An example of Canarian usage for a Spanish word is the verb fajarse [13] ("to fight"). In standard Spanish the verb would be pelearse, while fajar exists as a non-reflexive verb related to the hemming of a skirt.

Other languages are Cuban Sign Language and Lucumi.

Religion[edit]

Main article: Religion in Cuba

Cuba has a multitude of faiths reflecting the island's diverse cultural elements. Catholicism, which was brought to the island by Spanish colonialists at the beginning of the 16th century, is the most prevalent professed faith. After the revolution, Cuba became an officially atheistic state and restricted religious practice. Since the Fourth Cuban Communist Party Congress in 1991, restrictions have been eased and, according to the National Catholic Observer, direct challenges by state institutions to the right to religion have all but disappeared,[14] though the church still faces restrictions of written and electronic communication, and can only accept donations from state-approved funding sources.[14] The Roman Catholic Church is made up of the Cuban Catholic Bishops' Conference (COCC), led by Jaime Lucas Ortega y Alamino, Cardinal Archbishop of Havana.[citation needed] It has eleven dioceses, 56 orders of nuns and 24 orders of priests. In January 1998, Pope John Paul II paid a historic visit to the island, invited by the Cuban government and Catholic Church.

Afro-Cuban religions, a blend of native African religions and Roman Catholicism, are widely practiced in Cuba. This diversity derives from West and Central Africans who were transported to Cuba, and in effect reinvented their African religions. They did so by combining them with elements of the Catholic belief system, with a result very similar to Brazil

Protestantism, introduced from the United States in the 18th century, has seen a steady increase in popularity. 300,000 Cubans belong to the island's 54 Protestant denominations. Pentecostalism has grown rapidly in recent years, and the Assemblies of God alone claims a membership of over 100,000 people. The Episcopal Church of Cuba claims 10,000 adherents. Cuba has small communities of Jews, Muslims, Buddhists and members of the Bahá'í

Demographic statistics from the Official 2002 Cuba Census[edit]

Age structure
0-14 years: 19.1% (male 1,117,677/female 1,058,512)
15-64 years: 70.3% (male 4,001,161/female 3,999,303)
65 years and over: 10.6% (male 554,148/female 652,019) (2006 est.)
Median age Total: 39.5 years
Male: 38.6 years
Female: 40.3 years (2013 est.)[15]
Sex ratio
At birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
Under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
Total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2006 est.)
Life expectancy at birth Total population: 77.41 years
Male: 75.11 years
Female: 79.85 years (2006 est.)
Racial groups
Whites: 65.05%
Mulattoes: 23.84%
Blacks: 10.08%
Asians: 1.02%
Religions Nominally 85% Roman Catholic prior to the Revolution; Protestants, Jehovah's Witnesses, Muslims, Jews, and Santeria are also represented.
Languages
Spanish
English
Haitian Creole
Literacy Total population: 99.8% (2002 census)
Male: 99.8%
Female: 99.8%

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write

[16]

Illicit migration is a continuing problem. Cubans require Cuban government documentation to leave, and this is commonly refused. Cubans attempt to depart the island and enter the US using homemade rafts, alien smugglers, direct flights, or falsified visas; Cubans also use non-maritime routes to enter the US including direct flights to Miami and overland via the southwest US/Mexican border, and islands adjacent to Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Censos en Cuba" [Census in Cuba] (in Spanish). National Office of Statistics of Cuba. Retrieved 24 February 2014. 
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ http://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/immigration-statistics/yearbook/2012/LPR/table3d.xls
  4. ^ [2] United nations. Demographic Yearbooks
  5. ^ Oficina Nacional de Estadística e Información
  6. ^ The 1899 Cuba Census. See Page 97.
  7. ^ a b c La inmigración entre 1902 y 1920
  8. ^ http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pgen.1004488#pgen-1004488-g001
  9. ^ Torroni, Antonio; Brown, Michael D.; Lott, Marie T.; Newman, Nancy J.; Wallace, Douglas C. (1995). "African, Native American, and European mitochondrial DNAs in Cubans from Pinar del Rio Province and implications for the recent epidemic neuropathy in Cuba". Human Mutation 5 (4): 310–7. doi:10.1002/humu.1380050407. PMID 7627185. 
  10. ^ Y-chromosome haplogroup frequencies found in Cuba (132 individuals) grouped according to their phylogeographic origin, Mendizabal et al. (2008)
  11. ^ Fregel, Rosa; Gomes, Verónica; Gusmão, Leonor; González, Ana M; Cabrera, Vicente M; Amorim, António; Larruga, Jose M et al. (2009). "Demographic history of Canary Islands male gene-pool: replacement of native lineages by European". BMC Evolutionary Biology 9: 181. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-9-181. PMC 2728732. PMID 19650893. 
  12. ^ a b Mendizabal et al (2008).Genetic origin, admixture, and asymmetry in maternal and paternal human lineages in Cuba
  13. ^ fajar at Diccionario de la Real Academia Española.
  14. ^ a b Catholic church in Cuba strives to reestablish the faith National Catholic Observer
  15. ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2177.html
  16. ^ CIA - The World Factbook - Cuba
 This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook document "2006 edition".

External links[edit]