Languages of France
|Languages of France|
Regional languages and their dialects in Metropolitan France
(officially recognized): Alsatian; Catalan; Corsican; Breton; Gallo; Occitan; Tahitian; some languages of New Caledonia
|Main immigrant languages||Maghrebi Arabic, Portuguese, Spanish, Italian, Polish, Turkish, Vietnamese|
|Main foreign languages||English (34%)
|Sign languages||French Sign Language|
|Common keyboard layouts||
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The languages of France include the French language and some regional languages. The French language is the only official language of France according to the second article of the French Constitution, and is by far the most widely spoken.
Several regional languages are also spoken to varying degrees as a secondary language after French, such as German dialects (Alsacian 1.44%), Celtic languages (Breton 0.61%) and other Gallo-Romance languages (Langues d'Oïl 1.25%, Occitan 1.33%). Some of these languages have also been spoken in neighbouring countries, such as Belgium, Germany, Switzerland, Italy or Spain.
- 1 Status
- 2 List of languages
- 3 Statistics
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 External links
The official language of the French Republic is French (art. 2 of the French Constitution) and the French government is, by law, compelled to communicate primarily in French. The government, furthermore, mandates that commercial advertising be available in French (though it can also use other languages); see Toubon Law. The French government, however, does not mandate the use of French by private individuals or corporations or in any other media.
The 1999 Report written for the government by Bernard Cerquiglini identified 75 languages that would qualify for recognition under the government's proposed ratification of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. 24 of those languages are indigenous to the European territory of the state while all the others are from overseas areas of the French Republic (in the Caribbean, Indian Ocean, Pacific Ocean and South America).
Although ratification was blocked by the Constitutional Council as contradicting the Fifth Republic's constitutional provision enshrining French as the language of the Republic, the government continues to recognise regional and minority languages to a limited extent (i.e. without granting them official status) and the Délégation générale à la langue française has acquired the additional function of observing and studying the languages of France and has had et aux langues de France added to its title. The category of languages of France (in French: langues de France) is thus administratively recognised even if this does not go so far as to provide any official status. Following his election as President, François Hollande reasserted in 2012 his campaign platform to ratify the European Charter and ensure a clear legal framework for regional languages (within a programme of administrative decentralisation that would give compentencies to the regions in language policy).
The regional languages of France are sometimes called patois, but this term (roughly meaning "dialect") is often considered derogatory. Patois is used to refer to supposedly purely oral languages, but this does not, for instance, take into account that Occitan was already being written at a time when French was not and its literature has continued to thrive, with a Nobel Prize for Frédéric Mistral in 1904.
At the time of the French revolution in 1789 it is estimated that only half of the population of France could speak any French, and as late as 1871 only a quarter spoke French as their native language.
The topic of the teaching of regional languages in public primary and secondary schools is controversial. Proponents of the measure state that it would be necessary for the preservation of those languages and to show respect to the local culture. Opponents contend that local languages are often non-standardised (thus making curricula difficult), of dubious practical usefulness (since most are spoken by a small number of people, without any sizable corpus of publications) and that the curriculum and funding of public schools are already too strained. The topic also leads to wider controversial questions of autonomy of the régions. Regarding other languages, English, Spanish, Italian and German are the most commonly studied foreign languages in French schools.
In April 2001, the Minister of Education, Jack Lang , admitted formally that for more than two centuries, the political powers of the French government had repressed regional languages, and announced that bilingual education would, for the first time, be recognised, and bilingual teachers recruited in French public schools.
Some of the languages of France are also cross-border languages (for example, Basque, Catalan, Corsican, Dutch, Franc-Comtois, Franco-Provençal, Norman, Picard, Occitan and others), some of which enjoy a recognised or official status in the respective neighbouring state or territory. French itself is also a cross-border language, being spoken in neighbouring Andorra, Belgium, Italy, Luxembourg, Monaco, and Switzerland.
List of languages
The regional languages of Metropolitan France include:
- Breton aka Brezhoneg.
- Alsatian (Elsässerdeutsch).
- French Flemish: West Flemish dialect of Dutch.
- Lorraine Franconian aka Lothringen.
- Old Frankish
- Oïl language:
- Occitan language (also Lenga d'òc, Langue d'oc):
There are also several languages spoken in France's overseas areas (see Administrative divisions of France for details)
- Amerindian languages in French Guiana.
- French-based creole languages in the French West Indies (Guadeloupe, Martinique, Saint Martin, and Saint Barthélemy), French Guiana, and Réunion (see: Antillean Creole, Haitian Creole, French Guiana Creole and Réunion Creole);
- Many Austronesian languages:
- shiMaore and shiBushi in Mayotte.
French Sign Language is also recognised as a language of France (with at least one regional variant in Provence).
There are immigrant languages spoken in some parts of France.
- African French - French is spoken both natively and as a second language by a large number of immigrants from Francophone countries in Africa
- Arabic (dialectal, mainly darija).
- Armenian (Western Armenian mostly, due to immigration from former French mandates in the Middle East, Lebanon and Syria; but there is an increasing minority of Eastern Armenian speakers due to recent immigrants arriving from Armenia, Azerbaijan and Iran).
- Chinese and Cantonese - with a significant speaking population, of native Chinese refugees from the former French colony of French Indochina (modern-day Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos), and their descendants, settled around Paris (see 13th arrondissement of Paris).
- English, with significant minorities of British communities in Aquitaine, Brittany, and in Nord-Pas-de-Calais (commuters working in UK but living in France), and from many countries dispersed in Paris and on Côte d'Azur (French Riviera); the most widely taught foreign language in French schools, colleges and universities (before Spanish and German), but not widely used and understood after that, except in specific job positions (technical and tourism).
- Geg Albanian by refugees from Albania, Kosovo in former Yugoslavia and Republic of Macedonia.
- Standard German, also represented by regional dialects such as Low German.
- Haitian Creole.
- Italian and Italian dialects (spoken by Italian immigrant communities in many major French cities, as well as French regions of former Italian state possession, such as Nice, Savoie, Haute-Savoie and Corsica).
- Kabyles from Algeria.
- Portuguese from Portugal and Brazil.
- Romany - spoken by the Roma people.
- Russian - brought over mostly by migrants fleeing Russia after the Soviet revolution, but also now by Russians installed in the French Riviera.
- Croatian - brought over by workers and refugees from former Yugoslavia, the area made up of republics of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina.
- Spanish; the second foreign language taught in French schools, also a major language of Latin American immigrants in France.
- Welsh - Introduced by small late 19th century migration from Wales and minuscule community based in the mining basin of Nord-Pas-de-Calais.
- Wolof, a West African language of the Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Mauritania, Senegal, and Western Sahara.
At the 1999 census, INSEE sampled 380,000 adult people all across Metropolitan France, and asked them questions about their family situation. One of the questions was about the languages that their parents spoke with them before the age of 5. This is the first time serious statistics were computed about the proportion of mother tongues in France. The results were published in Enquête familiale, Insee, 1999.
Here is a list of the nine most prominent mother tongues in France based on Enquête familiale.
|Rank||Language||Mother tongue||Percentage of adult population|
(note that this figure is an underestimate because people under 18 years of age were not surveyed; see note #2 below the table)
(Alsatian, Lorraine Franconian, etc.)
(of whom Alsatian: 660,000;
standard German: 210,000;
Lorraine Franconian: 100,000)
(of whom Alsatian: 1.44%;
standard German: 0.46%;
Lorraine Franconian: 0.22%)
(especially Maghrebi Arabic)
(Languedocian, Gascon, Provençal, etc.)
(another 1,060,000 had some exposure)
(another 2.32% had some exposure, see notes)
(Picard, Gallo, Poitevin, Saintongeais, etc.)
(another 850,000 had some exposure)
(another 1.86% had some exposure, see notes)
|7||Italian, Corsican and Ligurian (Monegasque)||540,000||1.19%|
(another 405,000 had some exposure)
(another 0.87% had some exposure, see notes)
|10||About 400 other languages
(Polish, Berber languages, East Asian languages, Catalan, Franco-Provençal, Corsican, Basque, West Flemish, etc.)
as well as those who gave no response
(of whom English: 115,000)
(of whom English: 0.25% of total adult population)
(46,680,000 including those with two mother tongues who were counted twice)
(2% of people have both French and another language as their mother tongue, thus, they are counted twice)
If we add up people with mother tongue and people with some exposure to the language before the age of 5 (see note #3 below), then the five most important languages in metropolitan France are (note that the percentages add up to more than 100, because many people are now counted twice):
- French: 42,100,000 (92%)
- Occitan: 1,670,000 (3.65%)
- German and German dialects: 1,440,000 (3.15%)
- Oïl languages (excl. French): 1,420,000 (3.10%)
- Arabic: 1,170,000 (2.55%)
Notes on the table
- The data in the table are about mother tongues, and not about actual language practice. It states that 14% of the adult people living in France in 1999 were born and raised up to the age of 5 in families that spoke only (or predominantly) some other languages than French. It does not mean that 14% of adult people in France spoke some other languages than French in 1999.
- Only adults (i.e. 18 years and older) were surveyed. This means that French people born between 1981 and 1999 are not included in the survey. The mother tongue of the younger generations is more predominantly French than is the case with the older generations, because as the Enquête familiale survey explains, regional and immigrant language transmission decreases dramatically with each new generation, as French replaces the regional and immigrant languages. In the Enquête familiale survey, only 35% of parents whose mother tongue was a regional or immigrant language reported they spoke that language to their children. Thus, the 86% figure of people with French as their mother tongue is an underestimate because the younger generations whose predominant mother tongue is French are not counted.
- The concept of "mother tongue" may not give a complete idea of the phenomenon of minority languages in France. This is because there are many people who were born and raised in families in which parents spoke to them only (or predominantly) French, but in which some regional or immigration languages were also occasionally used. One example: while the data tell us that 610,000 adults in 1999 had one of the Occitan dialects as their mother tongue, the survey also found out that another 1,060,000 adults were born and raised in families in which one of the Occitan dialects was occasionally spoken. Some of these 1,060,000 people may speak Occitan as fluently as the 610,000 people who have it as a mother tongue, while some other (the majority, probably) have only a limited knowledge of Occitan. We cannot infer from this that 1,670,000 adults are speakers of Occitan, but it may be the case that the total number of people with some form of exposure to Occitan is higher than the 610,000 figure, though some of this number may have abandoned the language since then.
- Culture of France
- Languages of the European Union
- Old Frankish
- Old French
- Old Occitan
- Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts
- History of French
- French language in Canada
- La dynamique des langues en France au fil du XXe siècle (in French)
- Article 75-1: (a new article): "Les langues régionales appartiennent au patrimoine de la France" ("Regional languages belong to the patrimony of France"). See Loi constitutionnelle du 23 juillet 2008.
- "Hollande : "Je ferai ratifier la Charte des langues régionales"". EITB. 2012-09-25. Retrieved 5 October 2012.
- Professor John Merriman, France Since 1871 - Lecture 4 - A Nation? Peasants, Language, and French Identity [September 17, 2007] - http://oyc.yale.edu/transcript/357/hist-276
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Languages of France.|
- Map of languages of France (clickable map)
- Ethnologue report for France
- Délégation générale à la langue française et aux langues de France
- Langues de France
- Ikastola Elkartea association of bilingual Basque-French schools
- Diwan Breizh association for promotion of Breton
- Calandreta association of bilingual Occitan-French schools
- La Bressola Catalan schools